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1 1 ' /i-- 37 



As it may not be necessary to apologize for re-intro- 
ducing to the notice of the public, a work which has 
been found so useful to the scientific student, as the late 
Dr. Pulteney's General View of the Writings of JJn- 
nasus, the editor's only intention, in this preface, is to 
-^ explain by what plan he has been guided, in the com- 
^ pilation of the present volume. 

^ The author not having undertaken the province of 
g a biographer, it would have been improper (though 
^ no other objections had existed) to incorporate with 
^ his performance any additional particulars relative 
to Linnaeus's private life, except such as seemed 
" to connect in a better manner the series and occa- 
sion of his publications ; to relieve the tediousness of 
a bare account of books ;" or to show more exactly 
the progress of his reputation and influence in the 
republic of science. Circumstances unconnected with 
diese objects, therefore, have not been introduced 
into the " Generctl View ;" but the editor has not he- 
sitated to intersperse others, in which he would most 
a probably 

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probably have been anticipated by Dr. Pulteney him- 
self, had the latter possessed such an authentic source 
of information a» linnaeus's own Diary. It was ori- 
ginsdly the editor's intention,' to subjoin all the ne^v 
matter in the form of notes ; but finding, as he pro- 
ceeded, that many corrections, and alterations of ar- 
rangement in the text, became necessary, he at length 
resolved to re-model some part of the substance of 
the woA, in preference to perplexing the reader with 
a multitude of annotations. As to diffeiences of a 
verbal nature between this edition and the first, 
they extend no ftirther than it was conceived the 
author himself would have carried them, had he 
prepared the work for the public at the present "pe- 
riod. The arrangement ha^ been rendered strictly 
chronological, — an order from which the author 
may be seen to have deviated, in two or three in- 
stances, without apparent reason. Abstracts from the 
Sustema Naturte were given partially before ; but, as 
all the grand divisions of that incomparable per- 
formance manifest alike the talents of Linnaeus, 
the editor has ventured to present the same kind 
ot coiispectus of each. For the same reitson, the 
classification of the Materia Medico m now exhi- 
bited, conformably with the plan before adopted in 
respect to the Genera Morhorum, an epitome of which 


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occupied a conspicuous portion of Dr. Pulten«y'e 
own volume. Of the Amcenitates Academicie, only 
seven volumes had been published, when this " Gene- 
ral View" was first committed to the press ; the anar 
lysis of the dissertations bearing that title, therefore, 
is here considerably extended. Besides these more 
obvious additions, notices and observations are inter- 
spersed in various parts of the work, tending either 
to supply what the editor deemed improper to be 
omitted, or to perfect more nearly the author's origi- 
nal plan. Since Dr. Pulteney wrote, there have 
been new editions of several of the works which 
he mentions ; and improvements in various parts 
of them have been so generally adopted by the 
Linnean school, as to require being distinctly no- 
ticed in a performance like the present. Hence, 
in this respect also, much additional matter has 
been introduced, serving to render the volume as 
complete a view of the existing state of Linnean 
literature, as the editor's opportunities of informa- 
tion would permit. These opportunities have been 
greater, perhaps, than could be enjoyed elsewhere 
in the world ; and if (as will too probably be the 
case) he should not be found to have employed 
them in a manner adequate to the expectations of 
the public, his claims to indulgence cem be grounded 


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only on the various avocations and duties necessa- 
rily attendant on an active profession. Sir Joseph 
Banks's kind permission to make use of his inva- 
luable library ; the accurate information and friendly 
assistance of Mr. Dryander, — one of the few sur- 
viving pupils of Linngeus; the communications with 
which he has been favoured by Dk. James Edward 
Smith, — possessor of the Linnean MSS., library, 
and museum; and various other advantages, the editor 
cannot acknowledge without peculiar satisfaction and 
thankfulness. He has not had recourse to publica- 
tions on the subject of Linnasus, without great cir- 
cumspection, being unwilling to admit any intelli- 
gence that was at all of a dubious nature, and con- 
ceiving that the reader would prefer being imper- 
fectly informed to being absolutely misled. The 
" Life of Limwms" published by Dr. Stoever, of 
Altona, which has been translated from the ori- 
ginal German into our own language*, contains 
many interesting particulars ; but it is not without a 
considerable number of errors, and is therefore very 
sparingly quoted. In fact, private memoirs form the 
principal part of that compilation, and the substance 
of the literary notices had appeared before in this 
General View. t 

• By Joseph Trapp, M.A. (London 1794. 4to.) 

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To tlie'. first e<Jition was subjoined a translation of 
Linnaeus's Pan Suecus, with additional observations, 
and: tome iinproyements is the general order of the 
tahlea. The Substance of those c^wervations is givem 
also in the present volunie,^ander the proper head> 
but . the tables, and notes annexed to them, are 
omitted, as they would have required more nume- 
rous additions and corrections, to render them suited 
to the existing state of agriculture and rural oeoono- 
my, than the editor's knowledge of those branches 
qualified him to undertake. 

In confbmity to the plan of the author, criticisnu 
on the Linnean system are given very sparingly. 
"No system yet invented" (as is judiciously re- 
marked in the author's original advertisement) " can 
" stand a rigorous examination through all its parts, 
" and Linnaeus was, perhaps, better acquainted than 
" any other man with the defects of his own." 
lie method of that illustrious naturalist, still re- 
tains the advantage of a general superiority over 
every other; and it is therefore a more agreeable 
employment to endeavour to strengthen its basis, 
supply its deficiencies, and candidly correct its er- 
rors, than to object to those anom^ies and imper-' 
fecti<ms, which will most probably ever be insep«t-. 
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rable from artificial arrangements, and indeed from 
every other human performance. 

Having said thus mnch relative to this new edition 
of the General View of the Writing! of linntcm, the 
editor will naturally be ejipected to give some aeconnt 
of the very interesting and curious document sub- 
joined to it, namely Linneus's Dimry. 

At the latter end of the year trf 1799, M. Freden- 
heim,. son of Dr. Mennander, Archbishop of Upsa- 
la, conveyed (on certain conditions) to Robert Gor- 
don, Esq. merchant at Cadiz, a variety of iaanu- 
scripts to be printed in England. In consequence 
of the death of Mr. Gordon, however, the pnbHcationr 
did not take place in the manner intended ; and the 
manuscripts, devolving to that gentleman's executors, 
were disposed of by them to the publisher of this 
volume, but not without the heirs of M. Fredenheim 
having been duly acquainted with all the circum- 
stances of the transaction. Besides a considerable 
number of letters, written with Linnaeus's own hand, 
to Dr. Mennander, and some other papers, there is a 
folio manuscript book, containing about 80 pages, in the 
Swedish language, and entitled " Vita Caroli Linncei," 
&c, M. Fredenheim's coat of arms is affixed to the 
inside of the cover ; and on the page opposite to the 


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iirst part of the Diary is a note, of which the follow- 
ing is a translatiios, viz. 

" Rig&t Reverend Bishop, 
" The messenger will not wait until I have time to write; 
Be so good as to erasoj aJter, and add, pro tua sapientia." 

This pote is explained by the followmg memoran- 
dum, found among the papers just alMed to : 

** On the 22nd of Jwiuary, 1770, the Archiater von Linn^ 
sent from Upsala his €upriculvm Vita (in. a verj-circum- 
stantiat forai, and Gontinrued. by him up to tiiat time) to 
Bishop Mennander, who was then at the Di«t,. at Stock- 
holm; with the foUewing short vehicultm, written cm the 
very document [tee above]^ Thia- Life, which is fiirther 
mentioned in the letters of the 29th of Jannarj, 176i, SOth: 
of October, and 19th of November^ 1769, and. 24th of 
January, 1770, therein copied, and also separately pre- 
served, togeAer with a Latin translation (not completed) 
by Sny Uje.fkther, and the genealogy of the faiaily of 
Uxalk^ mai^ h.y tlie GovcKnor of the Ptovince, Baron TiJas, 
vas. df^tate^ jrith all the ingenuous simplicity of Linn6, ajid 
m somf places' interlined and corrected by himserf. It 
» certainly the only Life of him wholly composed by 
himself, and of course the most interesting and worthy to 
bepubHshedof aft the other papers, among which are 55' 
tetters to his most intimate friend frem youth, who was for- 
tunate enough to have chiefly contributed, if not towards re- 
wrfHxting this great man, at least towards encouraging him." ' 


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The passages in tlie- letters, referred te io.Ajtis me-: 
morandum, arc copied in the same handrwribog (w£< 
that of M. Fredenheim) at the head of th^ Diary, 
and are t» the following purport: .!■ 

*' I have here drawn up my own panegyric, 'and found 
that propria hut sordei, I should never have-sl^irn 'iV to 
any body in the world, .if i»t to the- only one of aU 
my friends, who has been unalterably such, from 'times 
when i was in less adrantageous circumstances. If you 
should be pleased to extract any thin^ from it, my deaf 
' friend, it would attract notice, when .coming from such a 
. pen as -yours. 1 am quite ashamed to lay it before you, 
and should never hove done so, had 1 not been convinced 
- o£ your fiieadahip and uniform sincerity. 
Jan. 29. 1762." 

(It would appear from this extract, that Linnaeus 
had sent his mem<urB to the Archbiihop in the year 
1763 ; but, if we may judge from apaesage in another 
letter, quoted below, the Archbisbbp did nbt actually 
receive them until the 22nd of January, 1770.) 

** My principal object, in wishing to see you at Stock- 
holm, my dear friend, was to beg of you, who have- shown 
the most sincere and constant friendship for me, to take the 
trouble (whenjrou are-at leiiSMce) of writing, in Latin, aiy in- 
f igmicMt mrmoits which ought to be delivered to the French 
3 Academy, 

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Academy, as I am Ordinariuj Extraneus Professor ; and, since 
age and attendant circumstances admonish me coUigere 
sarcinaSf the sooner this is done the better. 
Oct. 30, 1769." 

"I cannot mention my personal merits without some 
preface ; for propria laus sordet, and self-love ivill here and 
there show itsel£ 

Nov. 19, 1769" 

** The day before yesterfey T sent, by a peasant, my 
Cutrkulum Vitay under cover to Arcfaiater ^^ick. If he 
should not have already transmitted it to you, you will 
- recollect that Arehiater.i^ack lives opposite the cannon- 
foundery yard, or the gate of it. 

" If, when you return home, you should" have tinie, be 
, so good as to think of me; II was written at various iiitep- 
vals, and of course with Tarious: degrees of attention. 
Fray alter the shape of it in any way you please, as , it is 
intended only to state facts. This will be the last service 
that can be rendered to me, who now see people of my 
time of life dropping on all sides. Ego tnfefix socius-resto. 
Jan. Uy 1770." 

These passages explain all the circumstances con- 
nected with Linnaeus's Diary, and cannot require 
any commept. 

The Archbishop's Latin translation fur- 
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ther than the yen- 1730, a period faaviDg been put 
to his undertaking by death. The English transla- 
tion published ^t the end of this volume was made 
by Mr. Troilius, a Swedish gentleman (now re- 
siding in London) of the same family with the 
late Archbishop von Troil, the well-known author 
of the Letters on Iceland. Both the style and 
the arrangement of the original are adhered to as 
closely as possible, and the Latin passages are given 
verbatim, in order that there might be no further de- 
viation firom Linneus's owo expreauons than was ab- 
solutely requisite. 

Through the greater part of the Swedish MS. 
the hand-writing is Dr. LiDdwall's, who was a pupil 
of Linnaeus; but different hands are discoverable, 
and the materials appear to have been put together 
with very different degrees of attention. The writing 
is in some places difficult to be decyphered ; in 
others the sense is obscure ; and there is often (as 
the reader will observe) an abrupt transition, in the 
construction, from the third person to the first. 

The earliest letter in the collection is dated " Upsa- 
la, 1734," and bears the following superscription, 
vtm. A Monsieur M. Charley Friedric Menander, Etti- 
diant en Philosophie ei Hiitoire NatureUe a Steekholm." 


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Dk. RIGHAM>tTiILTENEY wai bonii tft tdugliborougW in 
the county of Leicester^ Febfuary 17*, *7SD. HtS parents had 
thirteen children, of irhom Richard ilone arrived sit tfae age trf" 
maturity ; and he himself w&s affected, at an early period of 
life, "With a pulmonary complaint which indicated considerfiblc 
delicacy ttf constitaition; Though thd circumstances of tb« 
family were easy, yet they did -not admit of sua expensive educa* 
tion, cfof a superior bratteh of ppofesMoi 
the subject of these merboirs, whose only, s 
tion TTcre those of an ordinary elementary 

sequeirt apprenticeship ■ to an apothecary. The formation o( 
that taste for natural history by 'which he became so much di- 
stinguished, seems to have taken place in very early youth. " In» 
stead of engaging in tJie boisterous and useless sports of his 
schocilf^llmf s," in the -hours of relaxation from learning, he used 
to waittler in the fields, with no companion but bis herbal, ex- 
amining the plants, that. grew. in his path with the most lively 
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curiosity. The circumstances to which the acquisition of this 
taste, so singular in a boy, is principally to be ascribed, were his 
frequent opportunities of obsen'ing the pursuits of his uncle, 
Mr. George Tomlinson, of Hathem, who (we are informed by 
Dr. Pulteney himself, .in a very feeling tribute of affection and 
gratitude 'to this gentleman's memory * ) devoted much of his 
time to the study of natural history, and to whose example he 
was, no doubt, taught to look up with that respect which it 

Whether the destination of Dr. Pulteney to the medical pro- 
fession was owing to his parents, or whether it was occasioned 
by a decided choice of his own, that profession was certainly the 
one which his bent of mind and disposition rendered the most 
proper for him of all others ; and it is most probable that a pre- 
dilection for it grew out of his fondness fojr sciences so intimately 
4!onnected with ^at of medicine. At the termination of his ap- 
prenticeship, he was induced to commence practice at Leicester ; 
where, however, partly from the circumstances of the situation, 
and partly from the effect of religious animosities, he laboured 
aome time under many discouragements. -The system of religion 
in which our author had been educated was Calvinism ; many of 
his townsmen, therefore, who were of a different persuasion made 
it a matter of conscience to show indifference alike to his abilities 
and to his worth. He was obliged to adopt strict oeconomy, as 
one of the means of maintaining a struggle with the unpropitious- 

* See Nichols's History df Leicesteraiare, vol. 2. p. 846. 

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ness of his situation : but this was not difficult to a young man 
whose habits, from his infancy, were those of the greatest tem- 
perance and frugality ; the only mortification it produced was 
the being prevented from purchasing several books essential to 
the prosecution of his favourite studies. Books formed the great, 
delight of his life, and the only solace under professional mor- 
tificati<HM. Those which he had most pleasure in perusing had 
botany for their subject ; and he wa? at length prompted by his' 
partiality to that- charming science to take up the pen himself, 
with a view to render it a matter of more general curidsity to his 

Dr. Pulteney chose for the Vehicle of his first literary per- 
formances, the Gentleman's Magazine^ a work at that period ia 
high repute, and a medium of communication among men o^ 
the first literary distinction; His modesty, however, withheld 
him from putting his name to his papers, which, though the ini- 
tials R: P. sometinjes occurred^ were often "sent without any, sig- 
nature at all. Our author first became a contributor to this 
miscellany in- the year 1750, at which period the pursuit of 
natural history was; in England, confined to very few persons, 
and a knowledge of the principles of the Linnean system, to still 
fewer. The following communications, therefare, could not fail 
to exhibit the importance of both one and the other in an in- 
t^esting point of view ; and many of them niay be consulted, 
with sati^action, even by a scientific naturalist of the present 

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" On the seeds of Fungi, with some botanical queries." (Vol, 
20. p. 68.) 

" A description of the Agaricus pedis equtoi facie, or the styptic 
agaric" (Boletus igniarius), mith remarks on Mr. JJalfs letter in 
the foregoing magazine. (Vol. 31. p. 455 — 4i56.) 

" A?^ account of poisonous English plants." (Vol. 25. p. 29—30. 
69. U4. 159—160. 210—211. 270—373. 308— 310. 348. 393— 
394. 450—451. 491-492.) 

** A brief dissertation on Fungi tn general, and txncerning the 
poisonous faculty of sovw species in particular, being a tuj^lement 
to the papers on poisonous plants." (Ibid. p. 542 — 545- 585.) 

** A brief aecouiU of the most material witing* of Frofesaor 
Liimaus:' (Vol. 26. p, 415—417- 463—465.) 

" An abstract of a Latin ik&as published in the third volume of the 
Amoenitates Academicse, entitled Noctiluca marina." (Vol. 27> 
p. 208.) 

** An abstract of a Latin treatise pvHisl^ by Linnaust md e»- 
Htled Somnus Plantaram." (Ibid. p. S 15— 320.) 

Explanation of the above aubject. (Vol. 28. p. 313—315.) 

** A series of experiments and observations to show the utility of bo- 
tanical knowledge in relation to agriculture and the feeding of c<Utle'' 
(Ibid. p. 360—364. 407—409. 463-^65. 515—517. 567—568.) 

« On the Acacia." (VoL 29. p. 262. ) 

" An aaount of thefbrst volume of a new and enlarged edition of 
Professor Unnteus's Systtmsi Natuiw." (Ibid. p. 454 — i^5. 509 — 
511. 56A^566.) " 


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An account of the teeond volume. (Vol. 35. p. 57 — 6l.) 

Concerwng the Elieagnus. (Vol. 42. p. 12.) 

" A Fungus [Lycoperdon stellatum] ascericiimd." (Ibid, 
p. 227.) 

" On Tremella Nostoc." (Vol. 46. p. 123.) 

« On ike Orchesion Grass." (Vol. 52. p. 113.) 

" An account of the Hora Rossica." (Vol. 55. p. 613 — 6l7.) 

" On Myrica Gale." (Vol. 56. p. 639—642.) 

The Anastatica described. (Vol. 61. p. 202—204.) 

" On Trochitse." (Vol. 62. p. 233—234.)* 

The Sleep of Plants, mentitmed as the subject of papers in the 
S7th and 28th volumes* was afterwards treated by the author io 
a more scientific and complete manner in the 50th volume (part 2. 
p. 506 — 517) of the Fhihsophical Transactions, under the title 
of " Some observations upon the sleep of plants ; and an account of 
that faculty which Linnaus calls Vigiliee Flomm, with an enumera- 
tion of several plants which are sviye^t to that kw." Dr. Pulteney 
had before made himself known to the Boyal Society by " An acv 
count of the more rare English plants observed in Leicestershire^" 
in which he describes their medicinal and oeconomical uses, and 
quotes the synonyms of all the authors to whom he had the 

• The« are not all the papers of which Dr. Pulteney was aathor in the publication 
abore qxBtioned, tboufh they are all that relate to natural history. In the 43d volume 
is ** A description of a Roman camp at Rally, in Leicestershire" (p. 76) j and in the 
47th are " Memoir* relative to Dr. TkrelkeU," (p. fls.) 

t See Pit/. Trans, vol. 4i0. part 3. p. 803. 866. 

2 means 

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means of referring. This paper, the materials for which must 
have been collected before he was twenty-six years of age, form- 
ed a very promising specinien of its author's skill in botany, to 
which, indeed, handsome testimony was borne by Sir WilHara 
(then Doctor) Watson, through whose hands the communication 
'was transmitted. In the same volume with the Observations on 
tfte sleep of plants, he also gave " A brief botanical and medical 
history of the Solanum lethale. Belladonna, or deadly night-shade" 
(Atropa Belladonna of Linnteus*) ; and " Anhiitorical memoir 
concerning a genus of plants called Lichen by Micheli, IlaUer^ 
and Linnausy and comprehended by Dillenius under the tenm Usnea, 
Coralloides, and Lichenoides ; tending principally to illustrate thcit 
several mes'f." 

But it was not merely on subjects of natural history that Dr. 
VuUeney employed his pen, even in the earlier part of his life. 
In the 52d volume:^ of the Philosophical Transactions, we find 
•* The case of a man whose heart was found enlarged to a very un- 
common size," which was also communicated by Sir 'William 
Watson, and which contains some useful remarks and reflections 
that entitle the paper to a higher estimation than that of a mere 
medical record. 

The acquaintance and correspondence which our author had 
the good fortune to establish with a man so distinguished in the 
philosophical world as Sir William Watson, proved sources of 
the highest gratification to the former, and, as they were com- 

" Vol. 50. part I. p. 63—88. . t Ibid, part a. p. 052— «88. X P«g^ 344. 

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luenced and continued solely from a mutual love of science, did 
no small liouour to both. By this respectable fiiend, Dr. Pul- 
teney was introduced to the Earl of Macclesfield (at that time 
President of the Boy ai Society), Mr. Hudson (author of the Flora 
Angli' >urse with whom increased 

his pa t stimulated liim to those 

exerti >r lasting fame of his own. 

But h ippeared to all who could 

best appreciate his character far too humble and obscure; hia 
cast of mind and acquirements seemed to qualify him.for attain- 
ing the highest honours of his profession, which^ however, a 
native modesty and humi]itr]r "prevented him from coveting. It 
was recommended to him .to apply for the doctorate, and,.afteB 
having acquired this promDtion, to remove to the metropolis, where 
the patronage of the Earl of Bath *, to ivhom he was related, 
might be productive of the most beneficial consequences to his 
interests. Yet, judicious as was this advice, it is probable that 
Dt. Pulteney would never have acted upon it had not an intimate 
friend "t* formed a similar design, and, being about to graduate 
himself, prevailed on thg former to accompany him to Edin- 
burgh.. ^ 

In this university tiicre were some circumstances which ren- 
dered the attainment of the doctor's degree, without having kept 
a regular academical residence, a matter of much greater dif- 
ficulty and favour than it would have been at former periods, and 

*' The celebiftted Mr. Pulteney. f Doctor (at that time-Mr.) Garthshore- 


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which would have been sufficient to discourage a person of 
greater enterprise than our author from making' application for 
it, unsupported by the customary claims. Many of tiie senior 
students had entered into a conxmon resolution to oppose, to the 
utmost of their power, tl >n ap- 

plicants who had not r i, the 

statutable period, conce an in- 

justice to themselves, than as having a tendency to bring the 
place of their education into discredit. Fortunately, the present 
candidate's merits were not unknown among the professors even 
before he was admitted to the usual examinations, which heabo 
actually passed with so much ability, and so warmly did his 
friends interest themselves in his behalf, that opposition (tliough 
it had amounted almost to open rebellion) was overcome ; and 
the outcry ultimately changed into general acquiescence in an 
indulgence which, on this occasion, was seen to be amply de- 
served. Dr. Pulteney obtained his diploma in May, 1764. 

The subject of our author's inaugural dissertation was 
Cinchona officinalis — a subject which enabled him to display 
very fully not only his medical but alst^ his botanical knowledge, 
and which w^as treated of with so much aWity that it must have 
insured him high reputation, even if he had never been known 
as the author of other productions. This academical exercise 
was intended -to have been inscribed to the £arl of Macclesfield, 
who had declared his willingness to accept the compliment ; but, 
that nobleman dyingjust as the author was about to pay it, the 


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name of Lord Willoughby, of Pai^am, who had also shown 
marks of attention and kindness to Dr. Pulteney, was substituted 
for the former. Ttiat the performance was deemed lionourable 
to the university itself, is sufficiently proved by its having ob- 
tained insertion in the Thesaurus medicus *. 

Having accomplished thus much of the plan recommended 

it of settling in 
f Bath by the 
iamily pedigree, 
sman, and, hav- 
fes^ional merits, 
>n, with a hand- 
lent, but had the 
as just about to 
cy occurred at 
tie departure of 
n then resident 
Cuming himself 
rospect of a still 
nder these pro- 
r. Pulteney the 
lyas the limited 
I a long and pa- 
' that place ; a 

• Tom. 3. p. 10. (I785>. 

C ■ struggle, 

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Struggle, for which a sort of constitutional timidity and ap- 
prehensireaess liliewise rendered him peculiarly unfit. Being 

of reputation which nfcessarily brings with it pecuniary affluence. 


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meuoirS of DOCTOE PULTENEY. 11 

In the year 1779, the 
.of Blandford, a lady wl 
headed every requisite i 
mestic life ; and thougl 
in the sitnation of a par 
relation of Mrs. Fultene 
afiectiomate attentions c 

We must now resum 
pages, and follow our au 

he had givni to the public only detached papers and occa- 
sional essays, whidi we hare already noticed as being com- 
municabed to tlie Royal Society, and to one of ihe most respec- 
table periodica] works of that period, the Genilemau'a Maguzine, 
Several of thete show ]iow fully he had made himself acquainted 
with the writings of lannseus, which, in fact, he continued to 
Btudy with entiiasiastic diligence ; and, as he had followed them 
through alt the caiendationB and improvements (^ ^leir author, 
so pes'soB could be better qu{di6ed either to.describe the /subjects 
or to point out the merits of th^m. He conceived tl«»t, by ex- 
lulnting a regular and complete analysis of the various labours 
■ef that great reformer c^oatural history, their utility would not 
xmly beiPore effectually made known to his countrymen than it 
had hitberto been, but the science itself, through that medium, 
fissQme new dignity and acquire a higfcer estimatiou. The few 
individiuils to whom the cultivation of natural knowledge con> 
tinned to be confined in Bogkand, beii^ classed by the bulk oi 
c 2 people 

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p( jsities, and super- 

fi< >bject3 of ridicule 

ra i£ some judicious 

ef of other branches 

of nd effect of the 

** fully equal to the 

wi meadations of all 

wl a, the work soon 

at Linnseus and the 

sciences to which they related became much more correctly 
understood ; and Dr. Pulteney found himself placed among the 
first, both of the Linnean scholars and of the philosophical 
naturalists of his coi was so extensive that the 

publisher had not a ( i after the year 1785, which 

was only four years a is printed. Nor was its re^ 

putation confined to our own island. In a few years it found 
its way into the French language*, and the most respectful 
mention was made of it- in all the periodical pubHcati<»is o£ the 

The Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm manifested 
their approbation of it, and their regard f<H" its author, by pre- 

* " RemK ginirate des icrits de Limit, ouvrage doTis lequel on trouve Us anecdotes 
les phs iiUerestmt^ da sa vie privSe, un abrigi de ses systevus et de ses ouvrages, ua 
cxtrtat de ses amlmtis academiques, f^c. Cfc, He, par Bichard Pultenbt ; traduit de 
I'Angloh, parh. A. MiLttit db Grandmaison, avec des notes et des addiiims du 
traductetir,'' S t»iBe», «¥0. Londtes ct Paris, 1789, 

, 4 ' senting 

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aenting to him the two medals struck in honour of Linnseus, one 
by command of the King of Sweden, and the other at the expense 
of Count Tessin. 

The Doctor undettook, ' afterwards, a more original, and an 
infinitely more laborious work, to which he gave the title of 
" Historical and biographical sketches of the progress of botawf in 
England, from its origiff to the introduction of the Linnaan sysfem" 
and which was published (in two volumes octavo) in the year 
1790. To the naturalist of learning and curiosity, this work was 
calculated to aiford much interesting information ; and, had its 
author been so situated as to have had the means of applying 
personally to all the various sources of intelligence which -the 
kingdom (and, particularty, the metropolis) possessed^ it would 
have been one of the most elegant and complete specimens of 
historical biography extant in our language. His distant friends 
freely furnished him with coinmunicatioiu<aild asustaace, bat the 
inateri^s were chiefly derived from authorities which he had 
been long collecting updcr his own roof. He dedicated his first 
volume to Sir Joseph Banks, an^ the second to Sir George Bakej: 
a,nd Cr: Garthsliore jointly, in. testtmony of the fi-iendship 
with which these distinguished men had so long honoured him. 

The " Biographical sketches" were originally intended to have 
been prefatory merely to a descriptive catalogue of the English 
plants (or rather to an abbreviatediFlora^ as the original manu- 
script is entitled), the plan of which included not only a concise 
description of every genus and speciea indigenous in oui island, 


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with the place of growth, time of floirering, &:c., but also an 
enumeration of all the English authors by whom each had been 
mentioned, and references to figures. The Doctor had more 
particularly in view the recording of the first discoverCT of everj 
plant, and the rank of every describor with respect to <HiginaIity •. 

* Being poHeucd of the origiaal MSS. £rom which the Fiora wu intended to hare 
been printed, I am induced to subjoin a gpecimea of its nature aad arrangement. 



A. Flore* superi. 

4S. Valbuaka. Ciw. S-fida> basi gibba. Ssm. untun. i^s. 44. Reich. M. Hudi. 12. 

V. rii^nt, 1WritHum6dandmcaudatia. 
Bbd Valerian. Hist. Ox. § 7, 14. 15. Floiu Axo. 8. is. Ger, em. «76. 1. 
J. S.Bisi. ui. C11. 111. Park. ISS. 11. 

On'oldws])sinthewe«tofEngland.P.5— «. 

y. dioica, flonbuB dioici* UAvtt pinnatis integerrimis. 

Mabhi VacBUUfl. R. Ltmi,*. 8. Ldb.-^v.BI*. Lyfe,830. t. 
Hist.0K.^J.l*.5.Mailk.amp. 16. 1079. Park. 183. RAiijing. 310.4. 

b. fcemina. Fl. Dan. 6BJ. S. 'In moist and boggy meadows, com- 

a. naa. FU An. 087. 1. mm. P. 6. 

V. 0^efna&, floribus triandris, talm omnibus pinnatiB. 
Grbat VauMun, FL £tn. 570. Tuhhrr. 3. B6. and B. 76. Lglet 939. t. 
Hist. Ox. § 7. 14. S. Maltk. cemp. Ger. em. 1075. S. Park. 192. 13. 

ifi. J. S. iTttt. 111. 31 1. aquatics. Moist hedges and woods, commcm. 

b. an^iUblia. J. £. JjiiA.111. P. «. 7. BiCHARDaoii. May S^. a. 
810. SOO. S. 

.V. LotuseHf floribos tnandrn, ende Hichetomo, fbliis Hneanbui, 

CoBN Valerian. Ft. Dan. J38, Lobel. Jdv. dig. Ger. £48. em. 310. 

Com Sillad. Ft. hand. 8. 4. Among com andon com-grounds, com- 
EfAlf.'Cte. f 7. M<JA.e7- itM&.A. 4.6. 

6 Interesting 

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Among other publications of repute. Dr. Aikii 

Hneated, Mr. Nichols's History of Leicestershire^ a 

edition of Hutchins's Dorsetshire^ acquired froi 

ample and valuable materials. The contributit 

natural history of his native coonty had, of course, bean pTe*> 

pared in the early part of his life, and had already (as we have 

before remarked) been partially given 

were now digested conformably to th 

method, and they evinced, still more 

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extent to which he had oracticallv nrosecuted the science of 

the Dorsetshire plants^ he adhered to the saine 
nt : and he was not content with giving the 
f that county, but render* 
; for it contains an enumer 
and testmcea which had bwh obser^'cd within ti 
besides, illustrated by so many notices and rei 

of themo^ 




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sufficient proof that even a physician's opportunities and sphere of 
observation, circumscrihed as they are, may be rendered service- 
able to science, especially in a country situation. But, few 
persons could be so unremittingly active as Dr. Pulteney. Every 
visit that he made to a distant patient ; every walk that he took 
in the vicinity of his own residence, furnished him with some new 
fact, or with some addition to his museum. He wa» in the habit 
of recording every plant he saw either wild in the hedge-rows, 
or adorning the green-houses of his friends ; and the principal 
contaiits of every cabinet he inspected were always noted down*. 
In short, our indefatigable naturalist seems to have taken for his 
motto the maxim of his great master, Linnaeus—" Nulla dies 
sine linea" , . . ^ 

Among fiis scientific correspondents were many of tlie most emi- 
nent botanists in Europe ; and there were none of any repute in 
his own country who did not consult him on the subjects of their 
labours. With Mr. Hudson, Professor Martyn, Dr. Withering, 
Dr. Smith, and Mr. Relhan, his epistolary intercourse was con- 

* There are a multitude of little catalogues of this kind among the MSS. which Dr. 
Pulteney bequeathed to the author of these memoirs. They relate chiefly to collectiosa 
and gardens in his neighbourhood, from which specimens were regularly presented to 
him, in return for the information which he was singularly capable, and always happy, 
to communicate. The conservatories of the late Henry Purtman, Esq. of Bryanstone, 
and the nursery-gardens of the late Mr. Kingston, of Blandfbrd (at that time very 
rich in exotics), were a never-failing source of amusement to him [ as wore also th« 
cabinets of nMura! curiosities formed by the late H«nry Seymcr, Esq. of Hanford ; 
Mr. Knight, of Anderston j and the Reverend Thomati Rackelt, of Spetisbury. 

D slant ; 

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stant ; and its value is fully evinced by the frequent mention of 
his name, and quotation of his authority, in the works respectively 
published by those well-known writers. In the " Botany of Nev 
Holland," Dr. Smith paid him the compliment of naming a 
genus of plants Pulten-ea*, conceiving, in common with every 
contemporary botanist, that this was a distinction justly due to 
one whose writings (to use the words of Professor Martyn in 
treating of this genus) " so essentially contributed to the intro- 
duction and establishment of Linnean botany in this country." 

But, it was not for his knowledge of plants alone that Dr- 
Pulteney's acquaintance and correspondence were courted. The 
votaries of other branches of science coveted opportunities of 
communicating with him,- and did not fail to benefit by his 
learning and judgment. Among other authors of that period, 
Mr. Da Costa obtained his assistance in the compilation of the 
British Conchology. It is only to be lamented that this gentle- 
man was not so far governed by the opinion and example of his 
Linnean correspondent, as to have adopted the system of which 
the latter was such an able and zealous supporter. To the ITes- 
tacea^ Dr. Pulteney had devoted more attention than most other 
English naturalists of his time, as appears, in a striking manner. 

• PiUlaitea stipularis (the only species then known) is figured in the 1 8th plate of the 
above-mentioned work, and also in Cuitis's Magazine, 475. It lirBt fiowered ia 
Ei^land, in April, 1794. Five additional species, all natives of the same country 
(New Holland), have since been discovered, and were first described by Wllldenow, in 
his Species Plantarum, under the names of Pulleiicea pakacea, limphylln, Juncea, 
villosay and daphnoides. 


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from the accuracy and copiousness of the conchological part of 
the Dorsetshire catalogue ; and some of the most distinguished 
collectors of shells, particularly the Duchess Dowager of Port- 
land, and Mr. Seymer, had constant recourse to him for de- 
termining species, presenting him, in return, with duplicates 
from their rich and extensive museums.— The Rev. William Coxe 
partook largely of our author's liberality of information, espe- 
cially with respect to the literary history of naturalists celebrated 
in the countries which that instructive traveller lias described. 

In the midst of those occupations which we have particularized, 
and which may be considered as only remotely connected with 
his profession. Dr. Pulteney did not fail to distinguish himself by 
productions purely of a medical nature ; and these, though 
scattered among tlie transactions of various learned bodies, it 
would be wrong to neglect specifying, since they show that his 
sagacity of observation, and industry of research, extended to 
every subject of natural science with equal promptitude. We 
have before adverted to one communication of a medical 
kind which he transmitted to the Royal Society : namely, 
** Tht case of a man, whose Iieart was found enlarged to a 
very uncommen she" whicli was read to that body, and printed 
in the 52d volume of the Philosophical Transactions. His 
friend Df. Watson, in 1772, presented a letter which lip had 
received from him " Concerning the medical effects of a 
poisonous plant * exhibited instead of the water parsnep ;" (see, 

* (Enanthe crocala. TTiis subject was treatMl of also in the London Medical Jottrml. 
(Vol. *. p. 1»S— 199.) 
^ D 2 Phil. 

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Vhit. Tr^ns. vol. ^. p. 469—475) ; and in 1779, " ^n aetattmt vf 
iaptismi) marriage% attd burials diirivg 40 years in the parish of 
•Btandj'srd Forum." {See vol. G8. p. 615—621.) From the paper 
Jast mentioned, it appeared that 1 person only in 39 died 
■ annually in the place where tlie Doctor resided, whereas in the 
metropolis the proportion, at tliat period, varied from 1 in 20 to 
1 in 28. "Whilst we are on this subject, it may not be useless to 
take some notice of a curious fact relative to the treatntent of 
the 9mall-pox, which was described by c«ir author in a letter to 
Sir George Baker*, and which forms a stroog argument in favour 
of the cool regimen, a point of practice at that tiaoe difficult to 
be established. The fact alluded to is the following : In con- 
sequence of a gt it Blandford ia the year 
1731, upwards le natural small-pox were 
suddenly hurried '^herc many of them re- 
mained several d y one person died, -ciz. a 
young woman, 'tvho was almost expiring at the time when she was 
removed. — In the 3d volume of the Medical Transacttong is " An 
account of an extraordinary conformation of tke hearty" from tlie 
pen of Dr. Pulteney, and transmitted to the College of 
Physicians by the learned baronet whose name has just been 
mentioned. A case equally remarkable was described by 
him in the Memoirs of the Medical Society of London^ (vol. 2. 
art. 36.) This was " An extraordinary enlargement of the abdomen 

• This letter was ptiHiAed by Sir George in his « iigaary into tke merits of a 
melkod of rnoadaiing the smaU-pox, whUk is now practised ht several coaaties of Eng- 
land." (8V0. 1766.) 

^ ozptng" 

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jrivoiKs or poctoh vvltenkt. HI 

wring to aJUiky encysted tumour." The 6th volume* of tbe Medi' 
cat Qbtervations and Ittqvuiet contains his account of the influenza 
as it appeared- at Blandford, which, comtDg from the pen of so 
accurate an observer, was particiJarl,^ interesting to practitioners 
at that period. 

On the subject of the cow-pox, which began to engage, m a 
signal manner, the attention of the whole medical world some 
time before the Doctor's death> he was, like many of the most 
(listinguiafaed among his brethrent at first somewhat sceptical ; 
but, firom the result of diligent inquiry and observation, he was 
at length induced to range liimself among the believers. The 
most important of the facts ascertained in the course of this 
inquiry he communicated to Dr. Pearson, wl«> was collecting 
materials for a irork on the subject, and who has since published 
tbem-f-. To tlie advocates for this important practice, intelli- 
gence that came from a quarter so cautious and so respectable 
could not fail to be doubly acceptable. 

The several scienti6c bodies which we have had occasion to 
mention were no less ready to receive our author into their 
number than he was qualified to be admitted to those honours. 
Of the Royal Society he was elected a Fellow as early as 1762» 
which was two years before he received his diploma as Doctor in 
physic, and three prior to his passing the necessary examioations, 
and being admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians in 

• Page 402. 

t See hiqtdry contenting tie fusion/ aj iha eow-pox, liOudon, 1798> 8vo. 

■4 London. 



Lomlon. In 1784 he was chosen an honorary member of the 
Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh ; in 1787, of the Chirurgi- 
cal and Obstetrical Society of that city, and also of the Medical 
Society of London ; and in 1793 he became a Fellow of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. One learned corporation to which the 
Doctor belonged, and which received from him frequent com- 
munications, has not hitherto been mentioned ; I allude to the 
Linncan Society of London. Of this he was elected a Fellow very 
shortly after its first institution, and at his death became a di» 
stinguished benefactor. In the 2nd volume of its Transactions 
he described an epiphyllous Lycoperdon discovered on the leaves 
of Ant'moiie nemorosa ; in the 5th appeared some ** Observations 
on the cceon'omicel use of Ranunculus aquatilis, wiik introductory 
remarks mi the acrimonious and poisonous quality of some of the 
English species of that genus ;" and also, " On Ascarides discovered 
in the intestines of Pelecanus Carbo and cristatus." 
This perpetual labour of intellect, added to the fatigues of his 
■ profession, would have been sufficient to impair Dr. Pulteney's 
constitution even if it had been much stronger ; and it is there- 
fore not to be wondered at, that he had (especially in the later 
years of his life) frequent attacks of indisposition, which, of" 
course, prevented him from devoting to science even those short 
intervals that occurred in his medical avocations. His circuit 
comprehended not only the whole of his own county, but also 
the contiguous parts of Wiltshire, Hampshire, and Somerset- 
shire ; and he was sent for occasionally as far as Bath. His ex- 
5 tensive 

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tensive experience and profound skill naturally called forth no 
less con6dence from his patients, than deference from his pro- 
fessional brethren ; and both parties overlooked distance, in their 
anxiety to obtain his opinion. Under the exhaustion occasioned 
by long journeys and sleepless nights, his greatest comfort was the 
quiet converse of men whose minds were congenial with his own. 
This, however, was an intellectual luxury not often to be ob- 
tained in a situation like his, remote from the metropolis, and 
during the winter deserted even by those few whose society pos- 
sessed the recommendations which he sought. Such a privation, 
the regrets of which they alone can understand who actually ex- 
perience it, made him not unfrequently indulge again the wish 
to settle in London*; and he once authcwized his intimate 
friend Dr. Garthshore to procure a house for him. His natural 
timidity and prudence, however, prevented him from adhering 
to this intention, and he limited himself to the temporary resi- 
dence there (short as it was) which he was now and then enabled 
to enjoy. He found some compensation too for his distance 
from the great /ocus of information, in the epistolary communica- 
tions of those who were more fortunately situated. The quarters 

* " I do not wonder," says he, in a letter to a friend, " that you love London. I 
have always thought it the only place in the world for an Englishman attached to let- 
ters to live in. Linnfeus might well call it punctttm suliens in vtlello orbis. 1 canffess 
there was a time when the deepest r^ret I felt xroae fj-om the reflection that it v/as ooti 
in my power to partake of its enjoyments hy a constant residence ia that centre of 


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from which he :was gratified in thi* way were generally numerous ; 
but there was one gentleman (well known in the botanical 
world*) whose zeal and enthusiasm for science, and whose 
readiness to make known to. Iiim every new: occurrence con- 
nected with their common pursuits, rendered his correspon- 
dence a source of peculiar enjoyment, which our author used to 
acknowledge very emphatically by calling his letters the angeh 
of pleasure. 

It has been already mentioned that Dr. Pulteney suffered from 
a pulmonary complaint at an early peiiod of his life^ A return 
of this was what he always prognosticated would be fatal to him. 
On the 7th of October, 1801, he was attacked with symptoms of 
inflammation in the lungs, and there was reason to suppose that 
his liver also was similarly affected. He judged very accurately 
of the nature of his disorder himself, and, 6nding that the or* 
dinary remedies (which were promptly and vigorously applied 
under his own direction) did not produce any fevourable change 
within the usual time, was the first to announce to those about 
him the approach of dissolution. It was not without urgent so* 
licitation that he consented to further medical aid being resorted 
to, observing " that it could not be of any use, and tliat he must 

* Tboie who hare witnessed the warm interest which Dr. Pulteney felt in the literary 
labours of his friends cannot but lament that he did not live to see this favourite cor- 
respoodeDt's " Description of the gmut Pinus," one of the most superb oflenngs at th* 
altar of Flora ever made by a private individual. 


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hemoirs of doctor pvlteney. 35 

die." On the lUh he agreed to Dr. Garthshore's being sent for 
from London; and two days afterwards he was visited by Dr. 
Fowler from Salisbury. The former of these gentlemen being 
too much occupied to be able to comply with the request, sent 
Dr. Reid, the son of a very old and much respected friend of Dr. 
Pulteney, in his stead. Medicine, however, proved to be of no 
avail ; and the venerable patient, whose agonies had progressively 
increased, expired in the evening of Tuesday, October 13th. But, 
5se agonies, and to the very last, his mental 
d their wonted activity and soundness. His 
ared with his own hand a few months before ; 
yet there were several directions wliich he thought proper to add, 
to testify his esteem for various friends, and to dispose of his 
collections and papers. The bulk of his affluent fortune was be- 
queathed to Mrs. Pulteney ; but he left many handsome legacies, 
and manifested his regard for some of the associates of his 
younger days in so affectionate a manner that even their repre- 
sentatives were to inherit its tokens. Most of the learned bodies 
of which he was a member also received testimonies of his rcmem- 
braiioe, and he made liberal benefactions to several charitable 
Institutions, and to thepoor of Blandford. He bequeathed his 
valuable museum to the Linncan Society, upon condition, how- 
eTcr,that it should either be kept separate from other collections 
in the possession of that corporation, or that it should be sold, and 
the interest of the sum produced by it expended in the pur- 
chase of a njedal, to be presented annually to the author of the 
E best 

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bt^t botanical paper read to the Society in the course of th© 
vear*. His library was. directed to be sold-f-, but not until 
such rcserrations had been made as Mrs. Pulteney might 
choose for her own use.: and ^ith the' exception of the bo- 
tanical manxiscripts, which were bequeathed to the author of 
these memoirs. 

• The Society preferred keeping ihe i 
specimens of British plants, and in shells (subj 
paid most attention, and wax most partial} ; but i 
tion of foreign plants aiid a^good number of tniai 
ably to the syetem of Wallerius, the earliest sysl 
read. - The plants atul shells, however, all have 
■ynonyms, and are particularly worthy of being 
■crapulous accuracy with which they had been e: 
which had been taken to preserve them in a neat, ci 
Upon the whole, the shdls may be considered aa 
lection, not only on account of their number, bu1 
part of them forming an authentic cxemplificatior 
letskire Catalogve. 

t The safe took pTace at Messrs. Leigh's and Sotheby's (booksellers, in-York etreel> 
Covent Garden) in the spring of the year following. Those works wtuch related to 
natural history were particularly coveted, on account not only of the origtTial value of 
many of them, but also of the very useful references and additions inserted in diem by 
Dr. Pulleney's own hand. He had been in the habit of annexing the Linnean names 
to the descriptions 0.ven byauthors who were unacquainted with that system, and he 
had taken the puns cf making inc/icet himself to many voluminous works (as the Hortm 
Malabariais, &c.),tlle utilityof which works, in the present improved state of science, 
is very imperfc<;t without them. But the collection was far from being limited to natural 
histoiy; it contained almost every medical author of any repute, besides agreat numbet 
of Toya^ and tr&vels^ books of geiu;ral literature, Sec. 


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Dr. Pulteney's remains were int 
about a mile fi'om Blandford. T 
by Dr. Heid (one of his execut 
Rackett, for whom Dr. Pulteney 
regard, and than whom few pers 

worth, or more sincerely lamented the loss, of his deceased 
friend. Mrs. Pulteney has placed an elegant tablet, to the 
memory of her husband, in the church of Blandford. He 
had expressly forbidden any eulogy to be inscribed on his monu- 
ment, which, therefore, only records, in unlaboured language, his 
widow's affection, and by the simple, but very appropriate, 
prnament of a Piiltenaa^ delicately indicates the pursuits by 
which he was distinguished. 

During the forty jears of that assiduous, skilful, and consci- 
entious exercise of the healing art; for which the. character of 
Dr. Pulteney most desen'edly stood so high, the circle in which 
the continuance of his life was a cireumstance of tlie deepest 
interest must necessarily have been cxtensire. Frequent as are 
those melancholy examples of intellectual vicissitude which ex- 
hibit something like reverting childhood, and a resolution of the 
^loblcst attainments into mere elements and wrecks, the powers 
of his mind^ incessantly as they had been exerted, showed no 
sigjis of approadiing imbecillity ; neither had tbat torjjor csept 
upon his feelings which is so apt, in advanced life, to diminish 
the activity of beneyolence, and to make the greatest professional 
experience survive its own utility. It may therefore easily be 
K 3 conceived 

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e, when such a re- 

r the friendship of 

' contemplating his 

had motives tore- 

and philosophical 

7 were. His whole 

rity and the most 

r maintained more 

uniformly a spirit of independ«ice, the respectable rank which 

he held in society being the well earned reward of his own 

labours an4 peneverance. The pursuits in which he delighted^ 

indeed, were little calculated to iaterest tiie great, and they 

created that c Sered him 

to descend to tier. The 

same self-resp e smallest 

species of int lis habits, 

that no exjHi cated the 

sl^htest indelicacy of thought, or the &intest , tincture of pro- 

faneness. His manners were remarkable for tbeir simplicity, 

and, among those whom he loved, exhibited all the amiable play- 

tulness and unreservedness of unsophisticated youth. Nothing 

could be more engaging than the readiness with whacb he would 

join in the little hilarities and amusements of his domestic circle, 

divesting himself of gravity without ever appearing frivolous or 



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In his general intercourse with the world, Dr. Pulteney wa» 
generally somewhat reserved, yet to the young and inquisitive 
he was remarkably communicative ; and his own ardour for 
science, which remained unextinguished to the last, seemed to 
augment itself, whilst it fostered that of others. 

Having a mind candid, liberal, and enlightened, he abhorred 
every species of conceit and dogmatism, and if he ever departed 
from his usual mildness of temper, it was to censure bigotry and 
intolerance. With an uniform, unequivocal respect for religion, 
he united none of the prejudices of the sectary, neither on the 
other ha] :ver appear to clash with the 

speculati y. 

With i of rather less than the ordi- 

nary stature, and slender; but his frame was well adapted to 
that habitual activity for which he was remarkable to a very late 
period of his life. His countenance, especially when his atten- 
tion was awakened, or when he was conversing on a subject that 
interested him, had a sort of classical, and a peculiady pleasing, 
cast ; there was something in it that excited involuntary deference 
and respect, and no one could help remarking an expression in- 
dicative of extraordinary intelligence and superiority of mind- 
His features were regular, and retained even in advanced age an 
uncommon agreeableness. In his dress there was some sin- 
gularity, for he never relinquished the professional costume that 
was general when he was a young man ; yet this was not froiik 
any sort of afifectation, nor from any absurd attachment to an- 

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tiquated formality, but partly from the effect of habit, and partly, 
perhaps, from conceiving tliat exterior appearance ought to cor- 
respond ivith seriousness and importance of character. 

The portrait prefixed to these memoirs is accurately engraved 
from an original painting (in the possession of Mrs. Pultency) 
■which has been universally considered a striking likeness. 

A GE- 

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Carl LINN^US* was bom, Hay 
in the province of Sinaland, in Sweden, 
time resided as Comminister-\- (but he -m 
rector) of the parish of Stenbrohult. I 
surnames of Lindelius^ Tiliandery and L 

den^ or hme-tree standing on the farm where he was born. This 
origin of surnames, tajieu from natural objects, is not very un- 
common in Sweden. 

It seems probable that Linnasus derived' his taste for the 
study of nature from his father's example, who (as he has 
himself informed us) cultivated, as his chief amusement, a 

* This was- the name of our author before he viat eunoblsd ; and we have used, it 
throughout this work, not only because he is better known by it (especially in Eng- 
land) than by that of von Linme, but also from bis having used it himself throughout 
his dmy. 

t Cormninister, an the Swedish church establishment, i* a olefgyman somewhat 
similarly circumstanced to one wbo^ in l^gUnd, serves a cfu^l qJ etue, 

5 _ gardcBt 

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32 linhjEUs's early studies. 

garden plentifully stored with plants. Young Linnoeus soon be- 
came acquainted with these, as well as with the indigenous species 
in his neighbourhood. 

In 1717 he was sent to school at Wexib, where, as his op- 
portunities were enlarged, his progress in all his favourite pur- 
suits was proportionately extended. 

According to the Swedish system of education, Linnaeus passed 
from the school to the gymnasium. But, instead of pursuing those 
studies which, as being preparatory to the clerical line, were the 
more immediate and general business of the place, such as 
metaphysics, moral philosopliy, rhetoric, and the Greek and 
Hebrew languages, he gave himself up to the physical sciences 
surpassed his contemporaries in 
ich as they surpassed him in that of 
itnessof his father's income,and from 
i him to be ujifit for the church, the 
point of being destined to a me- 
chanical employment, fortunately, however, this design was 

The first part of his university education he received at Lund, 
in the province of Skane, where his inclination to the study of 
natural history was favoured by Professor Stobaeus. 

After a residence of about a year, he removed in 1728 to 
Upsala, where he prosecuted the study oi natural history with 
unremitting assiduity and ardour, and where he composed a little 
catalogue of his botanical observations under the title of Spolia 
BoTANiCA,. sire Plantee rariores per Smolandiam^ Scaniam, et 
Roslagiam ohservata et enumerate d Carolo LinmEo, Smoland. Med. 
Bot. et Zool. cult. Stipend, reg. (Upsal. 1729- pp. 30.) This 
work, however, does not appear to have ever been published. 
TJie original mannscript, vbich is in the possession of Dr. James 
3 Edward 

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Edward Smith, is in the Swedish language, and dedicated to 
Professor Roberg. There are sketches of a few of the plants, 
and a rude map illustnitive of the situations. As the plants are 
All arranged after the system of Tournefort, the author would 
appear to have not as yet espoused the idea of a sexual difference 
in tlie vegetable kingdom, though within three years afterwards 
it was sufficiently matured in his mind for the arrangement of 
the Lapland plants in that metiiod *. 

SoonafterhisarrJ^atUpgaIa,LinD£U9 contracted aclose friend- 
slup with Artedi, a native of the province of Angernjanland, who 
had already been four years a student in the university, and, 
like himself, had a strong bent to the study of natural histary in 
general, but particularly to ichthyology. He was moreover 
well skilled in chemistry, and not unacquainted with botany, 
liaving been the inventor of that distinction in umbeSiferous 
plants which arises from the differences of the involucrum. 
i^^mulation is the soul of improvement: and, heightened as 
it was in this instance by friendship, proved a most poweiv 
ful incentive. Tlicsc young men prosecuted their studies 
together with uncommon vigour, mutually communicatiag 
tlicir observations, and laying tl|eir plans so as to assist each 
other iu every branch of natural history and medicine. 

Our author was also happy enongh to obtain the favour of 
several men of estabhshed philosophical character. lie was in 
a particular manner encouraged in the pursuit of his studies by 

* Stoever- mentions a work of Linn^us entitled Hortbs Uplawdicus, which is 
spppoiftliiyfliatbicigQiplKCtofoe-tlie £r«t, in order of tinu;, of all h)sproduotwn»; but, 
as the date of it is }730, it, could oot hav^e b«eD earlier than the work mcntioiiodabuvc^ 
besides, the arrangement is stated to be founded on the doctrine of a sexual difference. 
I do not find any mention of tlw Hortus Uplandkus in the cvtalogiie of Linnieiie's 
works given iu his own Diary. {EdUw.) 

r the 

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the patronage ot" Dr.OlofCcIsius, at that time Professor of Divinity, 
and the restorer of mitiu'a] history in Sweden, afterwards di- 
stinguished for oriental learning, and more particularly for hid 
Hierobot nentioned iii. 

Scriptur in this cele- 

brated I il to Upsala. 

Celsius 1 i, and, being 

struck w he plants of 

the Upsala garden, and with his extensive knowledge of their 
names, fortunately for him (then involved in difficulties trom 
the narrow circumstances of his parents) not only patronised him 
in a general way, but admitted him to his house, his table, and his 
library. — It was in a manner equally meritorious that he acquired 
the friendship of Dr. Olof Rudbeck, Professor of Botany. 

Linnaeus had read in the Leipsic Couamentaries a review of 
Vaillant's Discours sttr la structure desjleurs, by which he was in- 
duced to examine very closely the stamina and pistilla. These 
appendages he discovered to be essential to the vegetable, and to 
assume as much variety as the petals ; and hence he conceived 
that they might be made the foundation of a new system, the 
first sketch of which he drew up in opposition to an academical 
dissertation, intitled Tafju>s ^ujwv, she Nuptia arborum *. He pre- 
sented this little manuscript tract to Celsius, who showed it to 
Rudbeck ; and the latter was so highly pleased with its novelty 
and ingenuity tliat he immediately expressed a desire to be made 
acquainted with the author, and shortly afterwards appointed 
bim tutor to his children. 

Hitherto the abilities of Linnseus were known only to a few 
individuals ; but the time at' length arrived when, by being pro- 

• PreBsida GtoT^Wahlint ^ead^ BilliolkecoTio. Resp.'P^tm\Jg\i. (Upsal. 1729, 
4tQ. cum figgO 


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mdted to a public post in the university, he had an opportunity 
of acquiring general reputation. In 1730, Professor Rudbeck, 
who was far advanced in years, obtained permission to execute 
his duties by deputy. A person of the name of Preutz was first 
nominated to read the lectures, but, being found incompetent, 
he was obliged to give way to LinniEus, who thus, after a httle 
more than two yeaiV residence at Upsata, was judged qualified 
to t^ach the science of botany. He commenced his lecture* 
without delay, instituted regular botanical excursions with his 
pupils (who soon became numerous), and made considerable 
alterations and improvements in the botanic garden. He also 
devoted as much attention as his situation would admit of to the 
perfecting of the new system which he had conceived. 

In the year 1731, the royal academy of sciences at Upsala, 
having for some time meditated the design of improving the 
natural history of Sweden, at the instance particularly of Professors 
Celsius and Uudbcck, deputed Linnreus to make the tour of 
Lapland, with the sole view of examining tlie natuml produc- 
tions of that arctic region ; to which undertaking his reputation 
(already considerable as a naturalist), and the strength of his con- 
stitution equally recommended him. This tour had been made 
with the same view, in l69o, by Rudbeck himself, at the com- 
mand of Charles XI ; but, unfortunately, the whole fruit of that 
ex]>edition pcrishe<lin the dreadful fire at Upsnla in 170'i. 

.'\s this expedition could not take place until tlie succeeding 
Bviunncr, Linnicus passed part of tlic winter with his friends and 
relations in the south. In January 1/32, he paid a visit to his 

JUS, at Luud, for the purpose of studying 
this being the only branch of natural 

joung truvellor was not well acquainted. 

i ver, did not altogcllu.'r satisfy him. He 

r '2 then 

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36 Liss.«rs'g LApLANn expedition. 

then proceeded to his native province of Smaland, where after 
spending some weeks, he returned to Upsala to prepare for liis 

On the 13th of May, 1732, Linneeus set out for Lapland, 
mounted on horseback, and caiTying all the articles he wanted 
about Iiini. His first point was Gcfle, the principal town of 
Gastrikland, whence he passed tlirough Helsiogland, Medelpad, 
and Angeni\anland to Uniea, in West JBottinia, ascending 
mount Norbyknylcn, and visiting a remarkable cavern on the 
summit of mount Skula in his way. At Umea, Linnseus left the 
public road, and took his course through the woods westward. 
Being now come to the country that was more particularly the 
object of his inquiries, equally a stranger to the language and to 
the manners of the people, and without any associate, he com- 
mitted himself to the hospitality of the inhabitants, and never 
failed to experience it ftilly. He speaks, in several places, with 
peculiar satisfaction, of the innocence and simpHcity of their 
lives, and their freedom from diseases*. 

In proceeding firom Lycksele towards the mountainous country 
bordering on Norway, he experienced great inconvenience from 
the floods, which were very violent at that season of the year ; 


* The reader cannot £ul to be pleased wltti the following animated passage*, which 
occurs in the description of Belula nana {Flora Lapponica, Smith's edit. p. 377) 
** Ofelix Lappa! qui in allmo angulo mandi sic lieiie lates content us el innocens. Tk 
«ec times annoncB carilatem, nee Mortis prtslia, quceadtuas oras pervenire neqiteunt, sed 
Jhrentissimas Ettropee provincias et urhes, unico momeato, seepe dejiciwnt, tUent I Ta 
domus fuc mtr tua peUe ah omnibus cwis^ comtentioKiius, rixis lUttr, igmmmt quid sit 
ittoidia! Tu nulla nosti nisi tonantis Jovis/tUmiritt. Ta ducis innocmtisaiTHos tuos annos 
ultra cenlienarium numerum cumfaciU seneclute ei sumrna sanitate. Te latent myriades 
mt/rborum nobis Eurapteis communes. Tu vivis in sylvis, avis instar, nee semenlemjacis 
nee meliSf tamex alit te Deus optimui optimc. Tua amamenta stmt Iremtiia arbontm 


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and he found it impossible to ascend the river Juktan ; so that^ 
after having wandered over trackless marshes and lakes of ice for 
some time, without success, lie was obliged to return into Wtst 
Bothnia, quite exhausted with fatigue. He next visitcd^Prthca, 
and Lwlea, upon the gulph of Bothnia ; and from Luleii he took 
a north-western route, by proceeding up the river of that name, 
and visited Jockmock, whence he traversed deserts inhabited 
only bj 
>aB etiti 
' a noted 
given t 
ful nev 
arctic ^ 
way, a 

*)f the North Sea, as far as Rbrstad. These journeys from Lulcil 
and Pithea, on the Bothnian gulph, to the Norwegian coast, were 
made on foot, and our traveller was attended by two Laplanders, 
one his interpreter, and the other his guide. He tells us that 
the vigour and strength of these two men, both old, and suf- 

Joiia grOminosiqiie hei. T^ms pohis aqaa crystaUhue peUtteidUaih, qviB nee cerehnnn 
' insania adficit, nee strumas in Mpibus iua pro^tcU. Glas tuus est ve^ venig tempore 
piscis recerUf vet astivo serum laetis, vel autumnaii letrao, vei hgemali euro recens ran- 
giferina ahsqtte sale et pane, singula vice unico constants ferculo, edis dum scairus e lecl* 
turgis, dumtjue ewn petis, nee nosti venena nostra qutB latent sub dulci mtlle. Te tion 
obrvit storhntus, neejehrts i?itemitte?u, nee obesiias, nee podagra, JUvoso ghudes corpure 
et alatri, animoque lilero^ O saneia iaaocentia, estne He tteus t/tronus inter FIomos in 
•summo septeatrione, bujue vUissma kabita terra ? navme sie pra/er^ ttragula hgte le- 
tuSna mottibta serjco teclis plwmis ? Sie etiam vredidere veteres, nxc male." 
• See Fhra Lappmtca (Smith's edit.) p- 135. 


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ficieiUly loaded with his baggage, excited his adniiriition, since 
they appeared quite unhurt by their labour, whilst he himself, 
though young and robust, was frwjuently quite exhausted. On 
this journey he slept generally under the boat in which they 

f thaa 
D pro-' 
sd in- 
f heat 
st, be 
ig de- 
;ide of 
ea, in 
He continued his route tlirough Wasa, Christiuestad, and 
Hjorneborg to Abo, a small rtniversity in Finland. Winter was 
now setting in apace ; he therefore crossed the gulph by the isle 
of Aland, and arrived at I'psala in November, after having per- 
formed a jomney (and tliat n^ostly on foot) of 10 d(gi-ccs of 
latitude in extent, exclusive of those deviations which such a 
design rendered necessary. 

The result of Liuntens's botanical observations' on this journey 
was not published until several years afterwards, during his re- 
sidence in Holland. For the present,^ he gave in to the academy 

a sketch 





At the end of tTie year 1733, he set out for the great mine- 
district of Sweden, with a view to improve himself still fiirt4ier 
in the science of mineralogy, of which he had now conceived a 
system of his own. Whilst at Fahlun, he became known to 


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Baron Reuterholm, Governor of Dalarne, by whom he was 
sent on an expedition, with seven other young naturalists, for the 
purpose of investigating the natural productions of that province. 

, Lin- 
x>n, to 
be ob- 
'py of 

: been 
'ork in 

Dr. IJronalliua, at that time chaplain to 
n, and afterwards Professor, and Bishop of 
man was luucli attached to the study of natural 
fly botany, but, being imperfectly acquainted 
and thinking that the subject would be ge- 
nerally interesting to the inhabitants of a mining district such as 
Dalarne, he persuaded Linna-us to deliver a course of lectures 

" See Trapp's TransIaUoji of hts Life of Linnaus p. 395, 


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Upon that science.' The project was productive of considerable 
emolument to Linnaeus, to whom the miners all resorted, not only 
to witness his experiments in assaying, but to learn (what .was 
quite new to them) the clear and satisfactory system which he 
taught. Through his interest with the governor of the" province, 
iie obtained leave to give his instructions in the public laboratory. 

At Fahlun, Linmeus embarked also in tlie practice of physic, 
in which, however, he failed to attain the success he merited, — a 
circumstance the more distressing to him, as it operated {for the 
present at least) as an impediment to a matrimonial union with 
the eldest daughter of Dr. Moraeus, to whom he here became 
passionately attached *. 'By the advice of his friend Browallius, 
be resolved to try the eflect of procuring the doctorate, and, 
with this view, which accorded also with his strong desire to 
travel, he planned a journey into Holland, where, in fact, it 
was at that time the custom among such of his countrymen as 
studied medicine, to seek their academical honours. 

At the beginning of the year 1735, Linnaeus commenced his 
journey, in company with Dr. Sdilberg, a fellow student; but, 
before he left Sweden, he paid a visit to the place of his nativity, 
where, however, his mother had died the preceding summer, in 
the 45tb year of her age. From Rashult, he proceeded to Hel- 
einborg, and, crossing thence to Elsineur, passed through part of 
the kingdom of Denmark. The nearest port of German^' to 

* Oh this subject Limueus expresses himself in a manuer which shows very strikin^y 
the sensibility and delicacy of his miiid, in a letter to Haller. " Vidi, obsiuput, prts- 
£ordia mtima seasi atlotaius novis inttanuisse curts. Amavi. lUa tandem vicla l/landiiiis, 
volts, a^c. el meamavil ; promisit ; dixit Jiat ! Pairnnadioquieruhescfrhavtpauparimits} 
dixitamen. Foiuit, eiaoluU. Me tanalat pater, nan taeafata. Dixit, inlfuda per- 
mam-bit per tres annos ; dicam litm.demum," This letter (which may be found in tiie 
collcclion published bySlocvcr) is dated Stockholm, September 1«, 1 739. 

C which 

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which the packet sailed being Lubec» he went from that place ti» 
Hamburg. Here Linnaeus was highly gratified by theopportunity 
of viewing several interesting collections, and by the civilities 
which he received from PrirfessoF Kohl, Dr. Jaenisch, and M. 
von Sprekelscn. But his sagacity in examining tlie various 
natural curiosities that were contained in the principal^ museums 
of this place proved a cause of his incurring considerable odium 
among the Hamburgersj for he pronounced one of the greatest 
wonders of which they had to boast a palpable deception ; thig 
was the famous serpent with seven heads*, as it was called, 
which heads, upon close inspection^ OMr young naturalist 
discovered to be factitious, and to be merely the jaw bones o€ 
weasels artfully coveted with serpent's skin. So enpH^nilar was 
Linnaeus rendered by this circumstance, and into such unpleasant 
embarrassments did it throw him, that he was advised by Dr. 
Jaenisch to leave the towa. He therefore lost ho time in pro^ 
ceeding from Hamburg to Amsterdam, where he waa induced 
by various attractions to stay eight days: He then set out for 
his more immediate place of destination, Harderwick, the unit- 
versity where he intended to graduate. 

Having passed his examinations, Lrnnasus defended a thesis, 
entitled ilypothem nova de febrium intermittentium causa (1735. 
4to. pp. 24.)-|-. It is an inquiry into the causes of the frequency 
of intermittent3 io Sweden (particuWly in Upland and the 
south-east parts of the kingdom) which, after the most minute 

* There i» a figure of this monster in Seba'a Th^aurus, Tam. I .. tab. cu./. I .. 

t Thie dissertation was reprinted at Stockhc^m, in an octavo form, in the year 1 739, 
as w« are infonned by linneus, in the account of the editions of hii works given in ' 
his Diary. It was published also- at the head of the first volume of tte Amoenitates 
Academies, printed at JLcyden, in 1749, by Dr. Pctei Camper^ and la the lOlh 
rola'mc of the edition of that collection by Schreb«r. 


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scrutiny into the soil and situation of the places where those 
complaints were so remarkably prevalent an<J obstinate, he was 
inclined to attribute to local circumstances ; and he 6nally pro- 
poses. Whether the cause might not be the strong impregnaticm 
of the water with argillaceous particles ? Linnseus met with a very 
strong opponent of this position in his countryman Wallerius, 
by whom he was severely attacked in some medical disputations*, 
•which aime<l at overturning many of the principles of the Stfste- 
ma Natttra, as wcil as of tlie inaugural thesis. But how insuf- 
ficient soev-er the Linnaean hypothesis may be to soh'e tlie difficul- 
ties which have attended the search into the remote causes of 
intermittents, the facts he adduced in support of that hypothesis 
certainly come in aid of Uie modem opinion, which imputes 
this class of diseases to miasmata arising from moist and marshy 

The degree of Doctor in Medicine having been conferred on hire 
the 24th of June*f-, Linnaius soon aftenvards set out again for Am- 
Btcrdam, where he immediately waited on Dr .Burmann, w ho was 
ProfessOT of Botany, but from whom we do not find that he receiv- 
ed any particular civilities until a subsequent visit, which he made 

* " Decades binm Thpsium rMdicamm," Moderalcre Job. Gold, Wallerio, et Re- 
spondente Johanne a Darelio. Upsal. 4to. 1741. pp. 38. The original Theses are ex- 
tremely scarce, a circumstance owing to Linnieus's scholars having torn most of them 
in pieces [through partialily to their master) at the time of their being defended; 
hut they have been republished by Stoever, subjoined to bis Collectlo Epislolarum 
C. V. Linne. 

t linnxus's diploma contained the following honourable testimoDy to his merit "by 
Ahe medicfd Professor at liarderwick, Dc G<irter> va, 

" Vt omniltis canitaret me in viro doclo, et nimc Medklncs Doctore Carolo Xinntpo, 
SuecQ, singularem non solum in omnxbui medicine parliiiis, ventm eliam lotamca inic- 
niise perltiam et doclrlnam, adeo ut inter preecipuos ntedichiix doclorcs sit kahendm, 
meum nomen cumjilifitaiis precatione in curandis fegrts, opponere non duUfavi." 

G 2 as 

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44 linnjeds's STSTEMA NATUR-I. 

as bearer of the compliments of the celebrated Boerhaave. He 
then went to Haarlem and Leyden. At the latter place he viuited 
Professor van Rojen, who showed him the botanic garden. But 
from no person did he, as yet, receive so much attention as from 
Dr. John Frederic Gronovius, who requested his permission to 
print the System a Naturae at his own expense. This work was 
accordingly committed to the press the same year, but in a very 
compendious way, being in the form of tables only, in twelve 
pages (folio). Hence it appears that he had at a very early 
period of his life (certainly before he was twenty-four years old) 
laid the basis of that great structure which he afterwards com- 
pleted, not only to the increase of his own fame, but to the ad- 
vantage of natural science in general.— At the desire of Gronovius, 
Linnaeus also waited on Boerhaave*, who showed him his garden 
(situated at a little distance from Leyden), which was stocked 
with all the trees the climate would bear, and afforded very great 
entertainment to our Swedish traveller. In the conversation that 
passed on this occasion, Boerhaave could not help discovering 
that his visitor was possessed of- an extraordinary degree of 
knowledge, particularly in botany; and, becoming interested 
in his welfare, advised Linnaeus not to leave Holland, but to 
take up his abode in that country. The latter, however, was not 
prompted to adopt this advice. He was desirous of recommend- 
ing himself to Dr. Morseus by settling as a practising physician 
in Sweden ; yet he resolved, before he returned thither, to lose 
noneof the means of improving himself that lay within his reach. 

* Liansus mentions in his Diary that he could not 6l>twi accui to this great man 
for right days after his application, owing to the multiplicity of Boerhaare's occupa- 
tions. So much, we are told, was this great oracle of medicine in request that hie anii- 
cbamher was always as much crowded as that of a minister of state, and even an Kin- 
peror (Peter the Great) could not obtain immediate admission to him. 


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Intending at tliis time to return homewardB through Amster- 
dam, he was permitted to make use of Boerhaave's name as a 
more regular introduction to Dr. Bumiann's ac(iuaintance than hq 
had before been enabled to avail himself of. That distinguished 
botanist was occupied in completing his Thesaurus Zeylanicm ; 
and, perceiving Linnaeus's competency to give him essential 
assistance in this undertaking, otfered him an apartment, with 
proper attendance, and board, in his own house, — an advantage 
which Linnaeus valued too highly to forego, but which he enjoyed 
only a few months before a still more tlattering and agreeable 
situation presented itself. Through the recommendation of 
Boeriiaave, our author became acquainted with Mr. Clifford, a 
rich burgomaster, who paid him a visit at Burmann's house, 
invited him to see his magnificent garden*, and lastly, prevailed 
on his kind patron to part with him. 

With Mr. Clifford, Linnaeus enjoyed pleasures and privileges 
scarcely, at that time, to be met with elsewhere in the world, 
namely,, access to a garden excellently stored with the finest cxt 
oticB, and to a library furnished with almost every botanic autlior 
of note ; permission to purchase whatever plants and books be 
thought worthy of being added to the collection ; and leisure to 
prepare works of his own for the press. How happy he found 
himself in this situation, those only who have felt the same kiiul 
of ardour can conceive. 

So little did Mr. Clifford spare expense in his favourite pursuit, 
and in his patronage of Linnaeus, that, in the year 1736, tic sent 
the latter into England, for the purpose of comnumicatiiig with 
the most eminent botanists, and vicuing the most remarkable 

• The coimtry-aeat and garden of Mr. Cliflbrd were at Hartecainp, about three 
miles from Haarlem, 

gardens ■ 

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gardens in that country. Tlierc was no person whom Linnteu3 
had a greater desire to visit than Dr. Dillcnius, tlie (then) Pro- 
fessor of ]5otany at Oxford, who was justly considered as one of 
the first botanists of his time, and, by his sitnation iu the uni- 
versity, was enabled to gratify Linnceus with the inspection of 
the garden, herbarium, and library, founded by the celebrated 
Shorard*. Dilleuius, however, did not at first receive Linn-ccui 
with much kindness, for he had been led to form rather an un- 
favourable idea of him from the perusal of a part of his Genera 
Vlautarum which Gronovius hatl sent over from Holland before 
the work was half out of the press, and which naturally ap- 
peared, to one accustomed for many years to a system of his 
own, to be a very inconvenient innovation. But the conversation 
of the 3'oung Swede soon gave him a more favourable idea of 
his talents, and the venerable Professor at length became so par- 
tial to Linnaeus that he would not leave him for an hour, and 
even etrongi}'' urged lum to take up a permanent abode at Oxford, 
observing that the income of the professorship was sufficient for 
the maintenance of them both, and that such assistance as his, 
in the continuation of Sherard's P/naj-j-, would be invaluable. 

* LianKus makes the foHowing honourable and merited mention of the founder of 
the Oxford garden in his dedication of the Hortus CUffortianus. " Consul Gulielmls 
Sherardus, agnominc apud hotariicos MAGtiVR, diim siiamvilam, se ipstim, el omnia 
sua rei herbaruB consecravit, immortalem apudbolanicos oblinuU gloriam, tjtus perennahit 
virens etflorens dum vivent et^fiorent plantee, daio prtBSerlim a J. J. Dillemo Pltylopi~ 
nace Sberardi/tna, uti tjuoque quondam Horlm Ellhamensis Skerardi magni et Johamiis 
Jratntm, Dilleiiioaulhorc, sine pari prodiit." 

t The nature of tliiB Pinax is perhaps too well known to require being explained. It 
was undertaken by Sherard as a continuation of Bauhin's Pinax TheatriBotanid, and after- 
wards devolved toDilleniua to be carried on in a similar manner. No part of it, howevefj 
ever came to the press; but the whole MS, is preserved in the botanical Hbrarj- at Ox- 
ford, and deserves to be considered as an interesting monument of the scientific industry 
ftwl erudition of Sherard and \m first Profcssof, 


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LitinEeus visited Martyn, Rand, and Miller, and was in 
a more particular manner indebted to the friendship of Dr. 
Isaac LawsoD, and Dr. Shaw the celebrated traveller. He also 
contracted an intimate friendship with Mr. Peter Collinson, 
which was reciprocally increased by -a multitude of good offices, 
and continued to the last without any diminution. Boerhaave 
had furnished him with letters to our great naturalist Sir I^Ians 
Sloane ; but it is with regret we must observe that they did not 
procure him the reception which the warmth of his recommenda- 
tion seemed to claim. Boerhaave's letter to Sir Hans on this 
occasion (which is preserved m the British Museum) runs thus, 
" Linnaut, qui has tihi debit Uteras est unice dignus te videre, vnice 
dignus atevideri; qui vos videbitis simul, videbit kotninum part cui 
simile vix dabit orbis." This encomium, however quaintly ex- 
pressed, was in some measure prophetic of LinnEeus's future 
fame and greatness, and proves how intimately Boerhaave 
had penetrated into his geniua and abilities^. One cause 
of the baronet's coolness may have been similar to that of 
Dillenius's, for Sir Hans had known plants by no other system 
but Ray*s ; and the alterations which Linnaeus had made in so 
many of the generic names were as likely to have given the same 
oHence to him as they had to some other contemporary botanists, 
notwithstanding those alterations were the necessary result of 
the rules so ably established in his Fundamenta Botanica. Pro- 
bably we have reason to regret this circumstance, as Linnasus 
might other^vise have obtained an establishment in England, 
which, it has been thought, was his wisli ; and certainly his op- 
portunities in this, kingdom would have been much more favour- 
able to his. designs than in those aretic regions where he spent 
the remEunder of his days. We may justly infer what an exalted 
idea Linneeus had of England, as a country eminently favour- 
3 able 

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able to tho improvement of science, from the compliment which 
lie paid to London, in a letter to a friend ; speaking of that city, 
lie called it " Punctum saliens in vitello orbis." 

On his return to Holland, Ltnneeus enriched Mr. Clifford's 
garden and herbarium with a great number of valuable additions, 
which he had carried with him from Oxford and Chelsea. But 
towards the close of the year 1737, having completed the 
arrangement of that splendid botanical repository, and published 
an elaborate description of the plants that w^ere cultivated in it, 
he formed the resolution of relinquishing his residence with Mr. 
Clifford, and of returning in the course of the following year 
to his native country. Linne^us himself mentions that nothing 
could exceed the comfort, liberality, and hospitality of treat- 
ment which he received from his princely patron ; he had the 
constant command of a superb equipage and a regular atten- 
dance of servants, and moreover had Mr. Clifford's permission 
to attend Boerhaave's lectures at Leyden whenever he chose; 
but, notwithstanding all these advantages, whether he perceived 
an approaching embarrassment in that gentleman's circumstances, 
or whether (as is most probable) his tlioughts turned with anxiety 
to being settled in Sweden, our author could not be prevailed on 
by any persuasions or promises to stay longer at Amsterdam. He 
went to Leyden, where other inducements to remain in Holland 
were held out to him by Professor Van Roycn, who was very de- 
sirous of having the assistance of Linnaeus in arranging anew 
the botanic garden, and in becoming sufficiently grounded in the 
principles of the new system to teach them publicly in that 
university. Linnaeus so far acceded to the Professor's entreaties 
as to promise to remain a few montlis with him. In the mean 
time, the two botanists laboured hard in naming the plants and 
preparing a description of the garden, which bad been arranged 
5 agreeably 

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tlNNXUs's RESIDENCE AT l.l'.lfDEX. 49 

agrecablj to the plan of lioeihaavc, but van Koyen resolved to 
exchange it for that of Linna;us. The latter, however, from 
motives of laudable delicacy towards his kind friend, declined 
being instrumental in this undertaking, but consented to assist 
van Royen in fonning a plan different from either. Linnaeus 
passed much of his time with Gronovius, whom he also assisted 
in the publication of the Flora Virgimca*^ which made its ap- 
pearance nearly at the same time as van Royen's JtJortiis Leyden- 
sisy both these authors adopting the principles and the names 
proposed by our great reformer. The printing of the Classes 
Tlautarum^ Artedi's Ichthyology, the Corollarium Generum, and 
Metkodus Sextialis likewise occupied his attention. 

During Linnaeus's stay at Leyden, he was a very active 
member of a philosophical club, which met in that city, and 
•which consisted of many of the most eminent men of their time. 
Among them was Gronovius; van Swieten ; Doctor Lawson, a 
learned Scotchman (who has been mentioned as a particular 
friend of Linneeus before)-f-; Lieberkuhn, of Berlin, famous for 
his skill in microscopical instruments and experiments ; Kramer, 
since well kno^vn by an excellent treatise on the docimastic art ; 
and Bartsch, a young German physician, whom we shall have 
occasion to mention again hereafter. Tlie members regularly 
assembled at their respective houses in rotation, and the one at 
whose house they met was always expected to demonstrate some- 
thing in his own line of pursuit, as Gronovius in botany, van 

* Gronovius very handsomely acknowlctlges Linnaeus's assistance, in his preface lo 
Uiis work. *' Ntdlus igUur dubitavi (says he) spedmina planiarum cum pcrspica- 
cissimo Uxnceo examinare; at'tnam reUqua etiam cum doctissmtoviro adexamen revocare 
mihi licuisset." (P. 3.) 

' t Lawsoo was one of the physicians of the British army, aud died mudi regretted^ 
at Oosterboot, in the year 1747. 

H Swieten 

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50 LiNx.i:i>'s Rr,siDEscn at lkyuek. 

Swietcn in medicine, J.inntcus in natural history general!^', 
Lawson in history and iintiquities, Lieberkiihn in miscroscopics, 
Kramer in chemistry, and Jiartsch in pliysjcs. On this occasion, 
it is not foreign to our plan toreniark, that Linna?us, being present 
at a meeting wlicn one of tiie 'company was exhibiting the ani~ 
malcula in umi/ie musculnio^ openly declared his opinion that 
these moiecula were not true animalcules ; and he appears ever 
afterwards to have retained the same opinion. We may add the 
names of Albinus, Gaubius, and othei-s, were it requisite, to 
show that, our author's talents had very early rendered bim con- 
spicuous, and gained him the regard of all who cultivated and 
patronised any branch of medical science ; to this, no doubt, 
the singular notice with which Boerhaave honoured him did not 
a little contribute. 

In the year 1738, Linnaeus was recommended by Boerhaave to 
fill the situation (then vacant) of physician to the Dutch settlement 
at Surinam ; but this ofier, as also another made to him a short 
time before with respect to a similar situation at the Cape of Good 
Hope, he declined. Being permitted to nominate any physician 
whom he thought proper for that department, he recommended 
Dr. Bartsch, of Konigsberg, who accepted the appointment, but 
had the misfortune to fall a sacrifice, partly to the climate, and 
partly to ill usage from the governor, in half ayear after his arrival, 
a circumstance which Linnaeus has very pathetically lamented in 
the J^ora Suecica, when treating of a plant to which be had given 
Ills unfortunate friend's name*. 


* M Bartsiam Sxi a Johahnb Bartschio, Regiomontano, Medieitue Doctorcj juoene 
pitlcherrhnO) ctrndidtsstTOt, el certe doctissimo ac nationis sues omamento. Qmtracta cam 
vtro kuima amidtia in Selgio, aim ittextiagu^i piatUantm insectonimqiie ardon mfu^ 
■adeo lit in rimatidis minutissimis plantarum fortibus iisdemque acutimmt detsrUiendit 


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Boerbaave's regard for our author seems to liave remained 
undiminished even to bis dying moments ; the following is the 
account given by Linnieus himself of the last interview with 
his illustrious and affectionate instructor. Linnaeus was one 
of the few persons who were permitted to have access to that 
great man when he was labouring under the disease that 
proved fatal to him ; and having bid him a sorrowful adieu, at 
the same time kissing his hand, in token of respect, Bocrhaave 
put Linnaeus's hand to his lips in return, and addressed him in these 
impressive words : ** J have lived my time out (said he) and my 
days are at an end. I have done every thing that was in my 
power. May God protect thee, with zehom this duty remains, 
What the world required of me, it has got, but from thee it expects 
mtich more. Farewell, my dear lAnnaus I" No sooner was Lin- 
naeus returned to his lodgings than he received from the vene- 
rable invalid, as a last and parting present, an elegant copy of 
his Chemistry. 

Just as our author was preparing to leave Leyden, he was 
seized with a .verj severe ague, irom which he was scarcely 
recovered, before a dangerous attack of cholera supervened. 
He was attended by Baron van Swieten, to whom Linnaeus 
attributes his having been saved from death. As soon as the 
disease appeared to be entirely removed, his kind friend Mr. 

potfcot svperUra hahaerit, Facuo mwiere medici ordintrii Sacittatis Belgia Iniim 
wientaUs, Surhtawue me elegit Divus Boerhaavius; cum autem reaaarem lorridas m- 
hahitare zonaSf mi arctoo ipse nalui et edmatta, mi/ti amcessit heaius vtr ad hoc imtmu 
vocan gvmncmque veUem; arrisit hoc integerrimo amxco Bartschio, ptantantm sola 
eausaf commendatMT afud Soerhaavhitn, nvtpUur, et Surinomas petit j wld nescio mio 
gulenudaris &trinam«e odia et nutii/ia, mmquam ipsi lata comessa her*^ lunc Uedio, 
iavidioi ptatperiey testu, post dmidium annum oliut, meliori/ato si guts alius dipiissi- 
mta vir. Qiudis/mi Uc vir docet Dissertatio de cglore, docelmnt litereB ad me Surinam^ 
misste, plena plttntaram observationitus curiosissimis." (tvo, 174}. p. 186.) 

u 2 Clifford 

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Clifford, (though not altogether pleased with Linnaeus for having 
preferred Leyden to Hartecamp,) persuaded him to pass a few 
weeks at his house once more, for the benefit of a change of 
air, and the enjoyment of exercise in his carriage.. Linnaeus, 
however, with all these comforts and advantages, continued in 
a very debilitated state until he had proceeded some way on his 
journey to Paris, — a city which he could not resist the inclina- 
tion to visit before he returned to Sweden, notwithstanding tiie 
circumstances which now rendered that return necessary. When 
he reached Brabant, he says, his whole frame seemed to be 
renovated, and his spirits were relieved from an oppression that 
had almost overcome him. 

IJnnseus's route lay through Antwerp, Brussels, Mons, Valen- 
ciennes, and Cambray, but he did not make any stay at these 
places, being impatient to reach the metropolis of France, and 
to present his letters of introduction to Professor Antoine da 
Jussieu. This eminent botanist was then too much occupied 
by his medical avocations to pay that attention to Linnteus 
which he wished ; and he therefore consigned him to the care 
of his brother, Benihard de Jussieu, who was demonstrator of 
botany in the royal garden. The latter, not only procured him 
a sight of the garden, of the herbaria of Tournefort, Surian, Vail- 
lant, &c., and of the fine botanical library belonging to D'lsnard, 
but also took him to Fontainbleau, and other places, for the 
salte of showing him all the remarkable plants that, were to be 
found in the vicinity of Paris. In short, nothing could exceed 
the kindness and attention of the Jussieus, who were so liberal as 
to save him from all expense, and introduced him to all theii; 
friends. Our author felt particular pleasure in being made 
known to the celebrated Reaumur, Obriet (the draughtsman 
and companion of Tournefort on his travels in the East) La 
2 Serre, 

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Serre, the widow Vaillant, and Mad. Basseport, botanic. paint- 
tress to the king. The RoyaJ Academy of Sciences paid him a 
very high compliment. Having received permissiqn to attend 
one of its sittings as a visitor, he was desired to wait a little 
while in the antiroom ; and it was at length announced, Uiat 
the Academy had elected him a Corresponding Member. M. du 
Fay proposed to Linnaeus to remain in France, upon condition 
of being made an ordinary member and receiving a salary; but 
this he declined, assigning as a reason his fixed resolution to 
settle in Sweden. 

It may appear somewhat singular, that Linnaeus should not have 
acquired the French language whilst he was in. that country. In 
fact, though he was so long a time in Holland, he did not become 
acquainted even with the Dutch ; nor was the German or Knglish 
tongue at all familiar to him. Yet he n^ade his way without 
any difficulty, and the Latin being at that time the general me- 
dium of communication ftmoiig mep of science, he did not re^et 
having grounded himaelf in one language only besides his own. 
He saved himself the tioie usually deivqted by travellers to the 
acquisition of languages, from principle, conpeiving that, as his 
«tay abroad was limited, he should fall short of the endy if he ' 
gave too much study to the means ; and that tJiere were persona 
enough making interpretation their profession to render his un- 
dertaking it himself unnecessary, especially as real knowledge, 
rather than the graces of literature, constituted the object of his 

The number and importance of Linnaeus'Si publications, during 
only three years' absence from his native country, sufficiently 
demonstrate how constantly his mind must have been occupied, 
and how little reason he could have had to accuse himself of the 
neglect of any attainments within the compass of ^ijs Jin^e and 
- •- t. talents- 

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talents. Tliere cannot be a nK>re proper place to give some 
kccount of these publications, individually; forire are on the 
point of accompanying our author back into Sweden, whither 
he returned, ultimately to receive the reward of his merit. 

ITie first of these was the Svstema ii at vum, she regna tria 
natures systematice proposita^ per classes, ordines^ genera^ et specie*. 
(Lugd. Bat. 1735. fol. pp. 14.) with the Swedish names annexed. 
This woA, as we have mentioned before, was published at the 
expense of Dr. John Frederic Gronovius ; as it contains little 
more than the outlines of his method, we shall reserve a fuller 
account of it until we come to the enlarged editions, in which 
that method was exemplified in detail. 

Fundamenta Botanica, quam(^orumoperumprodromiinstttrt 
theoriam scieniia Botanices per breves aphorismos tradunt. (Amst. 
1736. 8vo. pp. 35.) The science of botany is ia this work re- 
duced to 365 aphorisms, or canons; and what Sethus Calvisiua 
ha^ said of Ptolemy's canon, may truly be said, mutatis mutandis, 
of Linnaeus's Fundamenta Botanica. " Omni avro prttmior est ; 
» dudum innotuissety nee adeo in dvoersas sectas Botanici abiissentt 
sed Res BoTAWiCiiB muUo melius se kaierent." It passed through 
several editions*, and was published, with a comment upon eaclv 
aphorism, in 1751, under the title of Philosofhia Botanica, 
hereafter to be noticed. 

• Ed. «. Abote 1 740. 4to, pp. 3«. 

3. Holm. 1740. Bvo. pp. 33. Juetons. 

4. Amatelod. 1741. 8vo. pp. 51. 
3. Paris 1744. Svo. pp. S6. 

6. Hals 1747. Bto. pp. 31. 
This work is contained also in Alston's Ttronntiiin Botaniaaa (Edinb. 1753. 8ro. p. 
SS_109.) aod GiUberfs Fund. Bot. (Tom. I. p. 1—48.) thtie ia a Madrid edition, 
in which it is tmulated into Spaoish. (17B8. 8vo.) 


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BiBLioTHECA BoTAHiCA, recensetut Ubros plus ptiUt de plantU 
hueusque editos, secundum systema auctorum naturale in' classes, 
ordmea, genera el species dispositos, odditis editionis loco, tempore^ 
forma, lingua, ^c. (Ainst. 1736. 8vo. pp. 153.) Botanic writers are 
distributed into 16 classes, ia this work, which is by no means 
so unentertaining as might be expected from the general idea of 
a catalogue merely ; for the author has frequently subjoined 
sh<»t characters of the books, and taken occasion, at the be- 
ginning of each class, as also in the orders or subdivisions, to 
expl^n several of the terms used in his subsequent writings. 
The pre&ce contains a short history of the rise and progress of 
botany, and an acknowledgement of the aid which the author 
received in the compilation of this work, 6'om his free access to 
the libraries of M. von Sprekelsen, at Hamburg, of Dr. Gro- 
Dovius at Leyden, and particularly of his patron Mr. Clifford* 
and Dr. Burmann, I^fessor of Botany, at Amsterdam. The 
following is his classification of authors, viz. 

1. Fatres. 9. Peregriaatores. 

S. Commentatoret. KX Philosophi. 

5. Jchmiographi. 11. Sjfstematid. 

4. Descriptores. 13. Nomenclatores. 

5^ Monographi. 13. Anaiomid. 

6. CuTHW. 14. Hortt^ni. 

7. Adovista. 15. Medici. 

8. Plorista. 16. Anomali, 

During his stay at Paris, Linnaeus had opportunites of adding 
very considerably to the original materials, and we find him an- 
nouncing to Haller, in a letter dated from that city *, his being 
even then enabled to publish a second edition. So rich in bo* 

* StoeTer*a CoUeeih Ejnst. (p. 97*) 


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-tanicii! works were the public and private libraries to which he 
obtained access by means of the Jussieus, that he soon found 
his catalogue doubled. His design, however, was not executed 
until the year 17'i7t when the Bibliotheca Boianica came forth, 
much augmented, at Halle. Subjoined to a third edition, pub- 
lished at Amsterdam in 1751, is a biographical table exhibiting, 
in chronological order, the names of 139 botanic authors, from 
the time of Avicennain 981, to Catesby in 1749, and specifying, 
wherever it was possible, the year of their birth and death. In tlie 
first edition, this table was brought down no further than to our 
countryman Houston, who died in 1733 ; it was afterwards con- 
tinued to the year 1759, in ,an academical dissertation, which 
will be noticed hereafter. The whole has been copied by Gill., 
bert into the fir^t volume of his Fundamenta Botanica. 

Linnaeus has'beeri followed in this usefulund^rtaking by Seguier*, 
■L. T. Gronovius-f-, and others, but the literary world are ijiost in- 
debted to the illustrious and indefatigable Haller, whose work+» as 
it is no less a critical than a typogmphical history, is inestimable 
in its way. The-catalogue published by Dr. G. R. Boehmer§ is a 
valuable perfortnarice, but differs from HaJler's in its arrange- 
ment, which ife (iurely systematic, whereas the other's is chronolo- 
gical ; that of Seguier and Gronovius is in an alphabetical order. 
We have to boast of an admtrabte specimen of biblical arrange- 
ment, published within a ve*y late period, in our ofrn Country, 

" * Bibliotheca Botanica, Hagse, 1740. 4to. 

t Afictarium in Bitil- Sot^ Seguieri. Leyden. 1 760. 4to. 

J. Bi/it. Bot. qua scripta ad'rem herharia^n facientia a rerum inttiis recensentur. 3 
Totft. ttgiif. l?ri. 1774. 4to. 

"^ 3tM. Saipturam Hist. Nat, &c. reaUs systematica. Lipsix^ 1 785 — 1 'BQ. fivo. 
3 Vol. / ... 

• ' '■''•■' and 

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and wiiich (so far as the collection admits of it) possesses the 
advantages of the chronological and systematical methods 
united*. Hence the Biblhiheca Botanica of Linnaeus may be 
-considered as now superseded; yet, as a specimen of its author'* 
uncommon industry, and as being the earliest scientific produc- 
tion io this branch of knowledge, it will always be held in esti- 
mation by botanists of Jeatning and curiosity. 

The flowering of the Plantain-tree -f- in the garden of our 
author's patron, Mr. Clifford, produced a complete history of that 
plant from Linnaaus's pen, under the title of Mdsa Clifpor- 
TiANA fioretig Hartecampif 1736, prope Harlemam (Lugd. Bat. 
1736. 4to, pp. 46.), which is drawn up with the utmost precision, 
according to our author's own metkodus demonstrandi^ printed at 
the end of the Systema, and is a model for this kiud of monogra- 
phic. It is embellished with two plates, one representing the 
plant at large, tlie other the parts of fructification separately. 

Geneha Plantarum eorumque characteres naiarates secundum 
mimerum^ figuram, situm^ et proportxonem^- omnium fructifkationis 
pariium. (Lugd. Bat. 1737- 8vo, pp. S84.) This is to be con- 
sidered as one of the most important, and Valuable of all Lin- 
nceus's works+. Of the system here first fully developed we 

* ■Caialogtts bibliotheca historuB natunUis Jotephi Banks, ffc. auclore J, Drt/toideTf 
ji. M. Tom. 4. I^ndon I79S. Svo. 

f Mtisa paradisaica (Linn. Spec. 1477'.) This tree flowers in the Soyal Gardens, 
«t Kew, -too) October to Deceniber. 

. J It may not be uninteresting to the reader to be presented with the following ex- 
tract from a letter addresied to Linnteus, on the publication of this extraordinary per- 
foroiance, by the celebrated Boerhaave. " Liler ipse (says he) inspecttis stt^>enti 
tttendit infinite dii^€ntia, cotittantits singultaia, tt scierUtte iTuxmtparaiiUs opus ; ne- 
atu uliliiBtem ptUcheTTimi instituli satis ipse depredkare possum. SvcnlalauiiJnmt, himi 
tjjlitabtintliT, omnilus proderit, Tu kuic totvmdum ades senilis qufc a-latem et AristaT' 
tfuim/eranl." (Jan. 13. 1737-) 

I .shall 

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shall treat at large in another place, and shall therefore content 
ourselves with remarking, on the present occasion, that the 
characters of plants given in this work are applicable to any 
clasical method founded on the parts of fruetificalioQ alone ; in 
which respect thej have the advantage over those of all foregoing 
writers, and will probably stand firm, even though the more general 
divisions of the Linnean system should be set a9ide. Our author 
found it necessary either to change or abolish more than half the 
number of the generic names which had bem established by'prft- 
ceding authors, and the prodigious quantity of noD-4e3cript 
plants which had fallen into his hands, obliged him to frame new 
genera to tbe amount of more than double the number of those 
that were left as he found them. He tells us that he had ex- 
amined tbe characters of 8000 flowers before the publication of 
the first edition. Hiose alooe who have been accustomed to ex- 
»nine plants witli a scientific view can judge how arduous this 
undertaking must have been, and how great the application 
which he must necessarily have devoted to it, at a very early 
period of life. No other persons can sufficiently admire tha 
accuracy with which so great a number of flowers have been ex- 
arAined and compared, or see the aptitude of that assemblage of 
terms which were invented by Linmeus, to express the different 
figure, situation^ and proportion that exist in such a variety *of 
subjects. If this were a proper place to expatiate on the peiV 
formance, and to consider all that Linnaeus has done with re- 
spect to other distinctions in plants, his merit would become 
still more conspicuous, and be acknowledged to surpass al| 

At the latter end of the work was given the general plan of a 

system, invented by Linnaeus, and founded upon the different 

kinds and arrangements of the calyx, or cup of th^ flower in plants 

4 ' (but 

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(but this was omitted in the lat6r editions); also a fragment of 
that *' primum et uUimum" in botany — the natural method. 

Tlie first edition of this book contained 933 genera ; the last 
extended the number to 1339* ; and the Mantissa since to 1336. 

There have been two editicms of the Genera Planiarum since 
the time of lannaeus, the one by John Jami:s Reichard 
(Frankfort 1778, 8vo, pp. 571.) and the other by John Chris- 
tian Daniel iScHRBBEH. (Frankfoit8vo,vol. 1, 1789. pp- 379' 
vol. 2. 1791. p. 381 — 872.) The last mentioned edition con- 
tains no fewer than 176? genera, of which 75 were ctmstituted by 
the editor himself. In 1787» the work was translated into our 
own language by a botanical society of liitchfield, who included, 
with Linneeus's last edition and the Mantissa, the Supplementitm 
Plantarum of the younger Linnaeus and all the new genera of 
Thunberg and UHeriaer (Vol. 1. pp. 386. Vol. 2. p. 387—840. 

Before the conclusion of the year 1737, our author published 
Ae CoROLLARiUM GfVERUH Plantaruh, cxhibens genera 
piantarum GO addenda priortbus characteribus (pp. 25.), cut accedit 

* The following is « fist of Ae Krenl editions of tbe Genera Plvnimvm duiin^ 
liirtms't' lifetime, vix. 
, ^^ 3- PP* ^^7. Lugd. Bat. I74S. 8vo, coTTCCted; with tbe Freocb names. 

3. pp. 413, tabb. m. f . Paris. 1743. 8vo. 

4. Hal* 1747. BVQ. 

i. GmBBA PfcARTAKDir, fiMt ttmos 79 aiiett»it genenhus spartim editis Ip- 
ofktata na ti e n i a turwuk Cb. Cu. Stnimpff, pp. 441. tab, en. 1. Halv 
TTM. ffro. , 
GT enlarged by tbe urtboTj pp. 500. Holm. 1754. 8to. 
i. perfected by tbe anllMr, pp. 580. ibid. 17M. 8n>. 
I bavcneves ie«a the edition maAed as the 4tb, nor can I find any accQont of it 
«scept that which is given in lianms'a own list^ and which is extracted above. Dr. 
ttattuiey mentions » ATicsna cAtivB of 1767 i this also is unknown to me. It was 
most probably a piracy. 

1 2 Methodus 

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Methodus Sexualis, sisfens genera plantariim secundum maret 
Kt feminas in classes et ordines redactas (pp. 23.) at Leyden, id 
octavo. These sixty new genera were all taken into the next 
edition of the foregoing book. The Methodus Sexualis exhibits a 
brief view of the sexual system, so far as respects the classes and 
orders, the foundation of which will be explained wlien we come 
to analyze the Systema Natures. 

It has been thought by some that the first idea of the sexual 
method was received from the writings of Jungius, first, 
professor at Helmstadt, and afterwards rector of the gym' 
nasium at Hamburg, where he died in l657- These writings* 
contain an uncommon display of original observations on the 
subject of plants, and prove Jungius to have been a most accurate 
observer of nature. He has not only discriminated, with pe- 
culiar nicety, the structure and several parts of plants, but has 
also, with equal judgment, shown the impropriety of many of 
the old generical and specifical distinctions, and given rules for 
forming them anew which have been of the greatest service to his 
successors in the science. But Jungius did not exhibit any plan, 
by which it appears that he laid the basis either of the sexual or 
any other system ; nor had Linnaeus borrowed any ideas what- 
ever from that author, for it appears that he had not an oppo^ 
tunity of perusing his works until many years aftei-wards'|-. ■ With 

* Tliey were compiled by Dr. Albrecht, of Cobourg, under ihe till* of " Joachihi 
JuNOii Luhecetms, ^c. opuscala botanico-p^sk^y 6x reeensione et dUlinclione Martini 
Fagelii M. D. ^c. et Jok. Fagetn, aim eorwi^em ajotetalumUnSi 9c. (Coburgi 1747^ 
4to, pp. 1 78.) 'The volume contains — 1. Isagoge Phytoscopka. s. DepUKlis Doxosco- 
p'ta pkyska mlnores. 

t This is proved by the fbllowng passage in. a. ktler of Linnteuo to Dr. iSideke, of 
Hamburg, dated Dec. 20, 1774. m». " Tridtatm est <jUq accept a te missum rgrissiinum 
dojivm, D^xoscopiam Jungii, quam antea nunguam ohtlnui, pro quo lilro gratis qwu 
unquam potero rcddo maximas. Auctor, ut video, fiat vir sua tempore et ialioriosissimia 
et aciitissimus." (See Sloever's Collection of Letters> p. 113,) ■ , 




more justice, perhaps, has Linnaeus been supposed to hanre been 
anticipated in some of the principles of his system by John 
Henry Burckhard, whose letter to- Leibnitz was republished by 
Heister*, of Helmstadt, in 1750, solely with a view to dispute 
Lionaeus's claims to originality ; but the attempt cannot be 
considered as successful, by those who examine Burckhard'a 
observations attentively; and even if the 6rst idea of a system 
founded uniformly on the sexes of plants could be fairly ascribed 
to that writer, the first execntwn of it must universally be allowed 
to belong to our illustrious Swede. 

In the same year with the Corollartum Generum, Linnteus pub- 
lished a small piece entitled Viridarium Clifportianum, in 
quo exhibenhtr plant i£ omnes quas vivas aluit Hortus Hartecampenm 
Mtinis 1735, 1736, 1737, indicate nomimbus ex Horto CUffortiana 
depromtis (Amst. 1737- 8vo, pp. 104.) This little work is now- 
become extremely scarce. 

In the same year appeared the result- of the Lapland ex- 
pedition, as far at least as relates to the plants of that country. 
This volume includes the vegetable productions of a tract of 
country not less than 100 Swedish (equal to more than 600 
English) miles in length, and 50 in breadth, under the title of 
Flora Lapponica, exhibens plantas per Lapponiam crescenteSf 

* Heigter (who was a sort of Raytst) took every opporlunity of starting objectionir 
t&thfi'^ystem of-Linnceas, ami the acadeuiicsl dnsertatiens of his pupils were made 
vehicles of them, i The- book alVudcd to in the teil is entitled^ " BpaKfla ad Ubtstrem 
tt excellentmitmim virum D. Godofredum GuiUetmitm i>ttet/«tun, pobfkiilorem con- 
summatisnmum, ijua ekttractenm pitmtarum naturakm nee a redieiim nee oi alns ptan- 
tarumpartibtts minus essentialilmi plurihus discrimmandi capitilvs contlihUii petiposte os- 
fendit, simul(}ue m comparatiohvm plarttaiitm qtiom paries tantm genitakt suppeditaiit 
paucis mquirit Jo. Hknr. BuncKHARb, M.D. Otm Law. Heklert pntfatume- (Helm^ 
■tadt 17^0. 4to.) The original letter is of the date of 1703. 


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Hcundwn aiftUma sexuah, ctdlectas in itinere impenm Sodetati^ 
regia Uttereria et scientiarum Suecia, an. 1732, institulo, uddith 
xynonymis et locis netaliims omnium, descriptionibm et ^figuris rarp' 
orwn, viribm medicatis et aconomicis plurimarutn." (Amst. 173T* 
8.V0. pp. 372. tabb. 12.) This work is much more than a bar^ 
enumeration of synonj-ms, and the great object of it (as we ara 
informed in the Diary) was to show what vegetaWea endure the 
hardest ctimate in the world. The preface contains an accouQl 
of the authoi's journey, and his acknowledgments to the mei^ 
bers of a literary society*, by whose munificence this work waa 
adorned with plates, on whicli are engraved 58 of the more rare 
(chiefly alpine) plants. Among other Prolegomena^ a geogra^; 
phical and natural description of the country is given, and the 
difference between the Alps and the Desert distinctly mailed, 
concluding with some observations on alpine plants in general., 
The work is interspersed with many very curious remarks relating 
to the inhabitants, tl^ir. simplicity of life and manners, their 
diseases, the animals of the coimtry, the medical and oeconomi- 
cal uses of many of the plants, descriptions at large of such aa 
-were nut well described before, and critical observations, ia a 
botanical way, upon others. To instance briefly a few cmljr (^ 
our author's observations, — 

No. 16. The dropsy very frequent in East Bothnia^ owing to 
the intemperate use of spirits. 

No. SS. The down of the Cotton-grass (Eru^onua ptjg^a- 
chim} nsed for bedding among tiie poor, instead of feathem. 

■ * Thts locict; (of idiicb Bunnutn was %^manber} mel a( Anutetdaia, tai taok a 
partknhf iotccc^ Ja the miMkrtioM «{ lioamuij wtie.bwl frc^iMotiy bMoawilw 
in it. 

No. 62. 

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rioRA lAppoNieA. 6s 

No. 62. Astonishing growth of the Great Plantain (Ftantago 
major). The spikes 4 or 5 feet high. la other situations, the 
irfaole plant not 1 inch. 

-. No. 80. The wretched inhabitants sometimes obliged to make 
bread of the roots of the Marsh Trefoil {Menyanthes trifoliata.) 
The scurvy unknown in Lapland, although vegetable productions 
have scarcely apy share in the diet of its inhabitants, which 
is almost wholly the recent flesh of the rein-deer : a fact which 
Sir John Fringle, among others, has made good use of in 
his discourse " On the means of preserving the health of 

No. 101. Symptoms of a most excruciating species of colic, 
common among the natives of the Lapland woods, who employ 
for the cure of it the root of Angelica. This disease is called in 
Lapland Vlkm or Hotme, and approaches very nearly to the 
CoHca spasmodica of Scheuchzer*. 

No. 103. The deleterious effects- of the Water Hemlock 
{Cicuta virosa) largely discussed. 

No. 136. The pernicious effects of the Lancashire Asphodel 
(Anthericum ossifragum) on sheep. 

No. 143, 144, 145. Various uses of the black and red WbcH^ 
tleberries, and Cranberries -f-. 

No. l60. Various oeconomical uses of the Marsh Cistus 
(Andromeda poIj/foUa.) 

No. SOO. Observations on the gout — whether owing to the use 

* It U the Colutt Lappanieaf of Sauvaget. {NattL a. p. 109.) 
' t Tbe fimit of the diSereiU tpecici oC jterimns «v wd to b« tttf gfSKnlljr eaten 
in Laplaod, both uw and mixed with vanond koKb of iooi. thoM writers who im- 
pute the origiA of tcarvy to a deficiency of accaeeot diet wooN pcriM^ thu account 
fot the eiemptioD of the Laplanders from tttia diaaaie. • • 


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of spiiituoUs and fermented liquors. Reflections on the health 
and vigour of the Laplanders*. 

No. 311. The Yarrow {Achillea MiUefoHum) used sometimes 
in Dalarne instead of hops, and said to render the drink very 

No. 328. Singular oeconomical uses of the Sedges, or Caric€s 
aniougst the Laphinders, 

No. 341,. 342. Uses of the Birch-tree (Betula alba), and 
dioarf Birch (fi. nana) beyond. almost all others. Moxa of iXit 
Laplanders . prepared from a p^rt of this tree ; their universal 
remedy in painful diseases. 

> ' * These observatioiu and reflections are too - interesting and important not to descire 
being extracted entire, even if they were not expressed in a uiaoncr so lively and . 

" Solent opadenti plurtmi, cum lacca htjm orhoris (Sorbus auciiparJa) ruhescere 
incipiunt, tlirenos canere,futUTafata et adpriiplnquantes podagr^e paroxt/smos praviden- 
tes. Lappa autem lalem vtorbitm in mundo nosttv existere we per ^omnium audwit, sed 
agilis et tevis omni anni tempore vivit. An. podagra a solo vtni poiu P sic suadent na- 
tiones podagrictB quiB pro potu qaotidiano utuntur vino. Sicrustid nostri podagra hand 
infestantur, qtd nuaquam vinum, sed cerevisiam suam haurmnt ; sic Lappones; sic 
divites noslri podagricif qui polu vini utuntur. Ex usu sptritut jTumenii et simiUum 
nunquam oriri podagram docent el Lappones et rustici mmnulli septentrionoles, qui scepius 
nimiam ejus copiam ingerunt, inscii dolonun podagricortmu NuSam vidimus geniem 
Jaciliui incedeTitevi ipsa Leppottica, incedunl enim X^ppones sine calcaneis attificialihus, 
utentes tantum saleis tenuissimis simplicibus, e petlitius confectis, nee constringunl ulUhi 
arlus corrigiis Jiiulis, cingulisve,' accedil qaod^ nunquam salsa vet vegetabilia edaat, & 
pedibui incedanl conniventilius, ductu natura, qvi mos in Lapponia obtinef. Non sine 
admiratione cottsideravi Lappones duos comites meos in itinere ad Finmarkiam^ quorum 
alter viiB dux, alter inlerpres meus erat. Hi enim siiperatis jllpilnis, dunt ega juvenis 
Jere viribus exkauslus, exanimii instar lasszts in extremis jacui populisque locisqiie, illi 
senes amlo tanquam pueri ludenles atrrentesqite de we incommodis nihil senttehant, Qixt 
uterqve mea supellectite satis ottuttua esset. Vidi ipse senes plus quam septuagenarios 
taiuffi coUo suo, puerorum instar, imposiiisse, et quidem sine utla motestia, O sanctA 


No. 345. 

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No. 345. The leaves of Bur-reed (Sparganium natam) pre- 
ferred by homed cattle and horses to other plants of that kind* 
Observations on the immense number of wat^-fowl, and wadersi 
in Lapland, and op their migration. 

No. 3^3. Uses of the Golden Maidoi-hair {Polytrichmm 
commune) and 

(No. 415) of the Bog-moss {Spltagnum palustre) among the 
Lapland women ; to which are annexed some curious observa- 
tions relating to the menstrual evacuations of the sex in those 
northern regions. 

No. 437< Observations on the rein-deer, and their food, Lichen 

No. 445. On the Lichen hlandicus. 

No. 517. A very interesting account of the mischief oc- 
casioned to cat^ in Lapland by different Hies, a subject to 
which the author was led by having occasion to remark on the 
nourishment afforded to those insects by some of the Agartci. 
He dwells particularly on the habits of Oestrus Tarandi, and the 
torment it occasions to the rein-deer ; but he has treated of this 
subject also in other parts of his writings, as will be noticed in 
the proper places. 

In this work, our author has first exemplified (what he ever 
afterwards laboured to bring to the greatest perfection) the specific 
characters of plants, not taken, as had been customary with 
former authors, from the colour of the flower, relative size of 
the plant, smell, taste, place of growth,, time of flowering, 
name of the discoverer, virtues, uses, or duration (none of which 
are sufliciently permanent), but from those invariable and essen- 
tial parts, which fully and clearly mark every species under tlm 
same genus, and in the compass of a very few ^vords convey such 
an idea of the plant intended, as will more effectually distinguish 
¥ it 

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it than al! the verbose descriptions of foregoing authors. Lin- 
naeus has taken incredible pains with this part of his system-, 
wliich is certainlj as difficult as any that leads to the perfection 
of the science, since it depends upon a nice inspection of every 
species belonging to each genus, and of every actual variety 
belonging to each species. 

The number of species described in this work is 537» inclusive 
of Lithophyla ; but in a second edition (published by Dr. James 
Kdward Smith*) they have been increased to 59^. Upwards of 
100 discovered by Linnaeus on this journey, were not known to 
be natives of the Swedish dominions before, and some of these 
were nondescripts. 

As Linnteus entertained a high opinion of our English pro- 
fessor, Dillenius, having said of him, " Nullus est in Anglia qui 
genera curat vel intelligit praterquam DUlenius''-^', he there- 
fore dedicated to him his next publication, the " Critica Bo- 
tanic a, in qua nomina plantar um generica, specijicai etvariantia 
examini suhjiciunturt sehctiora confirmantur^ indigna reficiunlur, 
simtdque docirina circa denominattonem plmitarum traditur." (Lugd. 
Bat. 1737. 8vo, pp. 37OJ.) His motives to pen this work are ex- 
plained in a letter to Haller§, in which he says " Videntur miki 

* London 1792. 8vd, pp. 390. tabb. 18. Tlie origind plates hadlbeen purchased 
by Messrs White, bookEellers, in Fleet-street ; and Dr. Smith, bein^in possession of 
Linnxus's library and manuscripts, was enabled to insert many notes which be had 
found in the autlior's own hand-writing. The specific names from the Species Plan- 
larum, and many new synonyms are also added. It is somewhat remarkable that the 
meaning of the asterisks, annexed to some of the specific characters in the original 
edition, has not yet been ascertained. 

t See Stoever's CoUectio Episi. p. 9. (ad Hallerum.) 

t This work is edited in Gilibert'S Fund. Bot. (Tvm. 3.) 

$ See the collection quoted above^ p. 14. 


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boteaiicine tctigissedoctrinam nominiimf adeoque adkuc nonincepisse 
tractate istam botonices partem. Si colligas omnia 7toini7ta generica 
a Toiimeforiiano tempore in kunc diem tturtafa, mille plura erunty 
licet insensibile introducta : qua causa itntovatioim nominumf Certe 
nullam aliam, concipio qttam qiiod leges, secundum quas confici debeant 
et defeJidi, data non sittt. 0?nnia nomina specifica falsa esse, 
certo certius est ; alia certe videbit scrior atas. . Si specifica mutari 
debent, cur non et hoc tempore simul generica falsa?- Authoritatibus 
ab antiquis receptis nunquam subscribent futiiri in libera republtca 
hotaniciy cum retineamus nomina sesquipcdalia Monolasiocalleno- 
monophyllorum, Hypophyllocarpotlendoruni, et cur barbara, 
cur caudata, cur hybrida ?" He comments upon the 7th, 8th^ 
9th, and 10th parts of the Fundamenta from Aphorism, 210 to 
335, and amply explains all his reasons for the alterations of 
names which he had made. There were many botanists, at that 
time, who saw the justness of his remarks*, but thjerc were 
others who could never reconcile themselves to the changes, and 
in this number was even the celebrated Haller-j-. The latter, 
however (there can be no doubt), was not a little biassed in his 


• Ludwig says,' when 9t>eaking of this work, ** rigorortis qntdem sed sepplssime ftUx 
lotanicoTum censor est." 

• t " Nova nomina, imprimis gmenm, mihi Hon p!acent ," saj-s the Baron, iji giving 
his opinion of Linnasus, in a krter to Dillcntus. — ^Therc are other parts of this letter, 
too inlerestiiig not to dGser\'c insertion here : viz. 

" De LiniuBO, DUleni opl'ime, judicium tuumperiti vhi est. Facile adgnosco speci- 
enim notitia deslilui qnc€ svfficiat exptmgendis tot vcris speciehiis-~~adgnosco prcecipiti 
seepe uttjuiicio — ckaracleres tadiosas, repelitiones habere vcras notas distirctionis ple~ 
ntrnqjie nan ihdicare, ut v. g. in S'Uiqaosis nesciasfere unde repeias discrimina. Nova 
nomina, imprimis getierUm, miki non ptacent, cum nihil videtur mail accidcre posse ah 
aliquo oidesj idque magis etiam characttristiatm esse qiiam eruditi viri rutmen, sui satis 
stepe obscunim." 

K 9 On 

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OS iiohtus cLirFORTiAwrs, 

juclgmcnt by a jealousy which is too frequently most alive in 
luiuds of the greatest attaionicuts, and which in this instanc? 
seems to have been kindled by some strictures of Linneeus on 
a few of Hallcr's genera*. 

Linnaeus printed at the end of the volume abore mentioned 
" Discurstis de introducenda in scholas et gymnasia htstoria iiatu- 
raits leciione" (pp. 24.), written by Dr. Browallius, who after- 
wards defended very ably tlie system of Linnaius against Professor 
Sicgesbcck cf Petersburg. 

In 1737 was likewise published the most splendid of all our 
author's writings, the Hortus Cufportianus, plantas ex~ 
hibens qiias in hortis tarn rivis quam siccis Ilartecampi in Hollandla 
coluit Vir. Nob. et Gen. Gcorgius Clifford J. U. D. redactis varieta* 
tibus ad species, speciebm ad genera, generibus ad classes, adjecfis locit 

On the other hand he observes, 

*• yerum cur multa in ejvs gratiam fecerim atttpe aqvns. Latoravit eerie mvlhiim 
^ acerbos iulit labores, meretur adeo elognaa et ventatTi. Deinde omnes widique fert 
Itlanici leges ejus accepervnt, Royenius, Gronortua, Gecncrus, Mochringius, ipii pen* 
Pariaini : «t barliamm et amantm hominem/ere vocent qui reatset vti novo lumine," 
(Gotting», T.Octob. !744.) 

This letter still exists among the Dillmian reliqrats in the botanic Hbrary at Oxford. 
The editor was permitted to makf use of it and other MSS. by tbe kindae«s of Dr. 
WilKams, the present Professor of Botany in that university. 

* The reader who is desirous of examining the precise grotuuls and merits of t^ 
susur/derstending that took place between the two greatest botanists of the age, may ' 
consult Stoever's collection of letters, which has been so often quoted in this work, 
tnd which is pre&ced by many interesting remarks relative to LAmueus's literary ad- 
lersaries. It is but justice to our author, however, to quote in this place a passage in 
ooe of his letters to Haller, which strongly showB how highly he thought of the latler> 
nad bow distaat from hiS' mind was the intention of oSending him. " SongiURMS 
Mftim movit tua efnstola, in gua putas me ex skudia irnmica nmie centra te scri^t^ 
Testor vmmfotentem Devm me nullum loltjfluum majori iapreiio kamrt et amore kdure 
tpum te. SentUu ita^ nondente twUe." (Lugd. Bat. Jin. 3. 1 788. p. S8.) 



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pJanfarum nafalibtiSt differentiisque tpecierum." (Amst. 1737. foUo> 
pp. 501.* tabb. 36.) As this book was printed at the expense 
of Mr. Clifford, it was ornamented with an elegant frontispiece, 
and with some of the finest engravings of plants that are extant, 
the drawings for which were made with all possible accuracy by 
Ehrct. By the munificence of Mr. Clifford, many of the 
celebrated botanists were presented with a copy. The plants 
are arranged, as in all our author's succeeding works, in the 
sexual method ; the varieties are reduced to their several species ; 
the native places of the plants are particularly noticed ; many 
new genera, and species under former g«tera, are introduced, 
with descriptions at large ; curious observations are interspersed 
through the whole ; and what must have been more especially 
acceptable to those who began to adopt our author's system, the 
specific characters, which the vast number of plants included in 
this work necessarily led to, were further exemplified. Add to 
this, that, from the copious number of synonyms, it is almost a 
Pinar of every plant therein mentioned; on which account, as 
well as others, the work will still retain its value, though super- 
seded iff a great degree by the Species Plantarum. To the curious 
and critical botanist it is no small satisfaction now, to see in this 
volume, compared with later works, the progress of Linnseus's 
own knowledge, manifested by the removes and alterations which 
better information had enabled him to make. — In the dedica- 
tion, our author enumerates the most considerable botanic 

* It ought to be remarked that the pages are not 501 in number, though the last . 
page seems to indicate lbi» ; pages 331 and 301 immediately succeed each other, owing, 
probably, to the work having been printed by two di0erent booksdiers, for the sake of 
expedition, aad tbdr not baving been able to calculate how many pages it would db* 
cupy. Tbfifbnnof itiii v/otk originali)/ Intended, appears, to have been the quarto^ 
there being 3 sheets of U> of tbat aisej tmong the papers poweased by Dr. Smith. 


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gardens that had hitherto been cultivated ; he gives a list 
of the Chffbrtian library ; and annexes two tables, with ex- 
planations of all the varieties of leaves, according to his 'new 
method of defining them. This addition was very necessary, 
as the number of plants synonymed in the volume amounts to 
nearly 2,500 ; of these more than 10(X) were contained in the 
Hortus siccus*, and it should be noted also that the genera of 
Isis, JSpongia, Lithoxylum, Sertularia, Miilepora, MadreporOy 
Tubipora, and Cellipora (belonging to the Lithophyta) are com- 
prehended in the enumeration. We conclude with Gesner's 
opinion of this work, in a letter to Haller ; " Opus sane egregium 
ft acerrimi judicii, nee minoris eruditionis, quo difficulter botanictis 
carebit. Mih'i perplacet ab eo in nominibiis specierum notas earum 
essentialcs exkiberi, quod ante vix quisquam botanicus recte prastitit." 
The last book, of his own, which Linnieus published, during 
his stay in Holland, wastheCtASSEs Plaktaeum, seu St/stemata 
vlantarum omnia a fructificatione desumta^ quorum l6 universalia, et 
13 partialia^ compendioseproposita secundum dasseS) ordines, et nomina 

• The ClifTortun Hortus siccus is now in the possession of Sir Joseph Banks. — 
Gaubius, o£ Leyden, having purchased it at the time of Mr. Clifford's bankruptcy, it 
came, after that professor's death, into tlie hands of his son-in-law, at the sale of 
whose effects it was bought by Sir Joseph for somewhat less than twenty-five pounds. 
It is in excellent preservation, and contains Linoxua's synonyms annexed to many of 
the specimens in his own hand-writing ; the names of his genera also were written by 
himself on the backs of the envelopes, and through the greater part of the first tliree 
classes appear his numerals referring to the Hortus Cliffvrtianus. By some accident 
or other, most of the plants described in the Appendix were lost, or had fallen into 
other liands prior to the arrival of the herbarium in England ; hence it is now very de- 
fective as an exemplification of that part of the work^ but very few other specimens are 
wanting, and the original arrangement is ret^ned. Several of those which had been 
presented to Mr. CliffordbyourcountrymanMiller,are illustrated bydescriptionswhich 
the latter wrote himself, and there are the synonyms also of other distinguished 
botanists who were in -correspondence with that «Binent patron. 

3 " generica. 

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■ founded on the fruit ; 


genericoj cum clave ci^usvis methodi et synonymis genericis. (Lugd. 
Hat. 1738. 8vo, pp. 656.) This work is a very large illustration 
of the second part of the Fundamenfa Botanica, from aphorism 
53 to 78, and contains a compendious and useful view of all the 
systems of botany, or methods of classing plants, both general 
and partial, irom Ceesalpinus in 1583 (who is considered as the 
inventor) to Linnaeus himself in 1735. To the generic name in 
every system he has added that by which it stands in his own ; 
which is a great advantage in the use of this book. The general 
systems which are displayed in the work are those of 







Rivinus l * 

, P" . V on the number of petals in the flower ; 
liUdwig I 

Knaut J 

Toumefort "t xr /• ^ ^l 

_, , I on the figure of the same ; 

Pontedera J 

Magnol 1 

and > on the cnp of the flower. 


After these follow Linnaeus's sexual system and his fragments 
of the natural method. 'Lastly, we are presented with the par- 
tial systems (as they may be called) of 

_, " , \ entitled MethodusCompositorum; 

Pontedera J 


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■^'^^^ \ earned Methodus Umbellaf arum ; 
Morison J 

Bay 1 

Schcuchzer . Methodus Graminum ; 

Micheli I 

hlStfJE.VS J 

DiUenius \ Methodus Muscorum et Fungorum ; 

Micheli J 

LiNNJEus Methodus FiUcum. 

A very large index, referring to every genus in each system, con- 
cludes the volume. 

This work was republished at Halle, in 1747 ; and a new edition, 
exhibiting the systems of authors subsequent to linnaeus (as those 
of Adanson, Crantz, De Jussieu, and others), would foe accept- 
able, even now, to the philosophical botanist. The only treatise 
that supplies in any degree the want of such a view, is one pub- 
lished in our own country by Milne*, who, howeve^s wrote at a 
period too distant from the present to comprehend all- the modem 
methods of classification, some of which, as they havfc attempted 
a natural armngement with more success than those knewn to 
Linnaeus, hai'c high claims to attention. Linneeus's own endea- 
voui^s to perfect a natural method were carried on fpr many years 
with great diligence and ardor, but lie seems t<o have despaired of 
guch a method being ever brought to perfection -l*. He went no 

• Institutes (f Botavy. Part 2. (London 1J7S. 4to.) 

t " Dhi et ego (aays he) circa melkodum naturalem inveniendam lalorav'i, bene mvlta 
qua adderem ohtiniii, perficere non potid, continuatunu damvixero; interim qtOB turn 
proponam; qui paiicas qjue restant beoe absolvU piantas amiuhia erit magmts jipoUo.** 
Class. Plant, p. 484. 


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furthCT than to form 65 orders, together compreheading about 
800 genera, which, with the canonesy or institutes, occupy 30- 
pages of the work above particularized, and are called Frag- 
menta methodi naturalis. In his lectures, however, he continued 
to add very considerably to this part of his labours ; and as 
much as could be collected from them was afterwards published 
by Dr. Giseke, of Hamburg, under the title o( Caeoh Linnjei, 
M. D. &c. Praiectiones in ordineanaturaks plantarum i propria et 
Ja. Chr. Fabricii, Frqf. Kilon. MSio. {Hamb. 1792- 8vo. pp. 662. 
cum tabb. aen. 8.) Here we find 58 orders, which are for the 
first time named, and illustrated by a curious geneahgico-geo- 
graphical map of vegetable affinities. 

The key to a complete natural method (Lianaeus observes in his 
Diary) it is not more easy to discover perhaps than the quadra-. 
ture of the circle ; yet very considerable advances towards it 
have certainly been made by later botanists. 

Just before his illness, Linneeus edited the ichthyological works 
of his friend and fellow student Artedi, under the title of Petri 
Artedi, iSuect Medici, Icuthyolocia; tive Opera omuta de 
Piscitais, tcilicet BibliothecaiiAthyologica: FkilosopJiiaichtkyologica; 
Genera piacium ; Synonyma specierum; Desctiptionea specierum. 
Omnia in hoc genere perfediora guam antea ulla. Postkuma vindica- 
tit, recognavit, cooptavii^tt edidit Carolus Linna:us. (Lugd. fiat. 
1738. 8vo.) The circumstances that occasioned our author's uu- 
dertakini; <\)ii melancholy duty were the following : Artedi, on his 
return from England (whither he had taken a voyage in order to 
perfect his knowledge of fishes) having met Linnaeus at Leyden, 
complained to him of the indigence to which he was reduced by 
the prosecution of his favourite studies, and requested the latter to 
put hhn in the way of obtaining a little money, towards paying hi« 
fxpenses and enabling him lo return tp Sweden. Idnnaeus. readily 
l> promised 

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pmmised him ercry assistance, and shortly afterwards had an op- 
portunity of lecoramendinghimto the patronage of Seba(an apo- 
thecary at Amsterdam), who was then preparing for the press the 
third volume of his Thesaurus. Seba had just before requested 
Linnaeus to assist him in this undertaking : but the latter liad 
declined it, in consequence of being engaged at Mr. Clifford's; 
and he ivas, besides, not very partial to the branch of natural 
history wliich was to form the main subject of the volume, viz. 
fishes; a subject, however, with which no one could bemwe de-. 
lighted or more couversant tlian Artcdi. The services of this 
young ichthyologist were therefore eagerly accepted by Sefoa, 
who treated him very handsomdy ; and the task was so near being 
comji^eted that only 6 6&hes remained to be described, when 
Artedi, leaving Seba's house very late at night, unfortunately 
fell into one of the canals of the city, and was drowoed. Lin- 
ni£us no sooner heard of this untunely loss, than he repaired to 
Amsterdam in order to secure fais friend's muiuscripts. Artedi's 
landlord, however, refused to part with them unless he was paid 
200 guilders, the amount of his demands on the deceased. Seba 
was applied to, but would advance only 50 guilders, wliich wera 
to defray the expense of Artedi's AineiaJ. Linnaeus then used his 
interest with Mr, Clifford, who paid Ae requisite sum, and the 
publication of the manuscripts was consigned to tive hands to 
which they had been bequeathed by the ivriter. 

In this work, Artedi has exhibited an instance of genius, me- 
thod, and application, that cannot fail to excite the greatest re- 
gret at his early death. He gave to Ichthyology that degree of 
perfection, which his iriend afterwards extended to the whole 
animal kingdom, and which must remeun a lasting monument of 
his abilities. His descriptions of the indigenous hshes of Sweden, 
itt particular^ axe more scientific than any that liad hitherto been 

seen ; 

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seen ; and we cannot sufficiently admire the pains that must have 
been taken to extricate the synonyms from every author on the 
subject. With respect to the arrangement itself, we shall have 
occasion to notice it particularly in a subsequent part of these 

The intensity of Linnseus's application to his favourite pur- 
suits, whilst he was in Hoilartd, forms too striking a part of his 
literary history to be passed over without remark. In the short 
space of two years ; amidst the occupations imposed by his en- 
gagement with Mr. Clifford (which engagement the Hortus Cltf- 
fortiamts amply testifies to have been punctually fulfilled) ; and 
under the disadvantage of incessant interruptions from visitors, 
it is scarcely to be conceived how this great man found time to 
finish so many works, any one of which would have been 
sufficient for establishing his character as a botanist, and which, 
collectively taken, tended to give a new face to science in general. 
Some m^£!nals, indeed, had been prepared phor to the author's 
anival in Holland ; but the Hortut CUffortiamt&, a work which 
required full as much industry and knowledge as any of the 
others, must have been composed wholly in that country ; and 
this, with ■ the Critica Botanica^ and Flora Lappoaicat was pre- 
pared for the press within the short space of only nine montlis* ! 

We must now accompany our author into Sweden, whither he 
returned rather precipitately, having been induced by various 

• * Of this fact we are iuformed by L'mnxus himself, in tlie following passage of a 
leUcr addresBcd to Haller, which also conUin* an apology for the style and language 
employed in his publications. " Tu cures moda conleTttOf (says he, alluding to (he 
performancce specified above) nee i/arlariem lingtue; convcrsaiio enim cum Lapponi- 
luSf Finnts, Norvegis per aliquot amios me Michelh magis larbarum retldidtti delui 
dein CriUcamJurtim componere el ojtinia quam citissime, qvi et hanc, et Floram Lappo- 
nicam et Hortum Cliff'ortiajium per Am Ucs auai quadrantcs omnia cortsfr^i." 
(Stoever— Co/^riiD Epist. p. IS.) 

L 2 circumstances 

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circumstances connected witli his scientific pursuits, to exceed 
the time he had at first allotted to himself for staying in France. 
It was originally his intention to have visited Haller, at Got- 
tingen, for the purpose of viewing his herbarium, and to have 
also inspected some of the CJcrnian mines, Frtsch'a collection 
of insects, and Ilebonstreit's shells ; but finding it necessary to 
return from Trance by sea, he of course could not accomplish 
this plan, which, however, he resolved to consider as postponed 
rather than as wholly relinquished*. 

Linnaeus embarked at Rouen, and arrived at Helstnborg ia 
July, 1738. He no sooner landed at this last-mentioned place 
than he set out for Stenbrohult, in order to visit his aged father, 
with whom he passed a few days, and then proceeded to Fahlua. 
He vas soon afterwards fonnally betrothed to the lady who had 
been the constant object of his affections, Sarah Elizabeth, 
daughter of Dr. Morseus. 

In the month erf September, in this year, Linneeus settled as 
a physician at Stockholm, where he seems to have met with con- 
siderable opposition, and to have laboured under great disad' 
vantages. *' Irrism ah omnibus ob meant Botanicen, (says he) 
quoi htsomnes nodes et laboriosas horas iransegerimy nullus dixit ; 
quam vero a Siegesbeckto-f eram annihilatus, omnes uno ore acclama- 
bant ; non erat qui vel servum mihi eurandvm obtuHt" At length, 
however, his merits triumphed over all difficulties, smd he at- 

* " Qua miki diu promiaerarU/ata in Belgio, abiturus non obtitmi omnia; debut itaque 
privari ah exoplata diu veslra pairia ; del/tii per mare, viam brevissimam, re^re inpa- 
Iriam meam ; sed quamprimum ibi mifaviet aliquot pecumas comparaoerim, ilervm abiba; 
Jlagro enim videre fodinas vestras, Frisehii insecla, Hebenslreitii conchas, et te et taas 
ptanlas." (Stoever— OW. Eptsl. p. 38.) 

t The nature of tht attack made upon Limneus by Siegesbcck will be explained 


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tained extensive practice, as appears from the following passage, 
in one of his letters to his friend Mennander, viz. '* I am unde- 
servedly (says he) got into so much practice, that from seven 
o'clock in the morning until eight in the evening, I have not 
even time to take a short dinner. Tliis, it is true, brings me 
some money, but it also takes up so much" of my time, that 
scarcely an hour remains either for myself or my most intimate 

Soon after his arrival at Stockholm, our author became ac- 
quainted with Captain Tri&wald, a gentleman well known at 
.that period in Sweden, as a zealous promoter of experimental 
philosophy, and who was endeavouring to establish in the capi*- 
tal an- Academy of Sciences. In this project Baron Hopken^ 
a young man named Ahlstrom, and Linnaeus, were chiefly con- 
sulted ; and a body of regulations being at length formed, the 
constituent members drew lots for the offices; when that of Pre- 
sident devolved to Linneeus. This was the origin of the present 
Academy of Stockholm, which rapidly increased in numbers and 
reputation, and received particular encouragement from the 
Marshal of the Diet, Count Carl Gustaf Tessin. By the interest 
of this nobleman, who became his great patron, and even caused 
medals to be struck in honour of him, Linnajus obtained the 
appointment of Physician to the Navy, and also a stipend to 
give public lectures on botany and mineralogy. Not satisfied 
with conferring these lucrative honours on his countryman, the 
Count condescended to offer him an apartment in his own 
house, and a constant seat at his table, where, during the as- 
sembly of the States, Linmeus frequently met some of the first 
men of the kingdom. His situation being now in all respects 
prosperous, Linneeus was enabled to marry the lady before spoken 
of (Sarah Elizabeth Moraea) on the 26th of June, 1739- 

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By the rules of the Stockholm Academy, the President held 
his place but three months, at the expiration of which period 
Linnieus made an oration on the aonders of insects*^ endeavour- 
ing to excite an attention to the knowledge of that order of 
animals, by displaying the many singular phenomena that occur 
in contemplating their naturcj and by painting out their useful- 
ness in a variety of instances, to mankind in particular, and to 
the (Economy of tlie world in general. This oration was pubr 
lished (by order of the Academy) in the Swedish language, but 
lias since been translated into the Dutch, Latin -f-, and English:]:, 

Our illustrious naturalist, however, was not destined to ad- 
vance in the career of reputation and prosperity without exciting 
envy, jealousy, and opposition in various quarters. The attacks 
uf his adversaries did not fail to wound his ambition, — an am- 
bition, which, useful as it was to mankind, and founded on the 
noblest of all pretensions, did not render him the more indifferent 
to the attempts that were made to injure his philosophical cha- 
racter. Yet, remembering the advice of his venerable friend 
Boerhaave^, and being of too high a cast of mind to entertain 

* " Tal, om MarkwSrdigheter tUi insecteme, MUit for ffellemcaps yicademien uti 
aa^torio illusiri dd Forsta Prestidentski^t qflades. 1 739. D. 3. October." Stockholm 
1739. Svo. 

Ed. 2. Leydwi 1741. ISino. (in Dutch.) 

3. Stockholm 1747- 6vo. 

4. Stockholm IfSi. 6vo. pp. SS. 

+ Amoen. Jced. Vol. i. p. 388. TTiiB translation was made by Linna?iis himself, 
whilst he was at Paris, at the request of Bernard dejussieu. (Grandmaison.) 

X Brand's Select Dissertations o/* Imoubus, p. 309—343. 

§ " Nostrum speculum Boerhaavius (says he in a letter to Haller) nuTujucmi responde- 
bat. Memor sum illias effatt ad me; dixit adme — Nunqaam deles respondere adapolo- 
gias, et hoc mid promiilas ; promisi, et inde mazime project." (Upsal. die 26. Sept. 


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asperity, or indulge in splenetic invectives, he wisely resolved to 
abstain from controversy. A\'e have alluded in other places to 
the hostilities commenced against him by Siegesbeck and Wal- 
lerius : as tliese were carried on at a time peculiarly critical with 
respect to the interests of Linnseus, it was in some measure his 
duty to counteract their influence on the minds of his country- 
men ; he therefore published the various honourable testimonies 
given to bis talents, and the exalted approbation expressed of 
his works by the most eminent men of science then living. 
This performance he entitled Oasis ekuditx Judicium de 
Caroli Liif nsi, M. D. ScriptiSy which is given in distinct ex- 
tracts from the respective authors, without comment, and with- 
out even glancing at his opponents. It is prefaced by some 
short memoranda of his life, and a list of his works. He must 
have recorded with peculiar pride the judgment of a Boek- 
HAAVB, a Sloane, a Dillenius, a Sauvagbs, a Jussieu, 
and a Halleb, each of whom had paid the most unqualified 
compliments to his merits. 

This pamphlet (which is extremely scarce) forms only one sheet, 
in small octavo, without numerical figures or date ; but its proper 
place in a chronological account of our author's works, is suf- 
ficiently pointed out by the list of them which it contains 
terminating with the year 1740. It has been copied by Stoerer, 
at the end of the Opmcula accfunpanyiag his collection of letters, 
and an English translation of it is contained in the edition of 
that author's Life of LinnauSf published by Trapp. 

During all this time, Linnseus appeai-s to have had his eye 
upon the botanic chair at Upsala, then occupied by Rudbeck, 
who was far advanced in life. He was so intent on pursu- 
ing, and perfecting his great designs for the advancement of 
3 natural 

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jiaiural history, that his practice as a physician became irk- 
some, and he wished to dedicate himself exclusively to his fa- ' 
vourite study. Accordingly, on the death of Rudbeck, which 
happened in the year 1740, he offered himself candidate for the 
professorship, but was not eo fortunate as to obtain it, the pre- 
ference being giveii to Rosen, who had certainly great claims 
from having resided much longer in the university. However, 
the year following, Linnaeus attained the object of his wishes ; 
for, being appointed to the medical jchair (which had been va- 
cated by the resignation of Roberg), he and Rosen a^ed to 
divide the duties of the two professorships between them, and 
their arrangement received the approbation of His Majesty. 
Rosen took the superintendence of the hospital, anatomy, phy- 
siology, aetiology, therapeutics, and pharmacy ; Linnaeus the 
superintendence of the botanic garden, materia medical semio- 
logy, diaetetics, and natural history in general. 

A short time before his removal from Stockholm to tJpsala, 
Linnaeus was deputed by the States of the kingdom to travel 
over Oland and Gothland, and also the provinces of West Goth- 
land and Skane (attended by six pupils), for the purpose of 
making such inquiries as might tend to improve agriculture and 
the arts in Sweden ; to which objects the nation had for some 
time paid a particular attention, being awakened, as it were, by 
the effects of the desolating wars of Charles Xllth, to extend 
their commerce, and improve the general resources of tlie king- 
dom. The result of this journey was very successful, and proved 
quite satisfactory to the States ; and it was afterwards communi- 
cated to the public. i 

On his return from the Baltic, in the autumn of 1741, he 

euteoed upon the duties of his professorship, and pronounced 

5 beibre 

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— ■WP BMMW— M^B!— 


before the University a Latin oration on the necessity of travel- 
i'mg in one's onn country. In this oration, which was aftcnvards 
printed *, he forcibly inculcated the usefulness of such excur- 
sions, by pointing out to the students that vast field of ob- 
jects which was held out to their cultivation, whether in geo- 
graphy, physics, or oeconomics, and by showing the benefits 
that must accrue to themselves and their country as rewards of 
their diligence. The animation which runs through the whole 
of this composition, renders it one of the most pleasing and in- 
structive of all our author's productions. That intimate know- 
ledge which he had himself acquired of his own country, by 
his repeated travels, (possessed as he was too of every requisite 
for making useful observations,) enabled him to point out with 
the utmost precision the most proper objects of investigation, in 
every part of nature. His love for his country inspired him with 
a zeal, which showed him on this occasion to great advantage, 
and which acquired probably additional ardour from his suc- 
cess, ia having gained, by his late appointment, the summit of 
his wishes. 

In 1743, at the time of a degree being conferred on Dr. J. 
Westman, Linnoeus delivered his third oration, de tdluris habita- 

* " Oralio qua peregriaat'umum intra patnam asseritur netxssitas, Habita Vpsalueg 
in aaditorh Caroltno nuyori, 1741 Octobr. IJ, qtaaa Meiicince Pnfesiionem regiam et 
ordiaariam susciperet C. L." (Up«al. 1 7*S- 4to. pp. 18.) 

This oration was published also at Leydoi, together with Browallius't Examen 
efiicriseos Siegesleckiattes, and Gana't Dissert, de partium vegetaiUmis et frvcttfica- 
thtiis strvctura, Vc. (17«. 8vo, pp. 88.) 

It ii annexed to the second volume of the Anuenitaies AcademiccB, and con- 
tained among the Selectee ex Ameenitatibtts Academcis disserlationcs (p. S33 — iiO-} 
and the Fundamenta Bolanica edited by GtUbert. (Toml 3. p. 713 — 73S.) 

An EngUsh translation spears among Slillingflftl's Miicellaneous tracts. (Istedit. 
p. i~«o. — Sod edit. p. 1—^5.) 

H bilit 

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8S LmfNX.VB'8 THIRD ouatiov. 

bilis incremento*; an elaborate and ingenious defence of that 
hypothesis, which Sir Isaac Newton and several other philoso- 
phers have espoused, viz. that the proportion of water on the 
globe is constantly decreasing. The visible recession of the 
sea in many parts of the earth seems to have led to this opinion^ 
which, whether we consider it as justly deducible, or not, was 
very likely to be niaintained in a country where the changes of 
level between the land and sea had been incontestably asc^- 
tained. The level of the Baltic has been represented as lower- 
ing at so great a rate as 40 inches in a century. Celsius ob- 
served that several rocks which are now above water, were not 
long ago covered by it, occasioning no small danger to navi- 
gators ; he particularly took notice of one, which in the year 
1680 appeared above the surface of the water, and in 1731 
was 20t Swedish inches below it. From an ioBcription near 
Aspo, in the lake Malaren, (which communicates with the Baltic,) 
engraved, as is supposed, about five centuries ago, the level of 
the sea is stated by Frisi to have sunk in that time no less than 
13 Swedish feet. From these considerations the Professor waa 
led to discuss the 132d section of his Philosophia. " Initio rerum 
ex omni specie viventium unicum sexus par creatum fuiise" which 
position he thought was naturally to be inferred from the hypo- 
thesis before mentioned, and necessarily so from the Mosaic 
history. In solving the difficulties attendant on the latter part 
of the hypothesis, he was led to enter largely into a part of the 
ceconomy of nature that renders his discourse highly interest- 
ing, independently of all conjectures relative to the main argu- 

• TTuB was printed at Lcydcn the year following (8vo. pp. 8*.)- It b also subjoined 
to the second volume of the Anusn. Acad, and included in the Fiadamenta Bolanica, 
edited by Gilibert (Tom. S. p. 671— 711.) It ha« been ttanslated into English by 
Bnod. (See Seket DissertatioaSf p. 71 — 137.) 


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ment. The various modes by which vegetables are disseminated, 
and by which the seeds find their way to every part of the 
globe, are very satisfactorily explained, the structure of those 
seeds being illustrated by tables of genera constructed for 
the purpose*. In tlie introduction to this oration, our au- 
thor turns the attention of his readers to some of the more 
remarkable discoveries that had lately been made in natural 
history and physics : such were those relating to the Polype, 
Itattlesnake, and Senega ; and he mentions a curious fact (com- 
municated to him by Sauvages of Montpellier) respecting the 
Myrtle-leaved Sumach f, the berries of which plant had been 
found to occasion instant epilepsy. 

Linnaeus published his Tour in Oland and Gothland^, at Stock- 
holm, in 1745. His instructions had been to endeavour to find 
some kind of earth proper for making ware in imitation of tie 
porcelain of China ; he was to notice eyery production of nature 
that might supersede the necessity of the importation of any article 
used either in medicine or manufactures; and in short, he was to 
have a regard to every part of natural history. In the execution of 
his plan, however, he went much further than his commission ex- 
tended, having interspersed a number of observations relating to 

* An entire system of botany, founded on the etructnre of the seeds, was after- 
wardf proposed by Dr. Joseph Gtertner (whose son is now preparing to complete what 
that indefatigable author b^an), in two votumea, (4to. 1788 and 1791) " De 
Jractibvs et seminitm plantarum." 

t Coriaria myrlifblia. Spec. Plant. I4fi7. 

X Olandskaoch GoTHLANDSKA RESA,/(Jrrj'Ha(f(iAr 1741. (8vo. pp. 3*4. One 
plate, besides maps.) A Germaa translation of this work was published by Schreber, 
under the title of Reisen dyrch OelatU vnd Gothland, (Halle 1 764. ero. pp. 364. 
Three plates, besides maps) ; but H has not appeared in «n^- other language, iht Swedish 
original excepud. 

M 2 the 

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the antiquities of those islands, the mechanic arts, the manners 
of the people, their fishery, and various other circumstiinccs. 
He was (as might be expected) unsuccessful in the first part of 
his commission, since the two islands are almost entirely com- 
posed of limestone, or coral rocks, which abound, in a remark- 
able degree, in the Baltic. 

As a proof of the little attention that had been paid to na- 
tural history in Sweden, we may observe that our author in this 
journey discovered above a hundred plants, which were not 
before known to be indigenous, and many of which were used 
in medicine and in dying. He pointed out to the natives several 
plants of gi-eat use in rustic oeconomy, and showed them the 
advantages of planting the Sea reed-grass (Arundo arenaria) to 
arrest the sand, and form soil on the shores, to which it is ex- 
tremely well adapted by the length of its roots. In the Gland 
tour, there occurs a curious remark on vegetation, proving 
the annual increase of the wood in an oak-tree, in which were 
perfectly distinguished the hard winters of 1378, 1687, and 1709, 
by the narrowness of the circles in tho^ years, lie describes 
the process for making t^r, as practised by the islanders, and 
intersperses many observations relating to mineralogy, especially 
to iron, with which Sweden abounds. The iron-mountain Ta- 
berg*, the alum-mines of Mockleby, &c. are particularly de- 
scribed. An account of the plants had before been published 
in the Transactions of the Academy of Stockholm {vol. 2. 
p. 179 — 210.) under the title of Samlmg af 100 waxter vpfunde 
pa Gothland, OUxndy och Smaland. 

In 1745, our author published his Flora Sircica, exhibens 

* Ad account of this remarkable mountain may be found in thf Phtlost^hical Trans- 
actUms (vol. 49. p. SO — 34), where it appears as a letter from Dr. Ascauius to Peter 
Cotlinson, translated by Da Costaj and illustrated by a plate. 


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plantas per regnum Siiecia crescentes, systematice cum differentvM 
speclvrum, synonymis autorvm, nominibns incolarum^ sola locoruntt 
wsu pliarmacopceorum, (Holm. 8vo. pp. 392), and again, with 
many additions, in 1755 (pp. 464. tab. 1.). The first edition 
contains 1140 plants. In the second, they arc increased by his 
own and the discovei'ies of his pupils to 1296. No generical 
characters are introduced, but references are made to them as 
they stand in the Genera Plantarum before spoken of. A num- 
ber of select synonyms are added to his own specific name (un- 
der each plant), and not only the Swedish names in general, but 
the provincial ones also, — points highly worthy of imitation in 
works of this kind, and quite necessary in so extensive a king- 
dom. Many of the rare plants are described at large, and to 
others botanical criticisms are subjoined. In the last edition, 
the author has interspersed a great number of curious obser- 
vations relating to the oeconomical and medicinal uses of the 
plants, and particularly noted those that are capable of being 
applied to the purposes of dying. He never fails to mention 
ewporistic medicines, which he seems to think, perhaps very 
justly, have not been attended to by physicians as they deserve. 
The plan of this work has b^en a pattern for all succeeding 
writers of local catalogues, more especially of such as have 
followed the Linnean system, and it has been excelled by none. 
It includes the plants of Lapland ; and the preface, besides an 
account of Swedish botanical authors, contains a division of the 
several provinces of the kingdom, in respect to their different 
soils and situation, as adapted to particular plants, specifying 
under each province the more remarkable plants growing in it. 
There is a plate with a figure of the Linnaa subjoined to the last 


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K6 fauna SUECICA. 

In 1746 appeared the Fauna Suecica, sistens animalia 
Suecia: regui : mammalia^ aves, amphibia, pisces^ insecta, ver- 
mes; distributa per clmseSy ordines^ genera ct species, ' ^c. (Hol- 
niia?, 8vo. pp. 411.) and a<rain in 1761, greatly augmented 
(pp. 579-) The world had never seen so compendious, and at 
(he same time so complete a local zoology before. An outline of 
this undertaking had been given by our author, ten years before, 
in the Acta liferaria ei scientiarum Suecia, (1736, p. 97 — 138.) 
under the title of Animalia per Sueciam observata*. At that 
period, however, the catalogue was comparatively scanty, but 
it was now increased to 1357 subjects; the edition of I76I, in- 
deed, comprehends (exclusive of an appendix) 2266. 

Following the method of the Flora, Linnaeus did not give 
any classical, ordinal, or generical characters at large, but only 
the specific character, which was new, and expressive, as far as 
possible, of tlie essential character. Synonyms of almost 
every author are either inserted, or referred to, ajid almost every 
species is concisely described in his own terms. Insects make a 
very considerable part of the catalogue, nearly 17OO species 
being enumerated, distinguished, and methodized in a manner 
entirely new, and which has been adopted by most other writers 
on the subject since. Whilst he was a student at Upsala, ento- 
mology constituted one of his favourite branches of pursuit, 
and he devoted to it (as he informs us in His preface to the paper 
above referred to) almost the whole of his leisure time. His 
classification will be fully explained in the abstract intended to 
be given of the Sj/stema Natura. The number of animals under 
each class, in his last edition of the Fauna, stands thus, viz. 

• This paficr is printed also with his Oratio de peregrinationum intra patriam ne- 
restitate. (Holmie 1746. 8Vo.) 

2 s ' Mammalia 



Mammalia 63 Piscet 77 

Aies 221 Insecta I69I 

A mphibia 26 Vermes I98 

There arc 62 additional species, which our author did not 
inchide in tht- bod_y of the work, in consequence of not having 
sufficiently examined them. He also subjoins what are called 
Fhra SiuciccB J^ovitice, being 31 species of plants recently disco- 
vered by some of his pupils. 

Two plates exhibiting figures, chiefly of rarer birds, accom- 
pany the volume, and explain the technical terms used in 

A republication of the Faufia Suectca, with considerable ad- 
ditions and corrections, has lately been commenced by Professor 
Retzius, of Lund, who, however, has not yet proceeded beyond 
the four first classes ; these are comprehended in gn octavo 
Tolume, entitled Faunte Suectca; a Carolo a Tuisss, Equ. uj- 
ehoata Fars Itna. (Lips. 1800, pp. 362.) with a plate exhibiting 
figures of Fringillafiaviroatrk and Luknsu. 

A compendious manual of Engliah zoology, executed after a 
method of this sort, is a work much wanted : but it would be 
too great an undertaking for an individual, and the different 
branches should be taken up by as many different persons. 

In the summer of the year 1746, Linnaeus undertook his 
journey to "West Gothland, and visited Mariestad, Lidkoping, 
Skara, Skofde, Falkoping, Bords, Alingsas, Gotheboig, Bohus, 
Marstrand, U<ldewalla, Wenersboi^, and Amal. He return- 
ed to Upsala in the autumn. The result of this journey 
was published the year following, under the title of Wast- 
GOTA Rbsa, (Stockholm 1747. 8vo. pp. 284.) which has 
since been translated into German by Schreber (Halle 1763. 


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An accident bavins* thrown into our author's hands an her- 
barium, consisting of five large volumes, he discovered that it 
was the collection of the famous Dr. Paul Hermann, which had 
been made in the island of Cejlon by that botanist, ht the 
expense of the Dutch East India company. This herbarium had 
been lost upwards of half a century, until chance threw it into 
the hands of M. Gunther (apothecary to the King of Denmark), 
who sent it to Linnaeus, requesting him to examine it, and 
affix the names to the plants tliroughout the collection. Its great 
vahie, from the collector having been so eminent a man, in- 
duced our author to examine the whole with much attention, and 
he was thereby enabled to form many new genera*, and settle 
many doubtful species. He published the result of his labour 
under the title of Flora Zeylanica, sistens plantas Indica* 
Zeijlona insula, qua olim I67O — 1677 lecta fuere a Paub Her- 
manno, Professore Betanico Leydemi ; demum post 70 annos ab 
A. Guntheroy Pkarmacopao Hafniensi, orbi reddita. (Holm. 1747, 
8vo. pp. 254. tab. 4.) In an appendix, the new genera are con- 
cisely given by themselves, copied from an academical disserta- 
tion published under Lin neeus's presidency, by C. M. Dassow, and 
which will be more particularly noticed bereafiter. This ap- 
pendix occupies 14 pages out of the 254, and there are indices 
to the whole of the botanical, Malabar, Cingalese, and officinal 
names. This work is y^t of use as tipiiuu: of these plants, and 
as a Linnean catalogue of Burmann's Thesaurus Zeylanicus^ pub- 
lished in 1737* and illustrated with the figures of upwards of 
200 species. The herbarium consisted of about 66O plants, of 
which the true places in the system are assigned to more than 

• Two of these {Ceamthxts and Cymmetra) are included amoog the ten new generCf 
which LiniueuB described ia the Act. Societ. Ups. for 1741 (p. 17.) 


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400 ; the remaiudcr were too imperfect to admit of being suf- 
iiciently determined. This volume is rendered valuable, by a 
concise view of the progress of botany fmm the restoration of 
learning in the l6th century ; a natural history of Ceylon, and 
its general produce ; the life of Dr. Hermann ; a short account 
of Hartog, who was sent by Dr, Sherard to make collections 
in that island ; and a sketch of Burniann's Thesaurus Zeylanicus. 
Linnaeus authenticates the herbarium by showing that the num- 
bers and the plants answer to Hermann's Mwseum Zeylanicumy ori- 
ginally published in 1717*- 

On the death of Count Molcke, who became the possessor of 
this herbarium after Gunther, it was purchased by Sir Joseph 
Banks-j^ and still forms a part ot his immense collection. TIic 
specimens are miserably damaged and mutilated ; but many of 
them retain the Cingalese names annexed in Hermann's Iiand- 
writing, and also generic names and synonyms in Linnaeus's. They 
occupy four large bound volumes, three of which contain only 
Ceylon plants, and the fourth African and Indian plants together : 
in all of them the specimens are placed without regard to method, 
and apparently just in the order in which they were collected. 
There is a fifth volume, containing only drawings, which are not 
ill executed (for that period), and which amount to about 400 in 
number; but the same figure is, in several instances, given 
more than once. 

• There was a second edition in 1726. The deacriptions in this catalogue arc more 
{iill than those in manuscript attached to the specimens in the herbarium ; and they in- 
clude many species collected at the Cape of Good Hope, which Linnaeus also has 
described in his Tlora Zeylanica, without seeming to be aware that they were not 
natives of that island. 

t For seventy -fiye guineas. 

» We 

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We now see Linnaeus fixed in the sitnation which was so well 
adapted to his character, taste, and abilities, and which seenis 
to have been tlie great object of his ambition, and the centre of 
his hopes. He had no sooner attained the professorship, than 
he laboured to get the academical garden put on a better footing; 
which he soon effected, obtaining the consent of the university 
that the m hole should be laid out anew, conformably to a plan 
presented by Baron Carl Harleman; that proper stoves, green- 
houses, &c. should be erected ; and that the professor's house 
should be rebuilt. The garden was founded in l6o7 by Olaus 
Rudbeck the elder, but had been in ruins ever since the fire in 
1702, and at the time of Linna;us's appointment to the profes- 
sorship it did not contain above 50 plants that were exotic* 
His correspondence with the first botanists in Europe soon sup- 
plied him with great variety. He received Indian plants from 
Jussicu of Paris, and fi-om van Royen of Leyden ; European 
plants from Haller and Ludwig; American plants from Collin- 
son, Catesby, and others ; and a considerable number of annuals 
from Dillenius : in short, how much the garden owed to his 
diligence and care, in a few yeare, may be seen by the catalogue* 
published under the title of Hortus Upsahensis exhibens 
planias exoticas Ilorto Upsaliensis Academia d sese (Linnaeo) illaias 
ab auTto 1742 in annum .1748, odditis differentiis^ synonpnis, habi- 

» The eatalogues of plants of the Upsala garden that preceded this weic the follow- 
iag, n'z. 

I . Catalogits Plantanii»tam ex9iicarum quam indigenarum, gmlnis Hortum jicademi- 
atm Vpsaliensem primum instrvxit an. 1637 Ouds Rudbeck (Upsal. 16M. ismo. 
pp. 43.) S. Hortus Vpsatiensis jicademieB ex auctorUate S. S. Mtis primum imtructas 
anno 1857 ob Olao Rudbeck. Accedit cjuidem auctarium novissimum (Upsal, I666> 
ismo. pp. Si.) 3. Hortus Botanicus varits exoticis indigtnisque plantis instncitis, 
turaute OhAO RvDhECKiQ. (Upsal. 1665. Svo. pp. 130.) Latino-Suecice. 

This last enumerates 1870 plants, of wbJch about 630 arc exotics, 

& fationibus,. 



tatiombmy kospittis, rartorumque descripttonibus, in gratiam studiosa: 
juventutii. (Holm. 1748. 8vo. pp. 306. tabb. 3.) 

By this catalogue it appears that Linnaeus had introduced 
1100 species, exclusive of all the Swedish plants, and of 
varieties, which latter, ia ordinary gardens, amount riot un- 
fiequently to one third of the whole number. Hence, the 
Upsala garden must have been the chief place of the kind in 
Europe, at the time of the publication of this volume. Most 
of the Siberian plants (and indeed others, from hot climates) 
which are now so common, appear to have been first raised by 
Linnaeus, whose principal gardener, Derrich Neitzcl, was much 
experienced in the nursing of exotics, having been employed for 
that purpose by Mr. Cliif(»*d, at Hartecamp ; Neiteel had also 
arranged all the principal gardens in Lower Saxony. Of the 
delight which Linaeeus derived from his situation as professor, in 
the botanic garden of Upsala, the reader may form some idea 
from the following animated passage, in a Programma relative to 
the celebration of the King's birtJ»-day, viz. " Deo optima gratiam 
habeo^ qui sic fata mea dispenwvit, ut hoc tempore vivam, id- 
que iia, ut rege Persarum beatior vivam. Verum narro, diim me 
beatum cenaeo. Nostis^ patres civesqiiCy quod itt llorto Academico 
tfftus sim : quod hie mea lihodus sity aut potius hie meiim Elysium. 
Teneo hie qua volo $polia Orientis Occidcntisque, et, nisi mefallo, id 
quod Babyloniorum vestibus Sinenmumque vasis huge est speciostus. 
Hie disco et doeeo. Ilic sitmmi opi/icis sapientiam ipse alii.f aliisquc 
documentis se prodentem admiror, aUisque monstro." The preface of 
this work contains sojne curious observations on the cliniate of 
Ui>sala, and the progress of the seasons through the whole year. 
From these observations, we learn that the greatest degree of 
heat at that city, in the summer of 1747f was on the Snd of 
N 2 July, 

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July, at -i- past, 3 iii the afternoon, wben Celsius's. thermometer* 
stood at 30° above ; that the greatest degree of cold, in the 
night of the 25th of January 1740, was 28 degrees below 0. — • 
From seven years' observations on the leafing of the oak, it was 
found never to appear before the 6th of May, or to be retarded 
beyond the 22nd.— The work is accompanied by several indices ; 
1st, of all the botanical names ; 2nd, of the Swedish names ; 3d, 
of the pharmaceutical names ; 4tJi, of the indigenous plants ; 
and 5th, of those which are used in Sweden as articles of food^ 
and comprehended under the appellation of Macellum Suecicum. 
It concludes with a table entitled Horticultura Topographica (in 
which are pointed out the parts of the garden adapted to the 
plants of the different countries), and an index of the plants classed 
according to the climates in which they grow spontaneously. 

It was about this period that Linnaeus made a remarkable 
discovery relating to the formation of pearls in the River Pearl 
Muscle {Mya margaritifera)^ which must not be confounded with 
what is called the Mother of Pearl Shell, as the latter belongs to 
a different genus, is a sea-shell, and an inhabitant of the wanner 
countries only. The former is found in rivers, in all the north- 
ern parts of the world ; as in Norway and Sweden ; in the 
rivers of the county of Tyrone, and in those of Donegall, 
in Irelanf}; in Scotland, where the Don is said to abound 
with it; and it is not unfrequent in the rivers of England. This- 
fish will bear removal remarkably well ; and it is said that in. 
some places they form reservoirs for the purpose of keeping it, 
and of taking out the pearls, which, in a certain period of time,, 
will be renewed. From observations on the growth of the shell, 

* Id tbU theimometcr, the freezing point is o, and boiling water l-OOt 




and the number of its annular lamina^ or scales, it is supposed 
that the animal will attain a great age ; 50 or 60 years are ima- 
gined to be a moderate computation. Linnaeus discovered 
a method of putting these muscles into a state of produ- 
cing pearls at his pleasure, tliough the final effect did not 
take place for several years. He says that in 5 or 6 years 
the pearl would have acquired the size of a vetch. We are 
unacquainted with the means by which he accomplished this 
extraordinary operation, but may observe that it is probable, 
from a paper published many years afterwards by Cherauitz (in 
- the Betchaft. der BerUn. Ges. Naturf. Fr. 1. Band. p. 344—358) 
under the title of" Verstteh eincT neuen iheorie vomursprunge der 
perlen" that the method consisted in injuring the shell externally, 
perhaps by a perforation ; for it has been observed that these 
concretions in shells are found in the inside, exactly opposite 
tu perforations -and injuries made by serpula, and other animals, 
from without. Uansus's original MS. de Perlarum ortu is not 
to be found among the papers that came into the possession of 
Dr. Smith* ; but we may judge of the important light in which 
the commut^cation was viewed by the States of Sweden, from 
our author's being rewarded with a premium o^ 1800 dollars -f- 
(about 4501.), which in that country must have been a very con- 
siderable sum. A memorial was laid before the States by the 
then Bishop of Abo (afterwards Archbishop of Upsala) for the 
purpose of enforcing Linnseus's claims on this occasion ; and 
we are enabled to present the reader with a translation of what 
appears to have been the original sketch of itj, which is ex- 

* The Doctor assures me that he has not been able to find such a paper ; yet Stoever 
and Grandmaison choose to assert the contrary. (Editor.) 
t This sum is mentioned on the authority of the Diary. 
I Ste the Appendix, 


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tremely interesting on account of the representation it includes 
of our author's general merits. 

From the time that Linneeus and Rosen were appointed Pro- 
fessors at Upsala, it should seem that the credit of that place, as 
a mtdical as well as a botanical school, had been rapidly in- 
creasing; and indeed it is certain that numbers of students re- 
sorted thither from Germany and many other parts of Europe, 
attracted solely by the character of these two able teachers. In 
Sweden itself, many young men were invited to the study of 
medicine by the excellent manner in which it was taught, who 
would otherwise have engaged in different pursuits. We must 
not deviate into the line of Rosen's department ; suffice it to 
Bay, that the two professors, by their united zeal and abilities, 
failed not to exalt, together with their own fame, that of the 
university. Linnaeus, in teaching the diagnosis morborttm, had 
adopted (with *ome alterations) the plan of Sauvages's nosology, 
of which we shall be led to give some accomit hereafter. In 
the year 1749, he published, for the use of the students, bis Ma- 
TBiiiA Medeca. Liber 1. de Plantis digestm tecundttm genera^ 
loca, nomina, qnalitatesj vires, (Uff'^entias, durationea, simplicia^ 
modosy Tisns, synonyma, culturas, praparaiUt potenfiat, composita, 
(Holm. 8vo. pp. 25"i.) The compendious manner in which this 
work is executed, and the several useful preliminary papers an- 
nexed, rendered it a very instructive manual to students in me- 
dicine. A materia medtca of the vegetable kit^dom, with every 
simple ascertained by so able a botanist as Linnffius, was a very 
considerable acquisition to science ; it is only to be lamented 
that he did not republish it, with all the improvements which 
many subsequent years of observation enabled him to make, 
and which are actually shown to have been numerous and im- 
portant by the many notes inserted witli his own hand in the 


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piinted copy that belonged to his own library. In this volume are 
arranged 535 subjects, several of which are for the first time re- 
duced to their proper genera and species. The method pursued 
in it is as follows, viz. 

1. His own specific character of the plant. 

2. C. Bauhin's synonym; or, if the plant was unknown to that 
author, the synonym of the first discoverer. 

3. The country where the plant is produced. In the same 
line is expressed, by a single epithet, whether it be a. kerb, shrub^ 
or tree : whether it be annual, bienmal, or perennial : also, whe- 
ther it be indigenous ; or, if not, whether it thrive well by com- 
mon cultivation in gardens, or require defence from the cold of 
the winter in Sweden; or whether it will not endure that climate. 

4. The Swedish officinal name : what part is in use, or what 
preparation of it, if any : and the ^ses of each. 

5. The sensible quality of the plant, whether bitter, aromatic, 
acidi astringent, 8cc. : vfhether fragrant, fietid, or inodorous: whe- 
ther gummy, resijuttts, or milktf. Its reputed quality, whether un- 
certain, well known, and approved; or whether to be cautiously 
used. Whether chiefly used in medicine, or for culinary pur- 

6. Its reputed effects on the human body, whether cathartic, 
emetic, diuretic, &c. 

7. The diseases for which it is most frequently prescribed. 

8. The compound medicines into which it enters in tl»e Swedish 

The work is prefaced by a conspectus of the method observed 
in it ; by a list of the principal and most approved writers on 
the materia medica anterior to our author; by a collection of 
canons relative to medicines and the management of them, some 
framed by himself, and others derived from the authority of Celsus, 


Digitized by 


Q6 materia hecica. 

Hoffman, Sec; by an explanatioa of terms, abbreviations, and 
marks used in pharmacy ; by a nosological table ; instructions 
respecting the proper time and mode of collecting simples ; the 
nature of the several pharmaceutical processes ; the appellations 
of the various compounds employed in pharmacy, with the 
Swedish vulgar names of them annexed ; and, lastly, by a clas- 
sification of medicines, founded on their reputed effects. Of this 
classification the following is a sketch, which will also serve to 
give the reader some idea of Linnoeus's pathological principles i 
these, as might naturally be expected, corresponded with the 
humoral doctrines of tlie day, but not without some modifications 
and exceptions of his own. 

His classes are six in number, namely, 

X, Evacuatoria, 4. Muscularia. 

3. Alterantia. 5. Visceralia. 

3. Nerviria. 6. Topica. 

Class 1. EVACUATORIA. Evacuants. 
Order 1. Puegantia. Purgatives. 
Genus T. Emetica. Emetics. 

2. Drastica. Violent purgatives. 

3. Cathartica. Gentle purgatives. 

4. Eccoprotica. Laa-atives. 

2. BoEBORYGMiCA. Evacuauts of wind. 

5. Flatulentia. Jii/ the Rectum. 

6. Ructatoria. JJy the Oesophagus. 

7. Carminativa. Carminatives. 

3. Pellentia. Secements, from the trunk. 

8. Diaphoretica. Perspiratives. 
9- Sudorifica. Sudori/ics. 

10. Diurctica. 

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10. Diuretica. Diuretics. 

11. Bmmenagoga. Emmenagogues. 

13. Abortiva. Medicines occasioning expulsion iff 
the Joetus. 
4. PiTuiTosA. Secements from the head. 

13. Errhiaa. Fj-om the nostrils. 

14. Sialagoga. Front the salivary glands. 

15. Expectorantia. From the bronchise. 

Class 2. ALTERANTIA. Alteratives, or medicines supposed 

to purify the mass of blood. 
Order 1. Discrasiaca. Alteratives of the fluids as to their 
acescency or alkalescency. 

16. Antiphlogistica. Correctors of putrescenof 

bt/ dilution. 

17. Refrigerantia. By acidity. 

18. Balsamica. By introduction of the bitter 


19. Antacida. Correctors of acescency by the bit- 

ter principle. 

20. Absorbentia. By neutralization. 

2. DiATiiETicA. Alteratives of the fluids as to their 
consistency and crasis. 

21. Resolventia. Resolvents. 
23. Incidentia. Attenuants . 

23. Mundificantia-. Purifiers. 

24. Edulcorantia. Correctors of acrimony. 
23. Demulcentia. Demulcents. 

^6. Obtundentia. .Obtundents. 

27. Lubricantia. Lidjricating {mucilaginous) me^ 

1}8. Inspissantia. hispissants. 

o Class 3> 

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Class 3. NERVlNA. Medicines which act on the nervous 

Order 1. Orcastica. Excitants of the i?!VaZ functions. 

29. Alexiteria. Givingafragrancy to the breath. 

30. Stimulantia. Excitants of the secretmu. 

31. Calefacientia. Calefadents. 

32. Nutrientia. Restoratives. 

33. Analeptica. Invigorants. 

S. CosviTLsivA. Medicines occasionii^g coDTulsive 

34. Tussiculosa. Of the htngs. 

35. Singultuosa. Of the cardia. 

36. Sterautatoria. Of the diaphragm. 

3. ExciTANTiA. Medicines producing an influence 

on the mind. 

37. Exhilarantia. Exhilaranf*. 

38. Inebriantia. Intoxicating medicines. 

4. Stupefacientia. Stupefacients. 

39. Paregorica. Diminishing irvitabiUt^. 

40. Anodyna. Mitigating pain. 

41. Narcotica. Oppressing the mental faculties. 

42. Hjpnotica, Saporifcs, 

Class 4. MUSCULARIA. Medicines wbicli act on the mus<- 

cular fibres. 
Order 1. Rexazantia.. ReBixants.. 

43. Humectantia. By. a watery quality.. 

44. Emollientia. By an oily quality. 

45. Impinguantia. By producing fat. 
2. Corbobobantia. Corroborants. 

46. Exsiccantia. By a drying quality. 

47. Tonica. 

Digitized by VjOO*^IC 


47- Tonica. By a bitt^ quality. 

48. Adstringeutia. By a styptic quality. 

4Q. Sophisticantia. Local tonics. 

3. COKRODENTIA. CoiTodcntS. 

50. Abstergentia. Of the animal gluten. 

51. Cosmetica. Of the skin. 

52. Septica. Caustics. 

53. Vesicatoria. Esulcerants. Vesicatin'ies. 

Class 5. VISCERALIA. Medicines acting upon particular 

OrdCT 1. Spirituosa. Excitants of the nervous enei^. 

54. Cephalica. Cepkalics. 

55. Cardiaca. Cordials. 

3. Biliosa. Augment the quantity of bile. 

56. Hepatica. By acting upon the liver. 

57. Splenica. By acting upon the $pleenf 

58. Stomachica. Provoking appetite. 

3. MucAGiNA. Medicines which strengthen and lu- 

bricate the lungs. 
59- Becchica. 

4. Venerea. Medicines favouring procreation. 

60. Apbrodisiaca. Provocatives to venery. 

61. Uttrina. Uterines. 

62. Lactifera. Inbreasing the flow of milk. 

Class 6. TOPICA. Local applications. 

Order 1. CotJsolidantia. Repaiifeg solution of continuity. 

63. Vuineraria. Vulne'raries. 

64. Glutinantia. Promoting adhesive inflammation, 

o 2 65. Maturantia. 

Digitized by 


100 SlATEMA MXeiCA. 

6^. Maturantia. Promoting the formation oj^pvr, 

66. Digerentia. Digestives. 

67. Sarcotica. Promoting the formation of fiesit 

{by removing extraneous matter P) 

68. Cathseretica. Reducing proud jiesh. 

69. Cicatrisantia. Drying up consolidated ulcers^ 

70. Sistentia. Restraining the fiow of blood- 

2. Di&cuTiENTiA, Discutients. 

71. Repellentia. Repclknts. 

72. Lactifuga. Diminishing the secretion of milk. 

73. Sterilitantia. Preventing impregnation. 

3. Arc e n t i a . Medicines noxious to animalcules. 

74. Anthelmintica. To worms. 

75. Exanthematica. To acari end pustular ani- 


76. Phthiriaca. To lic&. 

At the end of the volume is an index morborum^ with the sim- 
ples appropriated to each ; and an index virium^ adapted to the 
above classification. There are also indices of the eternal and 
of the botanical names, which, with the assistances already men- 
tioned, render this work extremely useful for reference. 

Linnaeus did not carry on this plan to the animal and mineral 
kingdoms (at least, not in his own name), but it was pursued ia 
two academical dissertations, which will be noticed in the proper 
places, and which were embodied with the above into one work 
by Tessari, of Venice, in 1762. There are two editions • of this, 

* C. Limusi Materia Medica, per tria regno naturtB, atrante J. C, D. Sehrehera, 
Editio altera auctior. Vindoboiue 1773. Svo. tab. 1. p. 131—336 r^;aimi vegetabUe. 
Bditio ^Horta auctior, Lipvie et Eitangtc 1 "JBi, Svo. 


vGooqIc i 


Diai1i7cd b- 


besides amanfissa", by Schreber, who has increased the number 
of vegetable articles to about 600. The Materia Medica of Ber- 
gius'f may alao be considered as a republication of I.hinfeus's 
treatise, since it is executed on the same plan, and the materials 
were obtained chiefly from the lectures of the latter, of whom 
this author was a pupil. 

In the month of April of this year (1749), Unnaeus set out on 
the third of those journeys which he had been required to take 
by an order of the States ; this was to the province of Skane, 
situated at the southern extremity of the kingdom, opposite 
Zealand. He was absent therefore from Upsala until the autumn, 
in which interval he risited Christians tad, Cimbrishamn, Ystad, 
Skaner, Malmo, Lund, Landscrona, Helsingborg, and Engel- 
holm. He took this opportunity also to visit once more the 
place of his nativity ; his father died the year before, but he 
had tlie satisfaction to find his only brother, Samuel Linnaeus, 
successor to the former in the living of Stenbrohult. ^Thc result 
of this journey was not printed until two years afterwards, and 
it first made its appearance in the Swedish language (like the 
fellow-publicatiohs, which we have already mentioned) bearing 
the title of Skanska besa, forrattadar 1749 (Stockholm 175L 
8vo. pp. 434. 6 plates.) It was afterwards translated into Ger- 
man by C. Ernest Klein, who omitted, however, such parts as 
were not connected with natural history, rural ceconoray, and 
medicine, (Stockholm and Leipsic 1756. 8vo. 3 plates.) On 
the subject of agriculture our author treats pretty largely, mak- 

* Mantissa editioni 4t<s. Ertaogae 1783. Svo. 

t Materia Medica de regno vegetabili, s'tstens simplida offidnaUa pariier algtte 
culinaria, secmulumsy sterna sexuale. ExautopiiaetexperiatCutJldelitcrdigestU Petru* 
Jonas Bbroivs, M. P. &c. s Tom. Holni. 177B, 8vo. 

3 ing 



ing remarks on tite culture of manhy grounds, and on varidnf' 
useful and noxious herbs : particularly the Stakar {supposed to 
be the Phetlandrium aqttaticum, or PFater-hemlock^ which, it ft 
believed, renders horses that eat it paralytic), the GrameHmannttt 
or Ftstucajiuiians (the seeds of which are so particularly useful 
for fattening geese), \\ie Agancus mnscariuxy &c. 

In 1749 was published the first volume of a collection of dis- 
sertations in octavoj under the title of Am(£nitat£s Academics, 
seu Dissertatione$ varus phyma^ medico, ef botanica. Linnaeus 
and Camper both published it in the same year, the former at 
Stockholm and the latter at Leyden*; but Linneeus alone con- 
tinued the work aftenvards, though the volumes were all con- 
stantly reprinted, as soon as published, b<Hh in Germany and 
Holland. As these academical theses were sustained, under Lin- 
nfeus in his professorial capacity, and selected chiefly by him- 
self, they have been regarded as of equal authority nearly with 
]iis own writings, various parts of which they extend and ex- 
emplify, in a particular manner. We shall thefefore, in a more 
convenient part of this book, give a brief account of the several 
volumes, in their order, specifying the purport of each disserta- 
tion, with the name of the student by whom it was written ftnd 
defended . 

Whilst Linnaeus was meditating one of his capital perform- 
ances, which had long been expected, and greatly wished for, 
by his pupils, he was int^rupted by a long and painiiil fit o€ 
the gout. He informs us, in his Diary, that he owed his re- 
covery from this complaint to wood strawberries, of which he 

* In the I^yden editioo, Ae Hypotiesis nova dtj^frnim inlervatUiUimm aaua is 
insCTted, and the ori£n- gf the dissertatiow is difiereid} it is dedicated to ma ooanny- 
maa Peter Collinson. 




bad accidentally eaten some quantities, and to which he after- 
wards had recourse annually, finding them a very successful 
preventive, as well as remedy. The present attack, however, 
fcft him in a very weak and dispirited state ; and according to 
the intelligence which his friends gave of him, nothing was thought 
to have contributed more. to the restoration of his spirits than 
the seasonable return of his pupil Kalm, with a large collection 
of rare and undescribed plants, from America. 

Upon the recovery of his health, he published the Pni- 
i^sopiiiA BoTANiCA, in qua CTplicantur fundamenta botanical 
eum definitumibug pariium^ exempUs terminorum, observai'tonibus 
nm<mam,9^ecti»figwra<mei9. (HolmiaeetAmstelodami 1751. Svo^ 
pp. 362. tabb. 11.) This must be considered as the institutions 
of tiie Linnean system of botany, and is a work which none, who 
wish to be acquainted with that system, can be without, as it is 
the author'^ own comment on his Fundamenta (first published in. 
1736), which are comprised in 365 aphorisms, divided into 12: 
chapters. The author's original intention was to have explained 
alt these aphorisms at large, in the manner that had been adopted^ 
in the Bibliotheca Botanica, Classes Plantapum, Critica Botanical 
kc; bu^ he says, his numerous avocations did not allow him 
the requisite time. Neitherr did lie afterwards add to, or alter the 
work, the present being the only edition that came from his own 

Ch. 1.. Exhibits a systematical distribution of the principal: 
botanical writers, and is that part which, is treated of at large in 
the Bibkotheca, 

2. Sjfttemaia, A view o£- all the botanical systems,, being a. 

* It was republished, however, at Vienna, in the years 1755 asd 1770, andalio in' 
tbe FKndamenlu Botmica, of Gilibert (Toib. 3. p. 1—363.) 

3 compend. 

Digitized by 



compend of the Classes PI n tarum, but here brpught doirn some- 
what later, so as to comprehend a general view of van Royen's, 
Haller's, and Wachendorf 's systems. 

3. Plaiita. Explanations of the terms used in describing the 
different kinds of roots, stalks^ and leaves of plants. 

4. Fruetifieatio. Descriptions of the parts of fructification, and 
definitions of all the terms used respecting their number, ^«»'f. 
proportion, situation, and uses. 

5. Relates to the sexes of plants : a subject winch is more 
copiously treated in a paper called Sponsalia Phtitarun, printed 
in the first volume of the Amoeititates Academics. 

6. Characiei-es. Rules and definitions for establishing the 
characters of c/osses, oj'dcrs, 'And genera. 

t' Nomina. Rules for rightly forming generic names, and 
those of orders and classes. 

8. Differentia. Rules for establishing the specific characters 
of plants. 

9. Varietates. Rules for distinguishing varieties among plants. 

10. Synonyma. Rules relating to the right disposition of 
synonyms in botanical writings. 

The four chapters last mentioned make the subjects of the 
Critica Bolanica, in which every aphorism is much more largely 
explained than in the present work. 

11. Adumhrationes. Rules for properly describing and nam- 
ing the species, and for giving their complete history in a sci- 
entific manner. 

13. Vires. This chapter relates to tlie virtues of plants, as 
deducible from the agreement eitlier in their generical characters, 
or with respect to the natural order or class. The subject is 
treated in a more comprehensive manner in the Vires Plantarum, 
printed in the first volume of the Amatiitates Academics. To 

' ■ give 

Digitized by 



give a few instances, however, as illustrations ; — The Scammoiiy, 
Mechoacan, Turbith, and Sea-bindweed are all species of the 
geaus Convolvulus, and all agree in possessing a purgative quality. 
The Mallow, Marsh-mallow, and Cotton-bush are so many distinct 
genera^ under a natural order, called Columnifera, and agree in 
being all mucilt^inous. Of the Umbelliferee, such as grow in dry 
places are aromatic, and considered as sudorifics and carmi- 
natives ; those growing in watery places, on the contrary, are 
mostly of a quality to be justly suspected, and not a few of them 
deciitedly noxious. Plants of the Papilionaceous class are all 
excellent food for cattle. The Syngenesia are commonly bitters. 
The natural order of Conifera^ all evergreens and resinous, are 
considered as diuretics. 

Ten explanatory plates are .subjoined, on which are exhi- 
bited the different leaves, their situation on the stalk, difference, 
stalks, roots, ilowers, &c. The first part of these plates, relating 
to the leaves, had been given as introductory to the Hortus 
Cliffortianm. — Some new terms in botany, which have been in- 
vented since the publication of the Pkilosophiat may be found in 
a paper, under the title of Termini Botaniciy contained in the 
6th volume of the Amanitates. 

In this work of Ijnnieus, it is difficult to determine, whether 
we ought to admire the genius of its author most in his inventive 
power, or in that exquisite scientific arrangement which he has 
given to the whole: the two circumstances together, certainly 
render it a most extraordinary and pre-eminent performance. 

At the end of the volume, we meet with several curious frag- 
ments : such are, 

1, Directions to botanic pupils. 

3. Method of forming an herbarium. 

3. _ of conducting botanical excursions. 

V 4. Method 

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4. Method of laying out a botanic garden. 

5. Plan for naturalists in traTeliing, and in keeping a journal ; 
with an enumeration of all those subjects that demand their 

6. Idea of -a complete botanist. Some of the principal 
botanists are here mentioned. 

7. A compend of the philosophy of regetation. 

Though this work never underwent any alteration, or was at 
all augmented, by Linnaeus himself, yet it has, since his time, 
been improved by different editors, particularly in 1780, b^ 
John Gottheb Gleditsch, of Berlin, whose edition having bad a 
rapid sale, it was renewed by Dr. Willdeniow * ; and Spain has 
also produced an editor of this valuable work in Dr. Ortega-f-. 
The last-mentioned botanist has made but few deviations from 
the original text (compared with liia predecessors in that under- 
taking); indeed he professes rather to expfoin than alter, and 
does not aim at the abbreviation which was a principal object of 
the former. There is one very material improvement, made by 
Dr. Ortega, namely in the index, the generic and specific names 
in which are not those of the original work, but of the Species 
Flantanimt as they were therein altered by Linnceus himself^ 
Dr.Willdenow has adopted, with respect to the parts of fructifica- 
tion in plants, the terms constructed by Gsertner, and, with 
respect to mosses, those employed by the ingenious HedwigJ, 

* PhUosapkia Botmnica tn 911a expUcantttr Fuadameaia BotanUa, adjettit Jiguris- 
emeis. Edilio tertia, aucta et emendata mra Caboli Ludovici WibLDSMoW, M.D. 
&c. (Berol. 1790. 8yo. pp. 304. tabb. an. ll.) 

t Car.Linnjei, Bolanicorum pr'mcipis, Philosopkm Balamca, aimotalionikiSjexpla- 
natiomhis, svpplemetttis aucta, cjtrael apera Casiuiri Gomez Ortega, M.D. 8tc. 
Accedunt J. Andr. Murray nomina trivialia. (Matriti lI92.4to. pp. 436. tabb. ren. 10.) 

X One of WiUdenow's platen contaiiu figures iDuatntive of the irucUScuion of 
juoeees, as originally given by Hedwlg himself. 


n^in cdbvGoOQic 


which laay fairiy be considered as more accurate and off 
fliore extensive use than Linnieus's, whose attention not having; 
been so exclusively and professedly devoted to those particuian 
branches of vegetable physiology, his descriptions in such points 
were, as might naturally be expected, less correct and corapre- 
hensive. But on this subject we shall speak more fully here- 
after.- The hiiroduetion to Botany* of our countryman James 
Lee may be looked upon as a sort of epitome of the Linnean 
Pkilotophia Botanka ; as such indeed it is placed by our author 
himself in the Editiones Operum registered in his Diary. In 
our own language there is also a pNpetty close tramlatiw a£ 
the work by Hugh Rose, and, in the French, another byi 
Fr. A. Quesnef". 

In 1753 appeared (what Haller emphatically terms) Linnaent'tf 
*' maximum optis et tctemum :" the Species Plasttauuu ex/tAetUes 
Piamtas rite cognitas ad genera reiataty cum d^erentHs spec^cts^ 
Momiaiitma trivitUibus, sywmymis aeleciis, iods nataUbuSf secundum 
ijfstema sextiale digestag. (Holm. 8vo. Tom. 1. pp. -560 ; Tom. 2. 
p. fi6i— 1200.) To give this work its utmost perfectiom had 
been the author's object for many years, and to this all his other 
botanical productions were in some measure only preparatory, 
(especially tlie local catalogues,) as the rightly ascertainiag of 
species is the great end of all method. Linnceus included every 
plant that liad come suificientiy under his own inspection, sel- 
dom admitting any on the authority of others ; ^id, wherever 

* iBt edition. Z^ndon ]760. Sro. '1^ pp. 330. 

2nd 1776. — J li plate*. 

3d ■ ' pp. 43S, and the same nuniber of plates. 

t Phiiosi^ttw Sotoni^m. (Paris el Rouen 1768. 6vo. pp. 454. planches 9.) 

p2 he 



be has done so, the plant is distinguished by a proper mark. Tlie 
plan of this work is, in genera), agreeable to that of his other 
catalogues, no other part of the system being exemplified except 
the species; and, as it is entirely botanical, none of the uses of 
the plants are here introduced. Every plant has its specific 
name, constructed according to the rules of the Sth part of the 
Philosophia Botanica, with a reference to such of his own works 
in which it has been mentioned before ; the synonym being 
given, wherever the author saw occasion for altering his original 
description. Tlien follow the synonyms of the best authors, and 
if the plant be at all rare, or newly discovered, references to the 
test figures. The country in which the plant grows is next men- 
tioned ; and frequently a symbol, expressive of its duration, 
whether annual, biennial, or perennial. 

It is in this work that Linneeus first employs trivial names ; 
which are, single efutbets, expressive, as far as possible, of the es- 
sential specific differences among the species of the genus, or, in de- 
fault of these, of some striking and obvious character ; and not 
seldom they are local terms, or the names of the first discoverers. 
The last-mentioned method, could it have been universal, would 
have had the advantage of conveying somewhat like a chrono- 
logical history of each plant, and, at the same time, of perpetu- 
ating to the discoverer due credit. Before trivial names came 
into use, botanists were obliged to quote an entire description 
of a plant, to point out the species they chanced to allude to, 
thus burtheoing the memory, and creating a jargon which rather 
obstructed than facilitated the purposes of science. The first 
hint of this important improvement in botany was probably bor- 
rowed from Hivini ; but Liiinaeus is indisputably the first author 
who actually put it into practice ; and, by printing these names in 
4 - the 

Digitized by 



the margins of his works, he has given them the advantage of 
catching tlie eye instantty*, 

In his fHreface» the author gives an ample account of the as- 
sistEuice he received, and of the pains he had taken to bring thi;^ 
work to its present state. To this end, be specifies the countries 
over which he had travelled ; the many botanic gardens he had 
visited ; the various excellent herbaria he had examined in Swe- 
den, Holland, Bngland, and France ; the names of the pupiU 
educated under him, and their various -peregrinations ; and, 
6nally, the many liber^ communications of seeds and specimens 
sent to him from all parts of the woiid by tlie first botanistf of' 
the time. After this prefikce, he gives a list of the botanists 
quoted in his work, whom he divides in his first edition into 
Reforhator£s and Usitatiores; but in the second intos 
1. Reformatorbs, 2. Restauratobes, and 3. Fundatores, 
The volume is terminated by an appendix, and indices of the 
genera, synonyms, and trivial names separately. 

As the Species Pianterum include all the plants of the known 
world which had come to Linnseus's knowledge-f, the professed 
botanist has only to regret that this work could not have been 
extended l;>y the author himself to a complete pinax and history 
of every plant it describes. He published an enlarged edition of 
it m 1762 and 1?63, (Holm. 8vo. Tom. 1. pp. 784; Tom. 2.' > 
p. 785 — 1684.) which the German booksellers pirated the year 
after at Vienna ; their edition differs in nothing but the title- 

* The varioua advantages derived to botanical science from the introduction of 
trivial namefi are excellently explained by Dr. Murray, in two Programvialaj entitled 
" Hmticue nommum trivialknn stirjubut a Lrnnteo £911. rmpertilonaa," (Gotting. 
1J83. 4to.} and which may be found in Gilibert's fWdoffi^nfa ^otouco. (Tom. 1. 
p. xlvii — Izxv.) 

t The number amounts, m tbb first cditioD, to about 7>3O0 tpeeies. 




page from the second. There is a very augmented editioa, how- 
ever, commenced since Linnseus's tinie, by Dr. Willdenow, of 
Berlin, who, when he has completed it, will have rendered a 
signal service to the science of botany*, 'fbis gentleman has 
added all the vernacular names of the plants. I'he species 
first described by Ltonseus.are distinguished by an asterisk 

In this year was published Mu-sedh Tbssinia-nOh, opera lit, 
Crniitis C. G. Tessirtj Regit Regniqtte Sena/orij, ^c. S^c. collectumt 
(Holm. 1753. fol. pp. 90. talib. 12.).wlucfa. is Linaceus's descrip* 
tion of the cabinet of his great patron and ttiead Count l^ssin, 
(preceptor to Gustavus III. when Prioce Royal of Sweden,) who 
had spared bo expense in forming a lich museum, consisting prin- 
cipally of subjects of mineralogy, and abounding in fossils of the 
figured or extraneous kind. The work is in Swedish and Latin, 
and dedicated to our autbnr. Hie plates represent several very 
scarce and valuable fosnls not to be seen elsewhere. 

The figured fossib, or petrifactions, are here arranged in four 
orders, founded on the different modes of their formation. 

1. FossiLiA. Shells, corals, animal remains unchanged, except 
by being deprived more or less of the connecting gelatine. 

2. Red?ntegrata. Earthy, stony, orcrystalline fossils, formed 
within any crustaceous or testaceous body as in a mould ; thus 
retjuning the cast, without the external coat. 

• SpecUs Planiartim.' Editio 4la, post Rekhardianam ita, curante Car. Lud. Will- 
ienow. Berol. 1797. ^^o. Three tomes are already published. Reicliard'H work i» 
•ntitled Systema Plantarwm, aud was made chiefly from the Syit^ Fegetalitium, Species 
PUmtctrum, and Mantissa, (Francof. ad Man. 1779. Svo. Partes 4. pp. 662.) 

1 S. Ihfressa. 

-_, ^ ,__ _ _ _ ; n,a,i,7cdbvG00Qlc 

^^ "" no 


3. Impressa. Impressions only; as of fishes, capillarj plants, 
ferns, &c. 

4. Transubstantiata. Perfect petrifactions ; in which tlie 
original organic parts are entirely 6Hed up with stony particles, 
but retain the exact structure, externally and internally, of the 
original body. 

The fame which Linnaeus had now begun to acquire, and the 
extent of his scientific connections and correspondence, occa- 
sioned an inRux, as it were, of every thing rare and valuable 
from aU patts of the globe, into Sweden ; and a passion for col- 
lecting natural curiosities became very prevalent in that country. 
The collections belonging to the Royal Academy of Upsala, to 
Count Gyllenborg, and to M. Grill, will be spoken of particu- 
larly in another place ; we have here to mefftion a museum 
formed by the King of Sweden himself, who, with his Queen*, 
began to take an interest in pursuits of this sort, and to feel, in. 
common with their subjects^ a desire of testifying respect for the 
merits of Linnaeus. Our author was honoured with His Majesty's 
commands to describe this museum, which he executed in a 
work entitled Museum Sacra Jiegia Majestatis Adolphi Fri- 
DERic I Regi3,.^c. in quo animalia rariora^ imprimis et erotica quadru-^ 
pedia, avesyampkibia, pisces, imectayvermesy dtscribimtttr et determi- 
•aaniitr^ Latine et Suecice. (Holm. 1754. folio, pp. 96. tabb. 33.) This 
splendid volume is frequently referred to by Linnseus, in his Si/ste- 

* The Queen, Ludovica Ulrica, (who was the gister of Frederic the Great,) seems 
to have honoured Linnxus with her particular favour and friendship. We are inform- 
«d in tlie Diary, that Her Majesty was disposed also to patronize his son, who, she 
promised our author, should be sent on his travels through Europe (as soon as he arrived, 
at a proper age) at her own expense, — a testimony of royal regard which was peculi« 
arly gratifying to Linnsua, because it was the very advantage which he most wished' 
bis son to enjoy. 

Digitized by 



7na Katurtt^ on account of the figures of so many of the rarer ser- 
pents and fishes being engraved in it. Of tlie former there arc 
48 species, and of the latter 32, specimens of which arc all pre- 
served in spirits in tie royal museum at Ulricsdahl. It is one 
of the most superb and expensive of Linnieus's works ; yet it is 
"but little known in this country. The preface, Avhich has been 
translated by Dr. Smith, under the title of Refiectiom on the 
study of nature, ^London 1785. 8vo. pp. 40.) is one of the best 
general views of tJie oeconomy of the creation, as well as the most 
candid and rational recommendation of the study of natural 
history, that is any where to be found. 

The reputation of our author in the republic of science had 
by this time procured him honours from the most distinguished 
societies in Eur^e. Into the* Imperial Academy he had been 
very early received, and distinguished, according to the custom 
of that institution, with a classic name, having been most aptly 
called DioscoRiDES secundus. In 1738, he was chosen a 
member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Upsala, to which 
body he afterwards became Secretary, in the room of Dr. A. Cel- 
sius, who died in the year 1744. In 1743, the Academy of 
Sciences of Montpellier received him into their number ; in 1747» 
the Royal Academy of Berlin ; and in 1753, the Royal Society 
of London. His own countrymen were not less zealous in con- 
ferring on him marks of their estimation ; some of the nobility-f- 

* Oct. 3, 1786. 

t The Doblemen were Count Ekrblad, Baron Hopkm, Baron Palmstiemz, and 
BaroQ Harleman. On one side of their medal is the portrait of Linnieua, with these 
woids : Cabol. LihnjBus, M. D. Hot. Prof. Ups. x-t. 30 ; and on the other the 
following inscription, viz. Cabolo Gustavo Tessih st Immortalitati efpipibh 
Caroli Linh^i, Cj., Ekeblad, And. Hopksn, N. Palmstiebna, bt C, Hab- 
lbuahDip. I74<t< 


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united in causing a medal to be struck in honour of him ; Count 
Tessin paid him a compliment of this sort, singly* ; and in 1753, 
his sovereign bestowed on him a most flattering mark of Iris 
distinction and regard, by creating him a Knight of the Polar 
Star. Linnaeus was the only literary character on whom thi« 
order of knighthood had hitherto been conferred ; nor liad any 
person below the rank of a nobleman before been honoured with 
it. The Swedish monarch had, eleven years before, raised him 
to a high profetaional rank, unsolicited, having appointed him 
Archiater, or Physician to His Majesty. 

It was now no longer Laudatur et alget-^. His emoluments 
kept pace with his fame and honours ; and we find him soon 
afterwards possessed of a country-house and gardens at Hammar- 
byj, about five miles from Upsala. 

In the year 1755, the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stock- 
holm honoured Linnaeus with one of the first [»'emiums (which 
were two gold medals, of 10 ducats' value each) decreed by the 
will of Count Sparre, to be given by the Academy to the authors 
of such papers in the preceding year's Stockholm Transactions, 
as should be adjudged most useful in promoting any branch 
of rural cecoriomy, particularly agriculture. This medal bore, 

* The obverse of the medal struck at the expense at Count Tessin is the same ss 
the other ; but on the reverse are three crowns, one adorned wiih the licads of difler- 
«i)t animals, another with flowers, and the third with crysuls aiid other mineral sub- 
stances (to repre:9ent the three kingdoms of nature), over which is a radiant light, 
with the tingle word illustbat. See No. 1. of the plate fronting the preceding 

f This is what Linnxus used to say of himself before he had acquired tlie affluence 
above alluded to. On being presented with the Polar Star, he took for his regular 
motto Famam exlertderefaclis. 

X He gave for ihis estate, and a neighbouring one called Sofja, 80,000 dollars 
{or about 2330l. sterling.) Diary. 


114 I.INNfiUs's irONOFttS, 

en one side, the arms of the Count, and cm the other this- 


Linnseus obtained it in consequence of having, written on the 
oeconomical uses of various alpine plants, which he considered 
as adapted to culture in Lapland *► 

It does not seem to be generally known that Linnteus obtained 
another prize from this academy, for his answer to a question it 
proposed — " How to diminieh the damage done to fruit-trees by 
the larva of insects." His dissertation was sabscribed C. N. 
• NeUn-\: The word Nelin contains the letters of his name (Linne) 
transposed ; but he never owned the compo8iti<«i, feeling some 
mortification perhaps at the gold medai being adjudged to a 
pupil:!:, when his own was only the silver one. 

Linnaeus also obtained the prtsmmm centum aitreorum proposed 
by the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburg, for the 
best papdr to establish or d isprove by new arguments the doctrine 
of the sexes of phints. On this occasion he wrote his Dtsguisiih- 
de quastione ab Acad. Imp. Scient. Pstrop. in annum 1759 pro- 
pramio propositi : SfixuM Plantaeum argumentis et expertmentis- 
novisy prater adhuc jam cogidtat vel corroborare vel impugnarty 
pramissa expositione Imtorica et pht/sica omnium planfa partium qua 
aliquid ad facundaiionem et perfectionem semims et fructus- conferre 
creduntur; ab eadem academia die 6 Sept. I76O, in coaventu pub- 

* " Herr Carl lAnnai Tankar om nytttga vaxters ptimterandepa deLt^tftkaFjiiSen." 
Suensk Veteni4c. Aoad. Handling. fi5r "kr. nSi. Vol. I5t p. 183— )89. 

t See Svar pa K. Vetensk. Acad.fraga hum kunna maskar, sont gora skada pa- 
Jrukllrdd, bdsi forekomnuu ockfordrtfriu. (Stock. 1703. Svo, p. 33 — 6r.) 

X The celebrated Torbern Olof Bergman^ afterwards Professor of Chemistry at Up- 
sala, and Knight of the order of Vaaa. 

4 Uco 



lico pramio ornata. (Petrop. I76O. 4to. pp. 30)*. Apart from 
all foregoing arguments and experiments, brought in support of 
tliis question, Linnceus has in this little tract sufficiently proved 
by a series of new facts, that the polletty or dust of the aiUhera^ 
(analogically called the male parts,) is absolutely necessary to be" 
shed on the stigma, or female part, in order to render the seed 
fertile. His theory of vegetation, pre6xed to the tract, is ex- 
plained more at large in a paper entitled Prolepsis Plantarum, 
and printed in the 6th volume of the Amcenitates Academics. 

Jt was, if possible, an additional glory to Linnaeus to have 
merited the premium from the Petersburg Academy ; in as much 
as a professor of that city (Dr. John George Siegesbeck), a few 
years before, had with more than common zeal, although Avith a 
futility like that of the other antagonists of our author, en- 
deavoured to overturn the whole Linnean system of botany, by 
attempting to show that the doctrine of the sexes of plants had 
no foundation in nature, and was unsupported by facts and ex- 
periments. ITie work in which Linnseus was thus attacked bears 
the title of Botanisophue verioris sciographia ; cui accedit ob argu- 
menti analogiam epicrisis in Linrusi Interna Plantarum, ^c. (Petrop. 
1737- 4to.) It has been mentioned before that our author wisely 
declined answering any of its invectives ; this task, however, was 
soon afterwards undertaken by his friend Professor Browaliiusf, 

* This (liequisition was republished by Schrcber in the 10th volume of his editioa of 
the Amcenitates, and by Gilibert in the first volume of his fkind. Bot. It has beni trans- 
lated into English by Dr. Smith under the title of a Dissertation oit the sexes of plants 
(I.ondon 1766. Svo. pp. 62), including some facts discovered since the time^of Linnseus. 
M. Broussonet has translated it into French (in the Journal de Physique) with notes 
itoxa Dr. Smith's Dissertation. 

t In a work entitletl Examen epicriseos in systema plantarum sexuals cl. Unncei, 
um-tore Siegeibeckio, (Aboe 1 739. 4tOL) 

. «2 of 

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Trjig j a). ' 


of Abo, and also by Professor Glcditsch*, of Berlin, both of 
whom were as successful in pointing out the malevolence of Sie- 
gesbeck, as in controverting his arguments and positions. 

In the autumn term of the year 1759, their SwedisJi Majesties^ 
with the Prince Royal, being pleased to honour the university of 
Upsala with a visit, Linnaeus, as Rector, pronounced before them 
an oRATioN-f-, which was printed, and afterwards republished in 
the Latin language by Schreber^;. It is very concise, and re- 
lates chiefly to the importance of tlie sciences in generaK. 

In the year I76I, Linnaeus obtained a greater accession to his. 
well-merited honours than evcr» being presented by his Sovereign 
with letters of nobility, which were antedated the 11th of Apri]> 
1737. On thus becoming a nobleman, he (agreeably to tlie 
custom on those occasions in Sweden) changed his name to vos. 
LiNNE, and assumed arms correspondent to his new rank^.. 

He received additional distinctions also from foreign academies^, 
being presented in 1755 with a diploma from that of Petersburg ; 
and in 1762 from the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, 
among whose members a vacancy had occurred in consequence 
of the death of the celebrated astronomer, Bradley. As the 

• Gleditsch's work bears the title of Consideralia E^icriseos SiegesheckianiB. (Berol, 
n\0. 8VO.) 

t Tal, vid deras Kongl. Majesteters Hiiga Narvaro haUit uti Upsalb pa stora CaroUn'- 
ska LSrosaleaden ib-Sepleml. \^AQ. (Upsal. 1759- fol. i pp.) 

X Orat'ui coram Rege et Regina Suecice, ia Amoen.AcaJ.eAV. a 5cAr«iero. Vol. 10.. 
p. 33 — 65. 

§ His arma were very appmpriate and. significative, the shield being divided' (by a 
sort of pale, shaped like the IcUer Y, which is common in Swedish heraldry) 
into three fields ; gules, vert, and sable, with a crown in each, to denote the three 
kingdoms of nature } and in the middle, an egg (on a hurt) in allusion to his funda- 
mental position — " omne vivum ex ova." The crest was the Linneea horealis, between 
two aloe leaves, which arc also frequent in armorial bearings of the Swedes ; tha 
motto Famum extendere/actis^ 


Digitized by 



statutes of the last-mentioned instituticMi admitted of only eight 
persons being placed on the foreign list, and as no Swede had 
received that compliment before, Linnaeus justly considered it 
the highest literary honouf that had hitherto been conferred on 
him. — ^There was scarcely a learned body in Europe that did not 
DOW manifest an anxiety to have the name of our illustrious 
philosopher on its list*. 

Many of the most exalted individuals also, of different 
countries, testified their admiration of his extraordinary talents 
in the most marked manner. Sovereign princes not only paid 
him the highest compliments, through the medium of their 
ambassadors, but even transmitted to him presents-f-; and some 
of them expressly invited him to their courtsj. The most flat- 
tering testimony he received of the extent and magnitude of his 
fame was from the King of Spain, who invited him to settle at 
Madrid, with the offer of an annual pension for life of 2000- 

* Bttides the societies already particularized above, those of Thoulouse, Florence,. 
Drontheiai, Celle, Rolferdani, Sienna, and Bern, the Medical Society of Paris, the 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, and the Royal Patriotic Society of Sweden sue 
cessively received LionxuB into the numberof their members. 

-t LJnnmus had the honour of being presented with a collection of seeds from the 
garden at Trianon, by the Kingof France, Lewis XVlh, who, when the Swedish monarch 
visited Paris, particularly complimented him on his country being possessed of such a 
distinguished philosopher. His Danish Majesty sent him two of the finest works on 
subjects of natural history that had been published in Denmark, the ^lora Danka and- 
Rcgenfus's Choic de CoquUlages. 

X Among other illustrious personages,. Caroline Princess- of Hessc-Darmsudt (who 
was become very partial to the study of botany, and who had prajected the publication 
of some botanical, drawings) expressed a strong desire to have Linnseiis resident near 
her. His own sovereigns (especially the Queen) were aochanned.with the extent of his 
knowledge, and the agreeablcness of his conversation, that they Irequently received him 
at their palaces of Drotningholm and Ulricsdahl in th« most.&miliar manner ; and 
Cua^vus even honoured him with visits at Hammarby. 


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pistoles, letters of nobility, and the free exercise of his'own re- 
ligion — an offer not paralleled in the history of modern times, 
and more honourable perhaps, the state of the nation in which it 
originated, with all its circumstances, duly considered*, than 
was ever before made to any literary character. 

AVhat Femey and Genera were on account of Voltaire and 
Rousseau, the remote city of Upsala became on account of 
LinnEcus. No strangers of any philosophic curiosity visited the 
north of Europe without endeavouring to see this illustrious 
naturalist-f. Some of them prolonged thek stay in the Swedish 
juelropolis solely witli a view to gain that knowledge of the various 
branches of natural history to which he, of all men who had ever 
lived, imparted the most powerful chajins ; and, they thought 
no recompense too liberal for the advantages derived from his 
conversation and instruction J. 

The great character of Linnseus, and tliat of his coUeagues^ 
particularly of Rosen, in the medical departments, and their 
united endeavours, had {as we have before observed) very con- 
siderably raised the reputation of Upsala, as an university. The 
number of students was double what it is said to have been 

* It is almost superfluous to state that linneus did not accept it ; he returaed For 
answer (acknowledging in the fullest manner the singular honour conferred upon him) 
that " if he had any meritSj they w^redue to his own counlry," 

t Among other distinguished persons, the Earl Macartney, v^'hen he was Englisft 
minister' at Petersburg, went from that city to Upsala on purpose to visit Linnaeus. 
The celebrated Due de Rochefoucault also, who was nuich attached to the pursuit of 
botany, devoted a considerable time to interviews with him both in the univertity 
and at Hammarby, with the treasures of which place (LJnnceus informs us in his 
Diary) the Dwc was highty delighted. 

X The Dcmidoffs, who belonged to a family of coi»sidcrable consequence in Russia, 
gave him 3400 dollars (about lool. sterling), and oitr countryman ' Lord Baltimore a 
-«t;rvice of silver plate, besides other costly presents. His regular fee for private lec- 
luiVs, which he readduring the summer at Hammarby, was a ducat (about Qs. 6d. of 
<iur mooey) a lecture, but he oever wouW receive mojc thaniisur piqiils for the course. 


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Haxty or fortir years before*. "Hie emulation excited amoog 
his pupils amply reiearded IJnnaeus, by the vast harvest of 
useful informati(Mi that flowed in from them after they were 
dispersed over the world. Some of these young meu, settling in- 
distant universities, were afterwards promoted to professorships, 
and did lasting honour to the memory of their master by pro- 
mulgating his system, and illustrating its various branches by 
their writings ; such were George Tycho Holm, who had been 
leut to heap Linnaeus by the King of Denmark, and was after- 
wards appointed Pn)fes3OT at Copenhagen, — Nicolas Law- 
rence BuRMANN, made, on his return to Amsterdam, Professor 
of Botany and Physic in that university, — John Chuistian 
DanielaSciiebbee, whom we have mentioned already as editor 
of the Linnean Genera Ptantarum, and who has been promoted 
to the Professorship of Natural History at Erlangen, to tlic dignity 
of an Aulic Counsellor, and to the Presidency of the Imperiat 
Academy Nafura Curiosorum, — Adam Kuiin, who came fron^ 
America solely for the purpose of attending Linnteus's lectures,, 
and, on his return, became the first Professor of Botany at Phila- 
delphia,— John Christian Fabriciits, the celebrated en- 
tomologist, and Professor at Copenhagen, — John James Fer-- 
BEB, whose mineralogical traveh are well known, and who be- 
came Professor at Mitau and Counsellor of the Mines to the King, - 
of Prussia, — John Andrew Murray, late Aulic Counsellor, 
and Professor of Botany at Gottingen, — Paul DrcTERic 
GisEKE, Professor of Physics at Hamburg, and a ta-vourite 
pupil of Linnaeus, — Martin Vahl, the present Danish Pro- 
fessor, who has distinguished himself by his Symbols Botanica^. 
Ecloga Americana, (Jc. and has just commenced an Emimeratio 
Planiarum (after the method of jiis great master's Species) whiclv 

• In 1739, the mimber amounted to 1,300. {Sioever.) 


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120 -C. tERKSTEOH. 

will prObaWy take place of all other performances of a similar 
kind yet published. 

Others, as soon as they were properly grounded in natural 
history and medicine, had, with an ardour which nothing but 
the strongest love of science could inspire, voluntarily under- 
taken the most tedious and perilous voyages, supported by the 
munificence of particular patrons or societies, to investigate the 
productions of distant countries. Some of them, however, 
perished from -change of climate or other causes, and much of 
the fruit of their labour was lost with them. It may not be 
amiss to particularize the most remarkable of these expeditions, 
as they have a very intimate connection with the more immedi- 
ate subjects of our pages ; they furnished materials for the great 
oracle of science^ and proved essentially serviceable towards 
enlarging and improving the later editions of the Systema Nahira, 
a work which we shall see him hereafter exhibiting in a much 
more perfect and detailed manner than it had as yet appeared. 

We think it proper first to remark, that the Swedish East India 
Company were particularly forward in promoting the cultivation 
of natural history, of which their director, Magnus Lagerstrom, 
was a distinguished lover ; but the Company were principally 
influenced by the exertions of Count Tessin, who, when their 
charter was renewed, stipulated that a young man should be sent 
out to the eastern parts of the world, every year, in the East 
India fleet, free of expense, and that the Company's ofliccrs 
should assist the latter in his pursuits to the utmost of their 
power. The first person that embarked on this laudable mission 
was C. Ternstkom, who had distinguished himself hy a dis- 
sertation on tiie isle of Aland*, in which he had accurately 
described various natural productions of that spot in the Lin- 
nean metliod. Ternstrbm sailed from Gothenburg for China, 

• DhseilatiodeJUmdia, maris Baltic'i insula, Upaal* 1739. 4lo. Paries S. pp. 67. 

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but fell a victiln to the climate at Pulocondor, in 1745/ This 
expedition therefore was wholly unproductive, and it became 
necessary to select some other young man, who was wiUing to 
encounter the same dangers. 

In the mean time, a plan was formed for exploring the north- 
ern parts of America, with a view to ascertain whether many 
plants of that continent, which promised to be very useful in 
oeconomy and medicine, might not, from similarity of soil and 
climate, be cultivated with success in Sweden. Linnaeus had 
expressed himself very confidently on this subject; but he was 
more particularly anxious that an attempt should be made to 
introduce a mulberry tree*» which was known to him to be in- 
digenous in Canada, and which, by feeding the silk-worm, might 
give origin to a domestic manufacture of that important article. 
The importation of raw silk into Sweden (a branch of trade to 
wliich the attention of the country had been recently turned by 
some interesting observations addressed to the Royal Academy 
of Sciences by Captain Triewald-f) drew an immense sum annu- 
ally out of that kingdom, the resources of which were so far from 
being abundant as to render such a project for their improvement 
highly deserving of attention. Accordingly, many public bodies 
came forward with pecuniary contributions, and, on the recom- 
mendation of Linpaeus, his pupil Peter Kalm was engaged for 
the journey. This young man had already distinguished himself 
as a traveller, by the publication of a tour in some of the Swedish 

• Moms rubra, which was afterwards very nimutrly described in the Fetensk. Acad. 
Handling, (for 1776. p. 143 — 173-) by the traTcHer tq whose ei^ieditioB it gtve rise. 

t Sec " FoTsok angaende mojeligheter at Suea Hike kunde iga egit radt silke." 
Vetensk. Acad. Handling. 1745. p.33, sg;p. 13&— 147;p- 16^— ao6}andp.S93— 866. 
1746, p. 83 — 93; p. 957—273, 

B, province's. 

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provinces*, and his acquirements in natural science were hi^ilj 
respectable, lie set sail for America, or rather for England, 
(where he passed six months,) December the 11th, 1747, and 
arrived at Philadelphia September the 26th, 1748, accompanied 
by Lars Yungstrom, whom he had taken into his service both as 
a gardener and draughtsman. Alaking Philadelphia chiefly his 
winter qunrtcrs whilst he remained on the American continent^ 
his excursions were annually commenced trom that city. In 
1749, he went through New Jersey and New York along the 
river Hudson to Albany, and thenee, after having crossed the 
lakes St. George and Champlain, to Montieal and Quebec, 
Tlie following j'ear, he visited the western parts of Pennsyl- 
vania and the coast of New Jersey. Yungstrom staid in the 
former province all the summer, to collect seeds, &c. whilst 
Kalm passed the blue mountains, and went from Albany, along 
the river Mohawk, to the Iroquois nations ; he navigated the 
great lake Ontario, and saw the celebrated fall at Niagara. On 
his return to Philadelphia for the last time, he crossed the blue 
mountains in a different part, and made a great number of very 
interesting observations. Large cargoes of seeds, plants, and 
curiosities having been shipped off, at different times, for Sweden,, 
the two travellers followed them in February 1751, but did not 
arrive at Stockholm until the month of June following. Their 
success was, in every respect, as great as could have been rea- 
sonably expected, and in the year 1753 Kalm commenced the 
publication of his account of it, which,, however, was not com- 
pleted until I76I-I", owing to the difficulties and discounigements 

* ff^stgilbaoch Sakuslandska Baa, f mratiad or 1749. Stockholm 1746. 8vo. 
f Jtesa tit None .America, /brraltad of PhTU ILalh. .wki, 6vd. Tom. 1 . 17AS.— - 
T.«.1756v—T. 3.176*. 


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at that titae attendant on printing in Swedc9'> Hiese travels^ 
notwithstanding the many since published by other authorsi 
may still be considered as highly worthy of being consulted, and 
are particularly interesting to naturalists, on account of their 
accuracy and minuteness of description. They were iminedir 
ately translated into German by the Murrays, and through tjiis 
medimn they at length assumed an English dress from the well 
knownJ.R.rorstcr,whoillustratedtheworkbya map and original 
figures of birds, &c. which do not accompany either the Swedish 
or the German publication*. By Linnseus's means, Kalm was 
established in the Professorship of Natural History at Abo, where 
be cultivated (in his.jpwn garden) a great nmnber of American, 
plants, and distinguished himself by writing many curious dis- 
sertations on various branches of science. 

Linnojus had dwelt a good deal, in his lectures, on the vast 
£e)d for discovery that was then open in tlie East, particularly in 
Balestine, tlie natural lustory of which region, much as it was 
connected with the interpretation of various passages in sacred 
writ, and with antient literature in general, had scarcely even 
been toucl*ed up<»i by any scientific traveller. He vasat length 
very agi'eeably surprise*! to find that bis observations on this 
subject were likely to l>e productive of the fullest efiect in one of 
his own pupils, whose imagination liad been so fired witli a lox*c 
of knowledge and an ent!iu8i;ism for enterprise, that he suddenly 
declared to Linnajus a detenaiination to investigate the natural 
productions of that interesting part of Asia himself. This pupil 
was Frederic Hasselquist, a native of East Gotliland. The 

* Pavels into North Amtrica; containing its natural ktsiori/, and a circuvi^antia/, 
accmint of iti plantations and agriculture in general. By 1'eteb Kalm. (Svo. Vol. l. 
WAiringtoa J 770^— Vol. 2 and 3. I^ndon 1 77 1 

R 2 expense 

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expense alone, necessarily attendant on such an expedition, 
might have deterred a young man of much greater affluence than 
cur young student, who, however, was not to be stopped by 
obstacles of this sort, nor even by any fears for his health, 
though he had been subject to alarming complaints in his lungs. 
He collected what money he could among his relations and 
friends, with which and a stipend given him by some of the 
faculties at Upsala, he set sail from Stockholm, August 7th, 
,17-49. The Levant Company conveyed him free of expense to 
Smyrna, where he arrived on the 26th of November, and where 
he passed the winter months, diligently making himself ac- 
quainted mth the language and manners of the Asiatics. - In th^ 
spring of the following year, he went to Magnesia, in Natolia, 
and, afler having visited Mount Sipylus, returned to Smyrna^ 
whence he sailed in May for Alexandria. From Alexandria, be 
proceeded to Cairo. By this time, however, his pecuniary re- 
sources began to fall so short of his wants, that the further pro- 
secution of the Journey would most probably have been im- 
practicable, had not Linnaeus, as soon as he was ii^ormed of the 
circuinstance by letters from Hasselquist, exerted himself most 
actively t& procure an increase of contributions ; he supplied a 
handsome sura from his own pocket, and was so successful in his. 
applieatione to the various scientific corporations of Stockholm 
and Upsala, that at length about 3301. were collected. In the 
mean time, Hasselquist visited the pyramids and catarembs of 
Egypt, made observations on the rise and fall of the Nile, and 
transmitted to his friends in Sweden various intere&ting comr 
munications on these and other subjects, which were, most of 
them, published in the literary jom-nals of Stockholm, and some 
among the memoirs of the Swedish Academies. AVitl) a seasonable 
supply of money, he had the honour of receiving also a diploma 


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from Upsala constituting him Doctor in Physic, many of the 
necessary forms for attaining which degree the university had in 
this case, out of compliment, dispensed with. Our persevering 
traveller now proceeded to the Holy Land, visiting Damietta 
and Jaifa in his way. He went to Jerusalem with the pilgrims, 
and thence to Jericho, Bethlehem, Acre, Nazareth, Tiberias, 
Cana, Galilee, Tyre, and Sidon. After having satisfied his 
curiosity, and made many important obsen'^ations and discoveries 
in those countries, he embarked for Cyprus, viewed part of that 
island, and then visited those of Rhodes and Chio. He returned 
to Smyrna about the close of the year 1751, fondly hoping to 
be the bearer of the fruits of his laborious expedition to his 
native country ; but a return of haemorrhage from his lungs de- 
tained him at this port, where he died consimiptive, February 
9th, 175^, in the 30th year of his age. The news of the untimely 
death of this truly meritorious traveller gave Linneeus heart-felt 
concern, which was in no small degree aggravated by the in- 
telligence that the immense collection of subjects of natural 
history, &c. brought by Hasselquist as far as Smyrna, were se- 
questered there for a debt of 3501. Neither the Swedish Consul 
in the Levant, nor the persons wlu) had patronised the unfortu- 
nate nattiraiist, had the means of redeeming this treasure. At 
length, however, the Queen of Sweden (who had been informed 
of the circumstance by Linnseus's particular friend,^ Dean Biick) 
was pleased to pay the siun required, and the collection was 
forwarded to Sweden. After the journal and triplicates of all 
the dried plants* had been put, by Her Majesty's command, 
into the hands of Linnaeus, the remainder of the cargo, con- 

• A deacription of theae was irfterward* given in an academical dissertation, entitled 
Si»ra PaiastmOf of which we aball bare occatioa to speak more fully heceaft^. 


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sistiiig of a prodigious number of preserved autmala, shells, 
plants, tatnerals, gems, coins, Arabic MSS. &c., was distributed 
in the royal museums of Drotningholm and Ulricsdahl. 

We yet deplore the more recent fate of Peter Forskaol 
(another of Linnseus's pupils) and his unfortunate associates, in 
Arabia ; and the more so, as his posthumous descriptions*, fwb* 
Tished at Copenhagen in 1775, are sufficient to convince us, that 
the fruit of his expedition would have been rich and lai^e, had. 
it not lM?en so unhappily blasted. It was undertaken by order 
of Frederic Xth, King of Denmark, in whose history this second 
plan for exploring the East ought always to be recorded, asa 
striking pwof of that monarch's zeal fw the promotion of 

Tn 1757i Linnseus committed to the press Hasselquist's pa* 
pers. under the title of Fredrie Hastelquist^ M. D. ^c. Iter Pa- 
t^sTiNUM, elier Resa tU Heliga Landet ferr'dttad ifran ar 1749 
til \T5^. (Stockh. 8vo. pp. QlQ.) In this volume, the substance 
of which is in the Swedish language, the animals, [dants, materia 
medicaf &c. are systematically described apM-t, in Latin. The 
importance of the contents caused it soon to find its way into 
other languages, and firat into the German,* from which it was 
translated into French'f-. There is also an En^ish translation;}:, 
now become scarce: a circumstaaice sufficiently indicative of the 

* Detcriplioms ArUmaUum, &tc. qua in Utrure oriaitali olservavit Peirm Torshihlj 
Profetsor Havmensis, edidit Karsten NKbufa: 4to.~-Ftora jEgyptiaco-jiralica, 4to. 

Thiaeditorwas the-only Burvivorof Ihe'five gentlemen who were selected for the ex- 
pedition, and whose namei were Counsellor Niebuhr, Pro^sor Forskahl, Professor 
von Haven, Professor Cramer, and Baumlientl, the painter. 

t Fbyages dans Lb Lewait, (£iru les asnies I749,-50,-91, et -ii, (Paris. Part I. 

pp. S60.— Part s. pp. 801. evo. 1769-) 

t Voyages and Travels m Ike I^mftmt, Vc, JJmioa, 1700. 8vo. wiUt a map. 

3 intrinsic 



mtrinstc value of the work, ivhicb for its origioality, as well as 
accuracy and variety of information, must alwaj'S rank higU 
among books of travels. 

Notwithstanding the melancholy fate of Ternstrbm, it was not 
long before another young man was found, desirous of accom- 
pUshing the object of that voyage. A clergyman, of the nama 
of OsBECK, engaged himself for this purpose, as chaplain to a 
Swedish East Indiaman, which sailed from Gothenburg Novem- 
ber 18th, 1750. He was absent almost two years, during which 
time he visited various parts of the East Indies and China, and 
the islands of Java, Ascension, 8cc. Nothing seems to have 
escaped his attention, at whatever place he touched. His ob- 
servations on the Chinese were made with particular study, and 
tbey confirmed in a great degree the judgment of Lord Ansoiv 
respecting that extraordinary people. He kept a regular jour- 
nal of all his remarks and discoveries, which, on his return, Lin- 
nteus and other persons pressed him to publish entire. Linnseus 
had received from him above 600 specimens of Chinese plants, 
and many descriptions, both zook^cal and botanical, wholly new ; 
the public curiosity therefore was naturally directed by these, (of 
which our great author had already availed himself in some of his 
works,) to the remaining fruits of the expeditifHi. Neither was 
this curiosity left ungratified. Osbeck published his voyage in 
1757*) and proved by the performance that bis time and trouble 
had beOn employed most adviuktageously to the interests of sci- 
ence. His ardor for discovery prompted him to propose going 
out to China a second time, but this design was on some ac- 
count or other abandoned. 

* " Deghk ofcr en Ostmdisk resa arm lliO, \XSl, 1758. Stockb. avo. pp. Sis. 


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In the same volume with Osbeck's voyage was published that 
of Torek*, another scientific adventurer, who visited Surat, as 
chaplain to a Swedish merchantman called the Gothic Lion. 
lliis last-mentioned voyage is illustrated by 12 plates, all (ex- 
repting the last) containing figures of new plants. It consists 
of letters addressed to Linnaeus, from Nov. 20, 1752, to May 3, 
1753. Both these voyages have been translated into German-f-, 
and EnglishJ; into the former of those languages by Georgi, 
(who was superintended in the work by Schreber,) and into the 
latter by Forster, who was enabled to avail himself of a revision 
of the German translation, and also of additions, made by Osbeck 
himself. Anjiened to both is Osbeck's speech on being chosen 
a member of the Stockholm Academy, showing what should be 
chiefly attended to on a voyage to China; there is also an ac- 
count of the Chinese husbandry, by Captain C. G. Eckeberg. 

About the time that Osbeck was preparing to embark for the 
East Indies* Linnteus was appliedto by the Spanish Ambassador, 
in the name of the King of Spain, to recommend a proper" per- 
son to explore the natural productions of that kingdom, and te 
settle as a botanist at Madrid. Our professor chose for these pur- 
poses Peter Loflino, one of his favourite pupils, and one of 
the most diligent students in the university. Lbfling set out in 
the spring of 1751, and landed in Portugal, in the course of his 
travels through which kingdom and Spain, he sent to LiDnseu» 

• « £b Ostindisk resatil Suratie, Cftijw, &c. /rani 750 j4pr. }. lU 1752 Jim, Bfl. 
forrdUad 1^ OUff Toren, uU href ofversdnd til Archiater lAnnteua." p. 3I3 — 376. 

t "Reise Ttach Ostindien und Cliiiia, ahenext von J. G. Georgi." Rostock 1765. Bvo. 
pp. 410. tabb. 13. 

I j4 Foyage to China and the East Indies, htf Peter Osbeck, rector of Hastoef and 
Wifrtorp, CSc, together with A Foyage to Suratte, ty Olof Toren, &c. t-ondofi 1771- 
fivo. 3 Vds. A Faunula and Fktra Sinensis are added. 

■■4 above 

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above tfOO specimehs of plants. He gave so much satisfaction 
to his royal patron by the manner in which he acquitted himself 
of his engagements, that he was afterwards selected for an un- 
dertaking of still higher importance to the Spanish government; 
this was a journey through its different provinces and settlements 
in South America. Among other instructions, Lbfling was di- 
rected to collect plants for the King of Spain, the King of 
France, the Queen of Sweden, the Spanish minister, and Lin- 
NMus. The mention of the names of her Swedish Majesty and 
the illustrious Professor at Upsala, was no less a compliment to 
the young traveller than to those two personages, for his services 
must have been commenBurate with the obligation which it 
evinced ; and we cannot doubt that he would have done addi- 
tional honour both to his friends and to himself, had not unkind 
iute arrested him in the full career of his usefulness. He had 
been in America scarcely twelve months before he was seized 
with so obstinate a tertian ague, that the disease undermined 
his constitution, brought on dropsy, and at length cut him off, 
in the flower of youth*, on the 11th of February, 1756. Lin- 
nSEUs, who had fonned great expectations with regard to the 
result of his pupil's expedition, and who had felt great admi- 
ration for the ardour of this young man in the cause of sci* 
ence, was of course deeply affected at his deathf. Having 
been in constant correspondence with him from the time of his 

* He was only 27 years of age. 

t " Nullus facile erat (says the writer of the paper entitled Reformatio Bolaniees, 
in the Amcenitates Academicce) kuic anteferenduf) vel amore pl-aniarum, vel solida eru- 
dilione lotanka, ut laceam quod nulli similis occasio concessa Juit j qtiare obilum gut 
viagnopere nas dolere oportet." (Vol. 6. p. 317.) 

s leavins' 

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1^0 H. KAHLFS.. 

leaving Sweden, and as the tetters which he had- received" con- 
tained a variety of valuable information, our author judged that;, 
by cpmraitting them to the press, lie should, perform an accep- 
table service to the public : accordingly in the year 1758, he 
honoured the lamented Lbfling's memory by a volume entitled) 
Petri Lofiing, ^c. Iter Hisfanccum, eller Resa til Spanska. 
LUndertta uti Etiropa och America^ forriittad ijrati ar 1751 til ar- 
1756, med beskrifningar och ran ofvcr de markvardiga^e vaxier 
nlgifvcn efter dess franfalle qf Cavl Linnans. (Stockholm 8vo- 
pp. 316. tabb. 3.)' T^^ volume has been translated into the 
German language, by A. B. Kolpin, (Berlin and Strakund I766. 
8vo. pp. 406.) and also into tlie Spanish, by Ignacio de Asso, 
(in the Anales de Cienciast Naturales, Tom. 3. p. 278 — 315. Tom. 4, 
p. 155—191. Tom. 5. p. 82 — 104.) Some of the most interest- 
ing parts are printed with the Travels of Bossu, as translated by 
Porster. The descriptions ofthe plants ar« given, ia the Linnean' 
nanner, sepacately from the letters, so as to be useful to Headers 
wholly unacquainted, with the Swedish language.. Lofling had. 
sent specimens of most of these plants to Linnaeus, whilst he 
was on his travels. 

Much as Linnceus was disappointed iuthe hopes he had formed 
£rom the mission of Lofling to America, he was still more so, 
with respect to a plan he had medita;ted f»r the exploring of the- 
Cape of Good Hope. This was a part of the worid from which 
he knew that a vast addition to natural history was to be 
derived; and he had actually obtained a travelling exhibition, 
through his interest with the Queen of Sweden, to- enable one 
of his pupils to search that distant and fruitful region.. The 
young man he had pitched upon as most proper for Uie enterprise 
was Dr. M. Kauler, who,, Kowever (notwithstanding an ap- 




plicatioa bad been made in his favour, through the Swedish 
ambassador at the Hague), was not permitted by the Dutch 
government to execute the plan, though its exclusive ol^ect was 
the increase of science* ! 

LinniEus expresses his surprise at this illiberalitj, in tenns as 
forcible as they are applicable, in his Diary. £ut he did not re- 
linquish the design of turning Kahler's enthusiasm to the ad- 
vantage of that pursuit with which it was connected. He advised 
him to visit Italy, and Kiihier returned from that country (for 
wiiich he «et out in the year 1752) laden with plants, many of 
which were quite new to his master, and proved a great acquisi- 
tion to European botany. 

* Ijniueua's importiint project, however,, in regard to exploring the Cape, wu 
ultimately carried into execution by a pupil in every respect qualified for the enter- 
piise ; we allude to Dr. Anders Sparxhan, who has added «000 to the number of 
natural productions known prior to the publication of his Voyage. The permisuon 
for this eminent zoologist to traret over the southemtnost part of Airica was ob- 
tuned by Captain Ekeberg, who bad in so many respects served the cause of natural 
history befoi^ uid who, from having had Sparrmao as his companion on a voyage to 
China,1iaill ascertained his various merits. linncus petitioned tbeDirectors of theSwedish 
East India Company to convey Sparrman to his place of destination in the same ad- 
vantageous manner as had been granted to others of his travelling pupils ; and the 
petition being successful, Sparrman s«led for the Cape in one of the Company's 
ships, in the year 1773. Whilst in that part of the world, the Doctor was so fortu- 
nate as to have an opportunity offered him of going round the world witli Messrs 
Forster, in the Re^ution ; but the result of his numerous discoveries, tn this circum- 
navigation, has not hitherto been presented to the public, except in various detached 
papers contained in the Swedish Transactions. The first volume of his Voyage made 
its ^^earance at Stockholm in 1763, under the title of Resa tiU Goda Hopps-tidden, 
aoSra pol-kretsen ock^mkring jordklotel, sami till Hoiteniott och Caffer-Umdeti, aren 
177^—1776 (8vo, with 10 plates); and il has been translated into £nghsh (London 
1785. 3 vols. 4to.) as well as other languages, 

s 2 The 

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The disciple whom we have next to mention, but who does not 
appear either to have given satisfaction, or to have manifested 
any attachment to Linnieus, is Rolamder. This young man 
was private tutor to our author's son, and had devoted much 
attention to the study of entomcJogy. A military officer, of tlio 
name of Dahlberg, being about to sail for Surinam in 1755, 
Lionseus prevailed on that gentleman to take Bolander with hini« 
in order that he might have opportunities of making observation* 
on the insects of -the country, more particularly on the Cochineal^ 
which Linnffius wished to be imported, if possibh?, alive, into 
Sweden. Rolander succeeded so far as to send home several 
insects of that species living, with the Cactus ; but the jar which 
contained them having first fallen into the hands of Linnaeus 's 
gardener, and the man conceiving the plant to be encumbered 
with extraneous matter which required being removed, the cochi- 
neals were all destroj'ed and lost before his master had even 
the satisfaction of seeing them. Linnaeus was so much dis- 
turbed by this provoking frustration of his endeavours to stock 
the orangery with an useful insect, that he was attacked in a 
most severe manner with hemicraiiia, which be imputed (as ap- 
pears by his Diary) entirely to a mental cause acting upon his 
nervous system. Rolander brought home a considerable col- 
lection of subjects of natural history, but was ungrateful enough 
not to present his kind patron with any of theni. He visited the 
island of St. Eustatius, as well as Surinam. 

Of the result of Alstromer's journey to the southern parts 
of Europe we have no particular account ; but from Linnseus's 
naming this pupil in the list of those by whose expeditions he 
had profited, it may reasonably be inferred tliat he brought 
home information highly acceptable. 



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A. R. MARTIN. 133 

Linnaeus had a very useful and indefatigable disciple in A. R. 
Martin*, who, in 1758, visited several parts of Norway, and 
made many interesting discoveries in natural history : his atten- 
tion seems to have been more particularly directed to the class 
Vermes, of which he made known to Linnseus many new species ; 
and he was the first person who sent to the latter, specimens of 
Anomia Caput Serpentis with the animals alive, which was a most 
gratifying present to Linnaeus, for this species had never been seen 
before in any other than a fossil state. This young traveller also 
collected much valuable information of a medical and statistical 
kind, especially at Bergen, from which place he conveyed frequeut 
intelligence and specimens to Hammarby. From observing very 
closely the nature of the leprous diseases which prevail on the 
coasts of the Baltic, Martin was led to attribute them to a species 
of Gordiits infesting the skin. 

The attention of Linnaeus, however, was not turned exclusively 
to remote regions. He encouraged his disciples to pay particular 
regard to the productions of their own country ; and in order to 
examine these. Doctors Montin, Bergius, Tidstrom, Solan- 
T>£R,and Fa lk undertook to travel each to a separate district. The 
firstof these made many curious obsen'ations in Lulea Lapmark, 
of which we shall have occasion to take some notice hereafter. 
There is a manuscript sketch of his journey, in the Banksian 
library, under the title of Beskrifning ofvcr en resa ar 1749 om 
sommaren, forriittad iil Lapska JjUilarne afcan Lulea stad (4to. 
pp. 532.) — Bergius explored the isle of Gothland and Tids- 

* LioDKus speakii in the handsomest terms of this young man in more than one of 
his letters to Archbishop Mennander, with whom he luccesifully made interest to pro- 
cure him an exhibition irom tbt uoivenity of Abo, 

3 , TROM 

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TROH part of Westrogothia, in 1752, at the expense of Count 
Tessin^— SoLANDBR, (so well known in our own country) Pithea 
Lapmark and Lulea Lapmark, in 1753 ; and Falk some piu'ts 
of Gothland, in I76O. The last-mentioned traveller afterwards 
went to Copenhagen with the hope of being appointed to ac- 
company Forskahl into Arabia,butfae was disappointed. Through 
the recommendation of Linnaeus, however, he was called to 
Petersburg, wliere, in 17^5, he was made Professor in the 
medical college, and Inspector of the botanic garden. lie 
visited several parts of the Russian empire, and published a 
narrativeof his travels from I768 to 1773. The termination of this 
active naturalist's career was of a very melancholy nature, for he 
put an end to his own life at Casan, in Tartary, in the year 1774. 
But it was not from his travelling pupils alone that Linnseus 
obtained information, and was presented with specimens of 
plants. Those who were settled in various parts of the world ; 
likewise voyagers, professors, and other distinguished scientific 
men, who were acquainted with him merely by name and reputa- 
tion, constantly transmitted to him collections from every quarter 
<^ the globe, so that his hci'barium became stupendous, and his 
country-house at Hammarby* was filled with rarities belonging 


* X'inn^eus built a museum berc in 1708, (separate from the house, for its greater 
security against lire,) and arr^ged in it his large cabinets of insects, plants, sbdls^ 
and minerals. The collection of insects comprehended all Ibe Swedish, and most of 
the other species described by our author, and many quite new ; which was the case 
also with the shells. TTie non-descript species of the latter, however, were more 
numerous than of any other part of the system. As to ibe minerals, they pretty 
nt^iy corresponded with the number described in the Systema; but the specimens 
were in general far from being good ; a circumstance which may be accounted for from 
hjs having jprescDted all his best duplicates to Archbishop Meiwander, who was par^ 


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to all the kktgdoms of nature. The following were the source^ 
(he infonns us in his Diary) from which, in addition to those 
already mentioned, his botmical treasures were chiefly derived. 

M agnol's herbarium liaving fallen into the hands of Sauvages 
(of Montpellier), the hitter presented the whole of it to LinnseuR, 
besides a great number of plants collected in Languedoc by 

Gmelin, the well known traveller in Siiberia, sent him dupli- 
cates of all the species he had brought home from that country. 

STELLEtt's (the adjunctus of Gmelia) collection also came 
into the hands of Linnaeus. On the death of this traveller at 
Kiumeni, when he was returning from Kamtschatka, Leub^, 
who then became possessed of tliis collection, sold it to Demi- 
doff. This gentleman (mentioned before as having been a pupil 
of Linnteus) wisliing to have all the plants accurately named» 

ticujarly pleased with fossila. The Hortui siccus conUinet] almost all the plants noticed 
in the Species Plantarum (with the exception of the Fia^ and Palmte), and some 
hundreds that bad never been named. They were disposed in the exact order of hi* 
ay8ieiD> so as to admit of every specimen bung readily referred to. His garden was 
contracted, yet he cultivated in it many rare planls> especially of Siberian growth. 
Mr. X>ryaQder informed the editor of these pages that he remembers to have seen Fk- 
tnaria nobilis flourishing in it, — a plant which (it is remarkable enough) has never been 
raised in England. The habitable apartments at Haminarby were fitted up in a man* 
ner no less interesting than characteristic of the pursuits of the owner. His parlour 
was ornamented with coloured plates and drawings (many of the latter made by ilw 
celebrated Ehret) of East Indian plants, pasted together so as to form paper-hangings. 
His bed-room was ornamented in- a similar manner with insecta^ Hia hall contained 
portraits of celebrated naturalists,, and plans of different botanic gardes. Other parta 
of the villa were adorned with stuffed birds from the South-seas, and various dressea 
and weapons^ of savage nations. Linnsus had also a collection of dried fish (most 
of which had been sent to him by Garden, Irom Carolina), and neady 800 vegetable 
productions from Surinam preserved in spirits of wine ; the latter were a present from 
his sovereign, and we dull haw occasionto spealcmore particularly of then) bctraften 

1 sent 

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s?:tnt them' to Ujwala, desiring our author to reserve the dopli* 
catts for himself. 

Brom'Jj, the historian of Jamaica, sold his fine and rare spe- 
cimens to Linnaeus. 

Dr. ]UsTER, of Zealand, sent him upwards of 300 plants 
collected in the island of Java. To this number a large trunki 
full of the productions of the same spot, was added by Kleinhof. 
■who had formed a large botanic garden there, and brought 
home with him to Holland a great many East Indian species 
which he had cultivated himself. 

KiiNiG, on his return from Iceland, sent to Linncerus many 
Bpecimens from that country, especially of Fuel and other ma- 
rine plants, which were incomparably fine. Not content with 
giving this testimony of his respect and remembrance, he after-* 
wards forwarded to the Professor many hundred specimens from 
Madeim, the Cape of Good Hope, and Tranquebar; and among 
these were several species entirely new. 

BuiiMANN likewise made him a present of Cape plants ; but 
no one obliged him more than Governor Tulbagh, who not only 
sent above 200 specimens of the rarest vegetable productions of 
that part of Africa, but also caused to be packed up with great 
care a multitude of bulbous roots, which were conveyed to Lin- 
nffius alive, for the purpose of being cultivated in his hot-houses. 
Linnaeus considered his collection of Cape plants as one of the 
finest that had hitherto been made. 

Though RoLANDEK had presented most of the AVest Indian 
plants which he had brought home with him to De Geer, the 
latter generously gave up to Linnaeus the Avhole number. 

In short, botanists seem to have contended with each other 
in sending rare and remarkable plants to our great naturalist, 
some anxious to receive his opinion, and all seeking to aiford 


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liim gratification, of whicli no man who had ever lived, perhaps, 
Tvas in this way more susceptible. 

.' Besides.tiie numerous correspondents whom we have already 
mentioned in the preceding pages, were Professor John Amman, 
M. DemidofT, Krasclieninnikow (Uic describer of Kamtschatka), 
Laxmann, Mounsey, and Gerhard Miiller, in Russia; Briinnich, 
Professor de Buckwald, Bishop Gunner, Ilorrebow, Otto Fried. 
Miiller, Niebuhr, and Zoega, in Jienmark and "Norway ; the 
Margravine Carolina Louisa, of Baden, John Philip Breynius, 
Francis Ernest Bruckmann, Burchard, Professor Briickner, 
Erhrart, John Albert Gesner, Professor Gleditscb, Professor John 
Ernest Hebenstreit, Hermann, Professor von Jacquin, Jsenisch, 
Professor John Lange, Professor Leeke, Lesser, Lehmann, Lu- 
dolff, J. C. Meyer, Mylius, Professor Scopoli, Spender, Wag- 
ner, Professor \Veissmann, and Xavier von Wulfen^ in Germany ; 
Professor Gesner, and Scheuchzer, in Switzerland ; Donati, Bru- 
nelli, Seguier, and Vandelli, in Italy: Professor Barrerc, de 
Bomaoe, Carrere,' Cusson, Gouan, Guettard,. Professes Antoioe 
and Bemhard de Jussieu, le Monnier, Professor . and . Abb6 
Sauvages, and du Vernoy, in France ; Beniades, Professor de 
Ortega, Professor Quer y Martinez, in Spain ; Ix>rd Baltimore, 
John Ellis, Dr. FothergUl, Ehret, Forater, Dr. Hope, Hudson, 
Lee, Professor Martyn, Mitchel, Pennant, Professor Sibthorp and 
Walker,in£H^/and; Atlamand, Professor deGorter, Professor Gro- 
novius, Moehringius, Roellius, Baron van Swieten, and Professor 
van WachendorfF, in Holland ; Bartram, Clayton, Golden, Garden, 
and Mutis, in America; Radermacher, in BataviOf &c. &c., all 
of whom were in the constant habit of communicating to him 
their discoveries in every branch of natural history and medicine. 
The Upaala garden having been rendered, by means of this 
«x1;Eaordinary extent of correspondence, and by his own unre- 
T mittins 

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Ijn OflfEltA HOKBOAa». 

mkting attention^ tb6 rfchest perhaps at that time in Aie worH,- 
Linnceus naturally became anxious respecting its fate after his- 
decease*; and having educated hts only son to the pursuit of 
that science, ivhich was the cliief source both of his own ffreat- 
i)cs5, and of his enjoyments through life, he wished to see the 
professorship secured to him in preference to other less perfectly- 
qualified applicants. This young man had already distinguished 
himself in the botanical world, and had been thought worthy 
to give the demonstFatious in the garden. His claim» iherefi»«r 
to the object of his father's wiahes could not be better groanded; 
and the latter accordiagly succeeded in getting the young Lla- 
nteuft nommated joint-professor with himself (though he via 
only 23 years of age) March 19, 1763. 

It has been observed that one of LinuBeus's departments, as a 
professM', was that of toacfarng the Diagnosis Mwborum. To- 
^s end, he drew up a systera» in which, a& m natural lustory,! 
all diseases were disposed into classes-, orders^ and genera, found' 
ed on distinetions taken &om the symptoms alone, no regard 
Iseing had to camt$y either remote or proximate. Before wa 

• He writes on thii SHbjcet as follows,- in s Fettei to AKhbisBop Mennander, Oct- 
Ud, 1761. " Sboald any one get Ae manageinent of it but > p«raon who from hi» 
youth has been brad up to it^ then tUs garden, at present undeniably die iiehc»t in thtf 
world, in respect t» plants, would- within »f<ew years be in as bad a state as the O^nl 
Garden is now, which, when Dillenius was- alive, was the irst, but dnring t^ two first 
years that S****** had the mansgement o£ it was alm<»t mined." 

Again be says, (in a Icttec dated the 1 7th of Norember,) " Should \% fUI» wKen I ain 
dtad, into the hands of one whoisnot bred upfoiAe purpose, it willrCertaiBJy,.witb-i 
in a few years be reduced to its former insignificance, because it reqoires a gieat deal o£! 
skill and experience to maintain the garden in the state in which it now is.- If I lire^ 
three years longer, 1 am confident that nobody will be able to take better care of it thau 
my son, and therefore he is the proper persfm to be employed when I am gone, sbcmldi . 
Ibe public with to keep it up.-" > 


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■ tr- ^ ,«iai»>»gfelta=gE 

.proceed to a particular view of Linnaeus's method of thus ar- 
Tangiug dififa&es, it will be proper to premise, that a nosology on 
this plan, the great object of which is to fix pathognomonics to 
every disease^ bad long been wished for by some of the first 
vriterB in the profession : such were Baglivi, Bocrhaave, Gorter, 
Gaubius, ftnd Sydenham, the last of whom has thus expressed 
himself on this subject, in the preface to his works, viz. " Ex- 
pedit ut morbi omnea ad definitas ac cerias species revocentur, eadem- 
prorsua diHgentia ac ax^iSfix, qua id factum videmits a botaniciM 
Mcriptoribu$ in suis phytohgiis," ■ Yet, from Uiat almost infinite 
variety and complication of appearances which are seen in dis- 
-eases, the difBculty of obtaining sufficient distinctions, by which 
the genui and «pecie< may be accurately discriminated, must be 
allowed to be very great ; and it is in many instances insur- 
mountable. Hence, some of the most eminent physicians bare 
been led to r^eet all such arrangements as fiitile and impracti- 
cable. This, however, has not deterred others from paying at- 
tention to the subject, more especially some of tiiose, who, from 
•their province as professors, are led to teach the rudiments of 
the art, and to whom method, in some form, is absolutely neces- 
sary. Systematic writers had used vftrions methods. Some had 
chosen the alphabetic (if that deserve the name of a system) ; 
others, after the example of Aretaeus and Ccelius Aurelianus, 
had- divided diseases, according to their duration, into acute 
and chronic. Others again, had preferred the anatomical order, 
which, as it presupposes a knowledge of the seat of the disease, 
must not unfrequently prove fallacious; Sennertus's is an in- 
stance of this kind. However, the aitiological arrangement has 
bwn most followed by the best writei-s among tlie moderns (as 
H<^man and Boerhaave), though it is not less I'aDacious perhajis 
tji&n the anatomical, since it is in many instances founded on an 
T S hypothi'i(is 

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hypothesh of the writer. Felix Pratenis, in his P/'aais Medica, 
published in l602, had given an imperfect sketch of a nosology 
on the symptomatic plan, yet no writer ventured to pursue his 
idea for more thana century, from the difficulty,, probably, of 
the attempt. At length,. Professor Sauvages, of Montpellier, 
after having communicated his scheme lo Boerhaave, published 
the outHors of such a work, under tlie title of Nouvelles Classes 
de MaladieSy (1731. 12mo.) in wliich he professes to define dis- 
eases from their constant and evident symptoms only. In the 
year 1763, the author augmented his work, by the addition of 
the species under each genus, to five volumes in octavo. Sauvages 
may be considered as having devoted his life to giring this de- 
sign a certain degree of perfection, for he enhurged it to two 
quafto volumes, in which form it was published after his death, 
in 1768. 

It will easily be imagined that an arrangement of this kind 
was too congenial with Linnseus's peculiar talents to be neglected 
by him. In tact, it appears that he very early corresponded * 
with Sauvages on the sul^ct, and that he soon adopted his prin- 
ciples of nosology, framing a set of institutes, as the basis of his 
lectures in this department, under the title of Gekera Mor^ 
BORUM in auditorum vsutn. (Upsal. 1763. 8to. 16 pp.) The 
scheme was first published in an academical dissertation, by one 
of his pupils, in 1759 i- but Linneeus had taught it in his class 
for ten. years preceding that time. His mvn edition, differs from 
the respondent's, only in exhibiting the Swedish in addition to 

* Tlie correspondence (we are infonned in the Diary) continued for thirty years, in. 
the course of which time linacus received from Sauvages above 100 letters. These 
letters are in the possession of Dr. Smithy and contain a store of information, which, 
if published^ would be highly interesting to the medical world. 

5 th« 



the Latin names of the genera, and in having an index, with rtie 
terms accentuated. It ought to be remarked, however, that the 
accent is in many instances very inaccurate. 

The symptomatic plan of arranging diseases has since been fol- 
lowed by some other professors of medicine ; as Vogel*, of Got- 
fingen; CuHen-f-, of I^inburgh; and SagarJ, of Iglaw, in 
Moravia. The system of the last of these authors, allowmg for 
some alterations and additions, may be considered as an useful 
abridgement, of Sauvages's ; he ha» subjoined the species under 
every genus, and also the method of cure. CuUen, by omitting 
many genera, and reducing others to the rank of species only, 
has so considerably abridged the whole, as not to have retained 
more than half the nnmber of genera which the other writers 
enumerate ; and in this form he has published the Synopsis an- 
nexed to the works of the latter, by which display of each, theii: 
respective merits may be compared, and a judgment formed of 
the practicability and use of the schema in general; — a scheme 
that affords (it must be confessed) a very ample field for cultiva- 
tion ; yet, irom that reform which was made by our countryman 
in various parts, it is not perhaps too much to hope, that 
symptomatology is capable of receiving a still higher degree of 
improvement, in the hands of those whose genius and industry 
may prompt them to extend the design of the above-mentioned 

Of Linnaeus's system we are led by our plan to exhibit a gene- 
ral view ; to which end, although our prescribed brevity will not 

* Thfatitiones Gerurum Mffrhomm. Gotting. 1764. 8vo. 

t Synopsu NosologuB Metkodicm. Edmb. 1769- 8vo.— -EH. Sndi, i;r2.— 3tia, 
1780, S Tem. 4to. 1785. The two lait editions comprehend ' the systemB of the 
other noiol(^Bte mentioned abose. 

X Systema Marbonan SysttmtUiaan. Viemue 1771 el 1776. 8vo. 


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fldiflit of gh'ing his4efinitioDs at length, yet it ■will be necessary to 
enumerate the names of all his genera, since nothing short of a 
view of the whole collectively can enable the reader to form a 
just idea of the author's scheme. Under each class, we shall 
observe wherein !^innaeus diifers materially from S^uvages, and 
note the alterations which CuUen has made in tlje disposition of 
the same genera. 

In the classes, Linn^us has altered most of Sauvages's terms, 
and constituted an additional class, with which he begins his 
method, viz. the Ex anthem a^ici, or Erttptive Fevers, which, in 
the systems of Sauvages and Cullen, £>rm only an order, or 
subdivision of a class. He has also changed the succession of 
^ome of the classes, and referred the A'xtia, or Local exterml 
disorders, (which are principally the subjects of surgCTy) to the 
end of his system. In this he has been followed by Yogel and 
CuUen. The classical distribution, however, is confessedly not 
the primary consideration, that of fixing the generic cbftracter, 
and of determining what shall constitute the - pacific, being the 
first object of every system. To this end a still further reduc- 
tion pf the number of genera and spems will prob^ly not & Uttle 

The classes are 11 in number : 

1. Exanthematici. 

2. Critici. 

3. Phlogistici. 

4. Dolores. 

5. Mentales, 
€. QuietaUs, 

7. Motorii. 

8. Suppressorii. 

9. Evacuatorii. 

10. Deformca* 

11. Vitia. 

Class 1. 

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Aenbrji- kobborw. 145 

Class 1. EXANTHEMATICI. Fevers attended ■mih erup* 

tidn& on the skin. 
Order 1. Contagiosi. Of a contagious nature* 
Genus 1. Morta. Veaiculary Fever. 

2. Pestis. Plague. 

3. Variola. Small-pox. 

4. Rubeola. Measles. 

5. Petechia. Spotted Fever. 

6. Siphjlis. Ventreal Disease. 

i. Sforadij^i. Sporadic (not contagious). 
7- Militoia. Miliary Fever, 
8. Uredo. Nettk Fever. 
9' Apfatiia. Aphihmts F^er. 
3. Solitahiz. Affectiaga part of the body only, 
10. Erysipelas. St. Anthony's Fire. 
In this class, as the disease is complicated of fever and 
eruption, the genus is defined from the nature of each. For 
instance, the Variola {or Small pox) is defined '* a disease attended 
with pustules of an erytipela^us, siq^uratingr escharotic kind ; at 
length falling off and kaimg a ctcmtrix. The fever of the ardent 
mnd taaUgnant kindy wUk head'ache emd pain of the loins" The 
term Fustula, and the othen in thi» dass expressive of the dif- 
Jcrent kinds of eroptjon, have tlteir d^aitkm in another part of 
the system. Such as appear m tiie Morta are called Fhlyctana; 
in the.Pes!^, Autkraces or Carbaiicles; in tbe Bubeolop, Papula; 
IB the Ptteehioy Sudttmina. 

I'bis class constitutes the first order of Saavages's Phlegma- 
sia; and the third of CuUcn's FyrbxIx class. la both, 
the genata are n^uly the same, except thai t4ie Morta oi hm.-- 
nieufr is tiie Pemp/usus of those aathois, and th« Petechia » eon>- 
4 sidered 

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.144 (WINCHA MOUBOHirM. Cullen as only a symptom. Our author stands al4n« 
^n bringing the Siphylis into the eKanthematic class; and he con- 
sidered himself justified by its being attended, ia the advanced 
state at least, by fever and eruptions. 

Class 2. CRITICI. Critical Fevere. 
J3rder 1. X^Ioktinentes. Of. the continued kind. 
Ccnujf IJ. Diana. Ephemeral fever. 

12. Synocha. Ardent fever. 

13- SyiKxihua. Malignant fever. 

14. Lenta. Slow fever. 
t. Inteshittentes. Agues. 

15. Quotidiana. Quotidian. 

16. Tertiana. Tertian. 
17- Quartana. Quartan. 

18. Duplicana. Double Tertian. 

19. Enrana. Erratic fever. 

X ExACEjRBANTBB. Bcnutting Fevefs. 

20. Ampbemerina. Continued fevers with a 

quotidian exacerbation. 
. 2L Trittta. Continued fever , with a tertian 

22. Tetartophya. Continued fever^ with a quar- 

ian eracerbaiion. 

23. Heanitriiaea. Tritsea complicated, or com- 

pounded, with the Ampbemerina. 

24. Hectics. Hectic fever. 

Our author fdlows the Tertian to be the root of all the Febres 
Cfitica, though he has, in the foregoing division, kept pretty 
<lose Xo Sauvageg's laethod by retaiiuBg the distinctions. In this 


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they are not Cdlowed by CuUen, who deniej the existence of 
QDnd'nwdfaTeriKad has greatly simplified the ariangeineat by 
zeduciug all the critical fevers to 6 genera^ viz. 

I. Terttaqa. 4. Synocha. 

i ' - 9. Quartana. 5. Typhus. 

3. Quotidiana. 6. Syoochus. 

and he lUlowed the Hntica to be n/mptomatic only. 

Class 3. PHLOGISnCI. Inflammations. 
Order 1. MEusBANACsr. Of Membranes. 

GenasSo. Phrenitis. Of Ihe iieningei of the Brain. 
S6. Farapbrenitis. 0/ the Diaphragm, 

37. Pleuritis. O/ Me Pleura. 

38. Gastritis. Of the Stomach. 

39. Enteritis. Of the Booth. 

30. Proctitis. O/Me Anus. 

31. Cystitis. Of the Bladder. 

2. PABEKCBrHATici. Visceral Inflammations. 

32. Spbacelismus. Inflammation of the 


33. Cynanche. Of the Throat. 

34. Feripneimioma. Of the Lungs. 

35. Hepatitis. Of the Liver. 

36. Splenitis. Of the Spleen. 

37. Nephritis. Of the Kidneys. 

38. Hysteritis. Of the Womb. 

3. MuscvLOsi. Muscular Inflammation. 

, 39. Phlegmone. Ir\fiammation of an external 


In this class Limueus has followed Saurages, dividing the 

diseases into Mehssabacei and Fabencutuatici, a division 

. , . . : V disapproved 

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1^ OE'ir'EitA HO^v^OKTTtf. 

Kfisapprored of by Cullen, on account 6f the difficulty of detertnia- 
ing positively the precise seat of the inflammation. The PHL£a>- 
MONE, being external, is ranked by Sauvages aitaohg his ViTtA;. 
On the other hand, Cullen gives it the first plac« in his order of 
FuLEGHAsiJB, Considering it^ in common with our author and 
others, as the prototype of the inflammations in general. But he 
has reduced 13 of Linneeus's generh and 12 of SatiTftg^'s to tiM 
rank of species^ under the genus Phlogotis. Further, he accounts 
AbscesSf GatigrenCf and Sphacelus as effects <Mily of Phlogoaist and 
tlierefore not entitled to the characters of separate g^tera. 
Numerous instances of this kind affotti a striking proof of the 
difficulties attending these arrangiements, in determining what 
distinctions shall t&ke place between genits and specie*. 

The generic character, in the Phlogistic class of our author, 
does not depend ~wholly on the part kitted being supposed to 
be the seat of the disease, bul -on tb^ ^enus of the attending 
fever also. Thus be defines the Hepatitis to be the ** Amphe- 
merina, attended wiih dry cougk^ dijicuk respiration, hiccough, 
and a serise of heat and tensim in the r%h/ liypochondrium.*' Th^ 
Nephritis is a " Synochus o/" an in^gular kind, attended zvith 
nameat hiccough, eructation, twriii^ in ffte urine, costiveness, 
burning heat in the tointt and tm*6fK* hfKite ihigh." 

Qass 4. DOLOllEiS. ^kifaful ^disl^&ses (most of them tin- 
attended with ^flainmbtion). 
Order 1. iNTEitisEci. Of internal parts. 
Cenus '4h. Ceplialalgia. Htdd^<Ste. 

'41. Heihtcrania. Ife&^^tJn, or pain of one side 

of the head only, 
ife. Gmvfe'do. i/uH plain of the fltr^tfii. 
ii. 'Ot)liaial&fe. I*«rt Sffftrtft. 

U. Otalgia. 

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44. Otalgia. JSffrvtCcAtf. 

45. Odontalgia. Toothache. 

46. An^na. Pmn » the throat, with m mum tf 


47. Soda. Heart-burn. 

48. Cardialgia. Pain at the scrobiculos eonlu» 

with tendency to faint. 

49. Oastrica. Pain of tht »t<maeh. 

50. Colica. Pain of the boweU, near the navel. 

51. Hepaticf^.Pff«»«^^Aen^/hypochoQdnum. 
5«, Splenica kfl ■ 

53. PLenritiea. Stitch, or pain of the nde. 

54. Pneumouica. Pan and oppression on the 


55. Hjrsteralgia. Pmn of the womb. 
516. Nepfantica. Pain of the kidneys. 
67' Djsuria. Pain ^ the bladder. 

58. Pudendagra. Pain of the pudenda. 
59- Ptoctica. Pain of the anus. 
2. ExTBiNsBci. Of external parts. 

60. Arthritis. Periodic pain of the joints. 

61. OstocopuB. Fixed pain of the joints. 

6%. Rheumatismus. Pain of the muscles when 

63. VoUtica. FU^ng pains of the vessels. 

64. Kiiritus. ^cessive itching of the skin, 

without eruption ofauy kind. 

Sauvages has a class of 5 orders under the term Dolores, 

disposed in the anatomical method ; under which most of the 

foreg<HHg genera are comprehended. Cullen, having no such 

ctass» is necessarily led to arrange these genera in different parts 

v2 of 

Digitized by 



of his system ; but, with him, the greater number are cither 
species only, or symptoms, he having admitted 3 only to the 
iafaaiacter of genera (which are inclttded in the Puleghasije), 
namely Ophthalmia^ Arthritis, and Rheumatismus. 

Class 5. MENTALES. DistuibaiKre in the mental funC' 

Order 1. Ideales. Of the judgment principally. 

Genus 63. Delirium. Symptomatic or febrile insanity. 

66. Faraphrosyne. Without fever. 

67. Amentia. Idutic insanity. 

68. Mania. Madness. 

69. Dtemonia. Idea of being possessed by 


70. Vesania. Tranqvil, partial insanity, 

71. Melancholia. Sorrowfiil, partial insanity. 
3. Imaoinabii. Of the imagination chiefly. 

72. Syrigmos. Imaginary sound. 

73. Phantasma. Oc^r spectra. 

74. Vertigo. Giddiness. 

75. Panophobl^. Fear of bang alone. 

76. Hypochondriasis. Apprehension of dying, 

without adequate caitses. 
77- Somnambulismus. Sleep-walking, 
3. Pathetici. Irregular desires. 

78. Citta. Longing for things not esculent. 
79- Bulimia. Voracious appetite. 
SO. Polydipsia. Unquenchiible thirst, 

81. Satyriasis. Vncontroulable lust. 

82. Erotomania. Sentimental love. 

83. Nostalgia. Swiss malady. 

84. TftntDtiamus. 

Digitized by 


oekeha uoKHORtru. 149 

84. Tarantismus. Madness occasioned h/ the bite 

of an insect. 

85. Babies. Camne madness. 

86. Hydrophobia. Horror of drinking. 

87. Cacositia. Aversion from food. 

88. Antipathia. Unconquerable aversion from 

particular objects. 
89- Anxietas. lUtarisomeness of life. 
In this class, which answers to tlie Vesanije of Sauvages, the 
genera stand- nearly the same as in that author's arrangement. 
They constitute, after great reduction, the 4th order (Ves ANiK)of 
CuUen's class Neuroses, comprehending 4 genera^ viz. Amentia, 
MeUmcholiat Mania, and Oneirodynia ;. the Delirium and Paraphro- 
gyne of Linneeus being considered by the Scotch professor as 
symptomatic. The Damonia, Vesania, and Panopkobia rank with 
MehnckoHa, under which the last-mentioned writer has also 
brought the Erotomania and NostalgiOf from the Fathetici. 
Of the remaining genera, only the Hypochondriasis and the Hy- 
drophobia are admitted as such, tlie former, in the Adyitahije^ 
and the latter in the Spasmi. The l^igmos and Phantasma are 
referred to the Locales class, and the Somnambulismus to the 
Oneirodynia, in the order Vesani*. The CiVto, Polydipsia, 
Satyriasis, and BuHmia belong also totheliOCALEs, in the order 
Dysorexije. It is justly doubted whether the Tarantismus 
exists ; and the Rabies can Scarcely be separated . from the 

Class 6. QUIETALES. Diminished power of motion and 

Order 1. Defectivi. Defects in the vital functions chiefly. 
Genus 90. Lassittido. Fatigue. 

91* Languor. 

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91. Languor. Chronic debiUty {not to be repair- 
ed £y rest). 

93. Atthenia. Extreme and unhersal debi- 

93. LipoUiymia. Sudden deprivation of the 

powers of motion and sensation, the pulse 
remaining unaltered. 

94. Syncope. Fainting. 

95. Asphyxia. Long failure ofviialand tatiaal 

power, as in drowning, ^ 
2. SopoRosi. Soporose afiectioos. 

96. Somnolentia. Somnolent^, 

97. Tyi^omania. Coma, of aufkort. 
93. Lediaj^s, Fdmle aomnolenf^. 

99* Catapbora. Constant sleep, which may be 
interrupted by speaking to the patient. 

100. Cams. Sopor and in^asihiHty, mth quiet 


101. Apoplexia. Sopor and insettsUdlityf with 

stertorous breathing. 

102. Paraplegia. Palm/ of all the limbs. 

103. Hemiplegia. one side. 

104. Paralysis. - ■ ■■■ ■ a particular part. 

105. Stupor. Trataitory numbness. 

3. Pritatiti. Defects of sensation chiefly. 

106. Morosis. Defect of imagination. 

107. Oblivio. memory. 

108. Amblyopia. Otecwe vimn, without appa^ 

rent defect itl the organ of sight. 

109. Cataracta. Cataract. 

110. Amaurosis. Guttaserena, ^au^Aort. 

111. Scotomia. 

Digitized by 



111. ScotcHnia. Tramitoiy bHadnea. 

112. Copboeit. Deajkest. 

113. Anosmia. Defect oftmelllng. 

114. Ageustia. taate. 

115. Aphonia. twice. 

116. Anorexia. appetite. 

117. Adipsia. • tktrst. 

118. Anaesthesia. feeling, 

119- Atecnia. Impotency. 

120. Atonia. Defect of muscular power. 
The diseases of this class very nearly correspond with the De- 
bilitates of Sauvages; and the two first orders, theDEFECTivi 
and SopoROBi, with the CoKATA and AdyhamijG of the class 
NEUROSES, in the Cullenian arrangement. The three first 
generd of the Befectiti Collen takes no notice of; the three 
last he includes under his Syncopet as different degrees of the 
same diminished power of life. As to the Sopoaosi of our 
author, Cullen ranks the Carus and Cataphora under the Apo- 
plexiOf and also considers the T^phomania and Lethargus as 
symptomatic of the same. For the like reasons he accounts the 
Paraplegia and Hemiplegia as different degrees of the same dis- 
ease, including them both under ParubfsiSt which he employs in 
a more general sense than it fe used by linnseus. The Peiva- 
Tivi rank underthe two first orders of Cullen's JjOCALES, so 
far as he allows them to hold the <^aracter of genera. The Afo- 
rosis and ObHvio he refers to bis Ametitia. The Scotomania he 
does not notice. 'Che Cophosis be calls Distecia. The Anorexia 
stands under his genus of Dyspepsia, among the Adtnahi£; 
the Atonia as a species ofJParalysis; the Amblyopia under Jimau- 
roais; Cataraeta vcadtt his Caligd : '"^x Anosmia, Ageustia^ Ano- 
"2 rexia. 

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.15'i .ODIfBllA UORBOJtVW. 

rexia, Adipma^ and Anatthesh under their reapective names sepn- 
rately ; and the Atecma.andct thi^t of Anaphtvdisia. 

■ " ' 
Class 7. MOTORII. Diseases attended with involuntary 


Order 1. Spastici. Spasmodic, j 

Genus ISl. Spasmus. Cramp. 

122. Friapismus. Priapism, 

123. BOTborvgnji. Rumbling of the bQwels, 

124. Trismos. Locked jaw. 

125. S^diasis. Involuntarif laughter, 
136, Hysteria. Hysteric affections. 

127. Tetanos. Rigidity of the body^ with S9nsi~ 
bility* . 
. 128. Catochus. Rigidity of the body^ with in- 

129. Catalepsis. Catalep^, 

130. Agrypnia. Sleeplestnesg, 
3. Agitatobii. Convulsive. 

131. Tremor. Trembling, (without the sensation 

of cold.) 

132. Palpitatio. Palpitation of the heart. 

133. Orgasmus. Twitching of the arteries, 

134. Subsultus. Twitching of the tendons. - 
1$$. Carpologia. Tremulous involuntary contrac- 
tions of the fingers. 

136. Stridor. Grating of the teeth, 

137. Hippos. Morbid nictitation, 

138. FseUismus. Stammering. 

139. Chorea. St. Vitus's dance, 

140. Beriberi. 

Digitized by 




140. Beriberi. Tremor of the timhs, cotitraction 

of the knees, stupor, and hoaraeness. 

141. Rigor, Tremor, or shakmg,with sense of cold. 

142. Ctaivulsio. Violent periodic agitation of 

the limbs, with sensHnlity. 

143. Epilepsia. Periodic, chronic agitation of the 

body, mth insensibility, 

144. Hieranosos. Continued agitation of the body 

in a convvbive manner, with sensibility. 

145. Raphania. Spaxtic contraction of the Joints, 

vith eonvuiiionSt and very violent periodic 

Most of the diseases in this class stand in the corresponding 
one of Sauvages called SPASMI, except the Borborygmits and 
the Agrypnia, the latter of wtuch h referred to the anomalous 
VESANI^ He also comideiB the SarMum and Stridor of 
Linnseus, as species only of the Trismos; and the Subsultm he 
calls Carpologia. 

In CuUen's system, the MOTORII erf Linnaus make the third 
order of his NE.IIR03ES, called Spaswi. Of the Spastici, he 
has the Trismos, Hysieria, and Tetamos only as distinct genera^ 
under Uieic respective terms. The Catochus he refers to the Te~ 
tanos, and the Catalepsia is his Ap^lexia Cataleptica. The others 
ue not noticed in the Cu^enian arrangement.— Of the Agita- 
TORii, the Tremof CuHen accounts rather as a symptom of vari- 
ous disorders. The Beriberi, which lie once ranked witli tlie 
Paralysis, is omitted in the last edition of the Synopsis. The 
Chorea is admitted as a genus, and tlie Hieranosos stands under 
the idiopathic Convuhio. The TseUimuis is removed to the class 
UOCALES ; and of the remainder, the Palpitafio, Epilepsia, 
X and 

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and Raphania only, retain their places in his system under the 
same names. 

Class 8. SUPPRESSORII. Diseases arising from, or at- 
tended with, oppression of the organs, or impeded 
Order 1. Suffocatorii. With a sense of suffocation. 
, Genus 146. Raucedo. Hoarseness. 
147- Vociferatio. Screaming. 
148. Risus. Laughter. 
149- rietus. Weeping. 

150. Suspirinm. Sighing. 

151. Oscitatio. Yawning. 

152. Pandiculatio. Stretching. 

153. Singultus. Hiccough. 

154. Stemutatio. Sneezing. 

155. Tussis. Coughing. 

156. Stertor. Snoring. 

157. Anhelatio. Panting. 

158. Suflfocatio. Difficult respiration from nar- 

rowness of the fauces. 

159. Empyema. Difficult respiration from an 

abscess in the thorax. 

160. Dyspnoea. Difficult respiration not arising 

from narrowness of the iauces. 

161. Asthma. Difficult respiration, of a chrome 


162. Orthopnoea. Acute and sudden difficulty of 


163. Ephialtes. Night-mare. 


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* 1 


■2, CoNSTRicTORii. With constriction. 

164. Aglutitio. Impeded deglutition. 

165. Flatulentia. Flatulence. 

166. Obstipatio. Costiveness. 

167. Ischuria. Impeded micturition. 

168. Dysmenorrliea. Difficult menstruation. 

169. Dyslochia. Suppression of the lochia. 

170. Aglactatio. Deficiency of milk. 

171. Sterilitas. harrenness. 

Under the genera of the SuFFocATORiij our author has de- 
parted from his usual rule, having subjoined to each a note 
expressive of the intention of nature in exciting these affections. 
Thus, after defining Suspirium to be " a deep, agitating, slow in- 
spiration," he adds that the effect is " that of expelling the blood 
from the lungs" Most of the Supfocatoeii have a place in 
Sauvages's system among the ANHELATIONES, but the Con- 
sTRiCTORii are scattered in various parts of it. Cullen has 
not introduced at all the lighter affections, among the Suf- 
FOCATOR^i, which seem to have been defined and explained by 
Linnaeus principally to use them as auxiliaries in other parts of 
the work. In the Cullenian arrangement, the Raucedo has a 
place, as symptomatic only, under the Catarrhus, and again, iu 
another part, as a species of Parapkonia. The Tussis also is 
received under the Catarj-hus, and the Etiipyema considered as a 
consequence of pneumonic iniiammation. . 

The Octhopncea, as a genus, is not noticed by Cullen. The 
Di/spnaa is admitted in the last edition, and, except the Asthma, 
is the only genus he receives from this order, as he has made the 
JS/jAia/^es a species of his Oneirodynia, under the VESANiiu, in 
the class NEUROSES. In the Constuictorii order, the Fla- 
iulentia of Linnaeus conies under the Dyspepsia of Cullen, and 
X 2 the 

Digitized by 



the Obstipatioy Ischuria, and Di/$menorrhea enter tnta the fourtli 
order of the LOCALES called Epischeses, the last under the 

term Amenorrhea. 

Class 9- EVACUATORIL Diseases attended witL increased 

excretions and discbarges. 
Order I. Capitis. From tlie head. 

Genus 172. Otorrhea. Purulent discharge from the ear. 

173. Epiphora.. Coatinued discbarge from the eye. 

174. Heemorrhagia. Discharge of bhod from the 

1.75. Coryza. Mucous discharge from the nose. 
176. Stomacace. Bleeding of the gums. 
177- Ptyalismus. Salivation. 

2. Thoracis. From the breast. 

178' Screatus. Dischofge of muctts. from the 

79. Eipectoratio. from the lungs. 

180. Hsemoptysis. Heemorrhage from the lungs. 

181. Vomica. Sudden purulent discbarge from 

the lungs. 

3. Abdominis. From the foelty. 

18S. Ructus. EructatUm. 

183. Nausea. 

184. Vomitus. Vomiting. 

185. Heematemesis. Vomiting of blood. 

186. IHaca. Iliac passion. 

187- Cholera. Vomiting, zeith purging and colic. 
188.. Diarrhea. Dejection of liquid fteces. 

189- Lienteria. of undigested aliment. 

190. Cceliaca. of chyle. 

191. Cholerica. 

Digitized by 


■A- J- 


191. Cholerica. Reddtskjlitx, without colic. 

192. Djsenteria. Bloody ftux^ with colic and 


193. Hremorrhob. Bleeding piles. 

194. Tenesmus. Frequent and needed dejection t^ 


195. Crepitus. Dejection of flatus. 
A. GtNiTALitJM. From the pudenda. 

396. Enuresis. Intoluntary micturition. 
197>> Stranguria. Strangury. 
198. Diabetes. Undue discharge of vrine. 
199> Heematuria. Bloody urine. 

300. Gtus. Mucous urine. 

301. Gonorrhea. Mucous jiux from the urethra- 
203. Leucorrhea. IVJiites. 

203. Menorrhagia. Inordinate fiow of the cata- 


204. Parturitio. Laborious parturition. 

205. Abortus. Abortion. 

206. Mo)a. False conception. 

5. Corporis externi. From external parts. 

207. Galactitia. Overflowing of milk. 

208. Sudor. Profuse sweating. 

This class stands nearly the same as our author found it uiSau- 
rages's arrangement, under the term FLUXUS, except that 
Linnffius has introduced three or four genera not in that writer ;. 
such are Screatus, Vomica (which is a species of Sauvagcs's Ana- 
carthasis)f Ructus^ Glus (a. species of his Pyuria), Parturitio^ and 
Mola. He has also taken his orders from tlic anatojnical division 
of the parts, whereas Sauvages divides them according to the 
nature of the discharge, whetlier bloody or serous, which must 
5 be 

Digitized by 



be allowed to 'be equivocal in many instances. It has been ob- 
jected that Parturition is not a disease. Linnaeus, however, 
seems to consider it as such, only when it proves laborious, pro- 
tracted, or unnatural. Cullen does not admit more than about 
■a third part of the diseases of this class into his system. He 
has the Epiphora, Ptyalismm, EnuresisyanA Gonorrhea, in an order 
called ApocENosBs, belonging- to the class LOCALES. Ila- 
morrhagia is synonymous with his Epistaxis ; Coryza with his 
Catarrhus (under which he considers Eipectoratio as only sym- 
ptomatic) ; and Vomica as the effect Qf Pleurisy, or Peripneumony, 
Nausea and Vomitus come under Djfspepsia; Hiaca under CoHca; 
the Cholericay Ctcliaca, and Lienteria as diflferent species of Di- 
arrhea ; Leucorrhea and Abortus under Menorrhagia ; Stomacace, 
Hamatemesis, and Ilamaiuria are considered as symptomatic 
only; and llamoptysis. Cholera, and Ilamorrkois form distinct 
genera in both systems. 

Class 10. PEFOEIXES. Deformities. 

Order 1. Emaciantes. Of the emaciating kind. 

Genus 209- Phthisis. Consumption {wasting with hectic 
fever, cough, dyspntsa and copious pu- 
rulent expectoration). 
210. Tabes. Wasting {with hectic fever, but with- 
out expectoration). 
:21l. Atrophia. Atrophy (wasting with atony^ but 
, without hectic fever or expectoration). 

212. Marasmus. Wasting {without atony, expec- 

toration, or hectic fever). 

213. Rachitis, Rickets. 

% TuMiDOsi. Of the enlarging kind. 
314. Polysarcia. Corpulency. 

213. Leucophlegmatia. 




215. Leucophlegraatia. Emphysematous intu- 


216. Anasarca. Watery intumescence. 

217. Hydmcephains. JVatery enlargement of the 
, head. 

218. Ascites* Watery enlargement of the ab- 


219. Hyposarca. Knotty tumor of (Ac abdomen. 

220. Tympanites. Flatulent enlargement of the 


221. Graviditas.- Extraordinary distension of the 

abdomen, during pregnancy. 
3. Decoloees. Discolorations of the skin. 

222. Cachexia. (Edematous paleness. 

223. Chlorosis. Green sickness. 

224. Scorbutus. Scurvy. 

225. Icterus. Jaundice. 

226. Plethora. Redness {from fullness of blood) 

with dyspnoea. 
The DEFORMES answer to the CACHEXIA of Sauvages 
and CuUen.; and most of tlie genera are admitted into tHe 
system of the latter under three corresponding orders. The 
Marasmus is not distinguished by Cullen from the Atrophia. The 
Phthisis he notices before as the consequence of Hicmoptysis. 
The Ghloivsis stands in the order Adynamic, of the class 
NEUROSES. Tlie Graviditas^ Cachexia, and Plethora have no 
place in Cullen 's system. 

Class 11. VITIA. Cutaneous, external, or palpable diseases.- 

The class which corresponds with tlus in the Sauvagesian system 

stands as the first, imder the same t«nn, ^nd is there professedly 


Digitized by 




intended to contain such disorders as are more immediately the 
subjects of surgery. This character is not so strictly applicable 
to the Linnean class, or to CuUen's LOCALES, since both these 
contain genera which come under the province of the physician, 
independently of manual operation or assistance. In all the 
systems, it is the most comprehensive class. The congrnity of 
the orders will be noted in our progress through it. 

Order 1, Humoralia. Consisting in vitiation, or extrava- 
sation of the fluids. 
Genus 227- Aridura. Wasting or witherhig of a part. 
228. Digitium. Drif let^tlow, 
22f>. Emphysema. Windy tumor. 

230. OBdema. Watery tumor. 

231. Sugillatio. Effusmu of blood into the cellular 


232. luflammatio. In^mmation. 

233. Abscessus. Abscess. 

234. Gangnena. Gangreru. 

235. Sphacelus, ^fortification. 

In the genera of this oi-der, the appearance of the extern^ part 
and that of the contained fluid form the character conjointly. 

In Sauvages, the Aridura, Gangrana^ and Sphacelus, or Necr9' 
sis, belong to his class CACHEXliE. The Digitium. is a species 
jofhisParonychia, and stands with the remaining ^enerfl of this order 
among the VITIA. CuUen omits the Aridura and Digitium ; the 
Emphysema is his Pneumatosis ; the SugiUaiio \m Ecchymosis ; and 
the four remaining genera of Linn.aeus come under his Fhlogosis. 

Order 3. Dialytica. Solutions of continuity. 
Genus 236. Fractura. Fracture^ 

237. Luxatura. Dislocation. 

238. Ruptura. Rupture of a tendon, 

239. Contusura- 

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239. Contusura. Contusion. 

240. Profusio. Flux of bloody from solution of 


241. Vulnus. IVound. 

242. Amputatura. Wound, from the entire sepa- 

ration of a part of the body, 

243. Ijaceratura. Laceration. 

244. Punctura. Puncture of a tendon. 

245. Morsura. A venomous bite, 

246. Combustura. A bum. 

247. Excoriatura. Excoriation (of the skin). 

248. Intertrigo. Erosion {of the cuticle). 

249. Rhagos. Dry crack of the akin. 

This order nearly constitutes the 7th called;E} in the 
class VITIA of Sauvages's system, and the 7th under tlie name 
of DiALYSEs, in the class LOCALES of CuUen's. Under 
Vulnus are comprehended also the three succeeding genera of 
Ijnnaeus. The Fractura constitutes a separate genus ; the Lux- 
atura belongs to the Ectopia of CuUen; the Frofusio to the 
Afocemoseb; the Intertrigo koA .Combustura to the Phlogosis 
genus ; the remaining genera are not noticed in the Cullenian 

3. ExuLCBRATioiTEs. . PuFulcnt or icliorous solutions 
of continuity. 

250. Ulcus. A suppuratingwoundof a flesh t/ part. 

251. Cacoetiie's. A superficial, spreading ulcer. 

252. Noma. A deepy escharotic ulcer, leaving a 

2.53. Carcinoma. Cancer. 

254. Ozena. An ulcer of the antrum Highmori. 

255. Vistula. ■ j4 calloso-vaginatlng ulcer. 

r 256. Caries. 

Digitized by 



256. Caries, ^n ufcero/* Me periosteum. 

257. Anthrocace. An ulcer of the cavity of a bone, 

258. Cocyta. A poisonous animalcule lodged in a 


259. Paronychia. Whitlow. 

260. Pernio. Chilblain. 

261. Pressura. Inflammation of the finger end 

from cold. 

262. Arctura. Growing in of the nail. 

Most of these genera rank with Sauvages's PlaojE. The Pa- 
ronychiOy however, comes in among thePiiYMATA; and the Prc«- 
swa and Arctura of IJnnseus are ^ecUi^ only, of tliat genus, as 
the Pernio is of the Erythema in the same system. The first six 
genera of this order are classed, in Cullen's system, under Ulcera ; 
the Caries is a distinct genus ; the Antlvrocace^ Paronychitty and 
Pernio rank under Phlogosts ; and the others are omitted. 
4. Scabies. Cutaneous diseases. 
363. Lepra. Leprosy. 
SGI. Tinea. Scald head. 

365. Achor. Crusta lactes, t^ authors. 

366. Psora. Itch. 

267. Lippitudo. Blear-eyes^ 
368. S^r{»go. Tetters ; rtng-nparm. 

269. Herpes. Shingles, 

270. Varus. Pimpks. 

271. Bacchea. Ruby-face; Gutta rosea, of au- 

372. Bubo. Infiammaiionof a conglobate gland, 

273. Anthrax. Carbuncle. 

274. Phlyctsena. A watery vesicle. 

275. Fustula, A purulent vesicle. 

276. Papula. 

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1S76. Papula. A hardf inflamed tubercle. 

277. Hordeolum. A stye. 

278. Verruca, A wart. 
279- Clavus. A com. 

280. Myrmecium. A moists soft wart. 
2S1. Eschara. An eschar, or scab. 

5, TuMOEES protuberantea. Tumours. 

282. Aneurisma. Dilatation of an artery. 

283. Varix. Dilatation of a vein. 

284. Schirrus. Induration of a gland, 

285. Struma. Enlargement of a gland. 
2861 Atheroma. A wen. 

237- Anchylosis. A atiff joint, 

288. Ganglion. Tumour of a tendon, 

260. Katta. Tumow of a muscle. 

29CX Spinola. Tumour on the lumbar vertebrse. 

291. Exostosis. Bony tumour. 

The three first and the faist of these genera stand in the cor- 
responding class of the systems of Saurages and CuUen, under 
the same names. Linnseus's Struma is their Scrofida, and his 
Spinola the Hydrorachitis. The Atheroma is the Lupia of Cullen. 
Tlie Ganglion is a Condyloma of Sauvages, but stands in the 
Cullenian system under Linnaeus's term. The Natta is neglected 
by Cullen, but belongs to the Sarcoma of the French nosoJogist. 

6. FaociDENTiiE. Tumours arising from dislocation 

of fleshy or membranous parts. 

292. iJcmia. Rupture. 

293. Prolapsus. Hanging down of a part out of 

its natural place. 
29*- Cond j\oxo&. Rdu.x at iBn of an internal meni' 

t2 295. Sarcoma. 

Digitized by 



295. Sarcoma. Fungous Jlesk. ' 

296. Pterygium. TVeb in the eye. 

297. Ectropium. Reversion of the under eyC'ltd. 

298. Pliymosis. Inflamed intumescence of the 

299- Clitorismus. Jn/Mm«c€«ce o/'(Ae clitoris. 
The Hernia, Prolapsus, aud Ectropium, called Blepkaroptosis by 
Sauvages* stand among the EcToptJ£ of his system ; the Phimosis 
with the Phyuata; and the remaining genera among the Ex- 
CREscENTiiE. CuUcn receives into his Ectopia only the Her- 
I nia and Prolapius. The Sarcoma he refers to the Tuuoses ; the 

I other genera are not admitted into his system as such. 

7. Deformationes. Deformities. 

300. Contractura. Higidity of a joint* 

301. Gibber. Gibbosity of the chest. 

302. Lordosis. Incwrvation of the bones. 

303. Distortio. Distortion of the bones. 

304. Tortura. Wry-mouth. 

305. Strabismus. Squinting. 

> 306. Lagophthalmia. Retraction of the uf^er 
I eye-lid. 

307- Nyctalopia. Nightsightedness, 

308. Presbytia. Longsightedness. 

309- Myopia. Nearsightedness. 

310. Labarium. Looseness of the teeth. 

' 311. I^agostoma. Hare-Up. 

■ 312. Apella. Abbreviation of the prepuce, withr- 

out inflammation. 

> 313. Atreta. Imperf oration of a natural passage, 
[ 314. Plica. Indissoluble contortuplication of the 
! hair. 

315. Hirsuties. 




315. Hirsuties. Unnatural hairiness. 

316. Alopecia. Baldness. 

317. Trichiasis. Distortion of the etfe-lashes. 
These genera are placed by Sauvages in very different parts 

of his system : the Contractura (for instaace) and the Strabismus^ 
very improperly, as it should seem, among spasmodic diseases ; 
the Gibber, or Gibbositas, and the Lordosis among the Excre- 
8CENTIJE of the class VITIA; the Nyctalopia^ and the two genera 
succeeding it, as species o^ Amblyopia in the class DEBILITATES, 
and also the Lagostoma, as a species of Psellismtts ; the Plica, under 
the name of Trichoma, with the CACHEXIA ; and the Trichiasis 
as a species of Ophthalmia. Cullen receives only five of these 
genera ; the Contractura, Strabismus, Presbytia, Myopia (the two 
last as species of his Dysopia, placed like the others) in the 
class LOCALES, and the Plica (which stands under his genus 
Trichoma) among the Impetigines in the class CACHEXIA. 
8. Macux.£. Blemishes on the skin. 

318. Cicatrix, ji scar. 

319' Nsevus, A mole or mark. 
330. Morphtea. A broad, white, depressed spot. 
5S1. Vibex. A wheal, w purple stripe under the 

322. Sudamen. Red spots, Ukejlea-bites. 

323. Melasma. Black blotches. 

324. Hepatizon. Scurf, 

325. Lentigo. Freckles. 

326. Ephelis. San-bum. 

These lighter affections stand, in Sauvages's system, either 

among the Maculje or the Kfplorescentije, but he does not 

allow all of them the rank of genera. The Cicatriv is a species 

of his Leucoma, as the Morphea and Melasma are of his Vitiligo, 

2 and 

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and the Vibex sAci Sudamen of the Eccf^moma. The Navus 
stands under the same generic uame in both systems ; but the 
Lentigo of Linneeus is a species of Sauvages's Epkelis. Cullen 
has not given a place to these generay in his system. 

Our author has subjoined to this distribution of diseases a 
sketch of his Theory of Physic, written in that ctmcise and 
methodic style so peculiar to himself; and to which, as it ap- 
pears to have been intended entireljE for the use of his pupils, 
nothing less than his own comment can do sufficient justice. We 
should not therefore have taken notice of it, in our p2an, bad it 
not been necessary in order to explain several papers in, the 
Amcenitates Academica hereafter to be mentioned. Srieiy 
thCTefore : — the Linnean principles of physic suppose the hu- 
man body to consist- of a cerebrose medullary part, of which 
the nerves are so many processes, (and which is commonly called 
the Jiervom system,) ajid a cortical part, including the va&cuiar 
system : the former, being tbc animated part, orthat in which the 
sentient, moving principle peculiarly resides, is considered as 
deriving its nourishment from tlie subtlest fluids of the vascular 
system, and its energy from an electrical principle inhaled 
by the lungs*. Further, this theory supposes the circulat- 
ing fluids to be capable of being vitiated, by substances which 
the author chooses to consider either as acescent, or as putrid 
ferments ; the former acting on the serum, and being the ex- 
citing cause of critical fevers, and the latter acting on the 

* Absurd as this idea respecting the electrical principle may have been considered at 
the time when Linnsus wrote, and when the phenomena of Galvanism were wholly 
unknown, modem physiologists will not fail to admire its ingenuity, at least. Many 
cnrrcnt hypotheses of the present day are much less supported by facts ; and, if it be said 
thatXicpieus borrowed from Newton this notion of clcctriaty, the merit of the formw 
appears to me to be rather euhanced than dimiiUEhed by the supposition. (Editor.). 




erassamentumy and exciting phlogistic diseases. The exanthematic 
class are supposed to be excited by some external causes, which 
we call contagion, and which (hypothetically) he prononnces 
to be animalcula. From the incessant attrition of the cortical or 
vascular system, it requires perpetual reparation ; this is to be 
effected by an appropriate diet. From an impropriate diet or 
regimen, originate most of the diseases of this part of the 
system ; and these are to be remedied by sapid medicines, as 
those of the medullary system are by oUds. Hence arises the 
author's general division of all medicines, according as their 
sensible qualities are discoverabfe to the taste and smell. The 
■sapida, according to this theory, act particularly on the cortical 
part, as the oOda do on the medullary or nervous system. 

He seems to have had some peculiar ideas with respect to 
number, both as to the divisions into which he supposed these 
two grand elasses of medicines naturally to resolve themselves, 
tuid as to the diseases which they appeared to him calculated to 
cure. It was his opinion that nature acts " numero quitiario" (as 
he informs us in his Diary) ; but he has no where sufficiently ex- 
-plained himself on this abstruse subject; and the hypothesis seems 
to be one of those eccentric exercises of imagination, in which 
ingenious minds are too apt to indulge, without the possibi- 
lity of being followed. A table of the several qualities of 
medicines, according to the classification above mentioned, 
closes the Genera Morborum. 

In the spring of 17^, Linnseus had a most violent attack of 
pleurisy, his recovery from which lie attributed solely to the skill 
and attention of his colleague Professor Rosen, with whom he 
now lived on terms of intimate friendship. >Vhen the disease was 
eubdoed, he repaired to Hammarby, for the enjoyment of 
country air, and from this place he dates the preiace of his 
4 MirsEUM- 

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MvsEVhi SucraRegia Majcstatis'LvDovicjEV LTtics.Regina,&c. 
iM rjnQ animalia rariora, exotica, imprimis insecta, et conchylia dttcri- 
Imniuret determiiiantur^prodromiinstar edltitm, (Holm. 1764. 8vo. 
pp. 720.) This was drawn up and published, hy order of the 
Queen of Sweden, who liad formed at the palace of Drotning- 
kolm a rich and extensive cabinet of natural history, the sub- 
jects of which (as has already been observed) X^nnaeus had 
been appointed to arrange. Her Majesty's great expense, in pro- 
curiug insects and shells particularly, had given this collection 
an advantage which proved very favourable to our author, by 
throAving in his way a multitude of fine and very costly ob- 
jects, which otherwise, probably, he could have had no op- 
portunity of describing ; and these were, fortunately, all col- 
lected before the publication of the enlarged editions of the 
Sgstema. In the description of this museum, only the exotic 
insects and shells are introduced ; of the former 4>36, and of the 
latter 434, with 25 of the Mollmca. The entomological part con- 
sists chiefly of the large and beautiful Lepidopiera, Among the 
shells are most of their elegant varieties, and they are described 
at large with all that precision, terseness, and accurate arrange- 
ment of tlie several parts, which arc every where manifested so 
happily in our autlxor's writings. Both, in entomology and con- 
chology a new language is introduced ; and the descripti(Mis 
may ivell stand as models for future works of tlus kind. 

Annexed to the above is the second part (or rather only the pro- 
dromus of the second part) of the Museuu Sacra Regia Majestatis 
AdolpiiiFriderici Regisi &c, in quo animalia rariora, imprimis 
el exotica, aves, amphUna, pisces describuntur. (Hplm. 17(>4. 
pp. 110.) In this publication are described at large 156 subjects 
of the animal kingdom, all belonging to the first four classes, 
and all acquired after the publication of the great volume in 




1754. Throughout the Systema Naturcty Linnseus has teferred to 
these books for full descriptions of all the exotics ; and nothing 
would be more acceptable to the critical zoologist than to see 
the plan of them pursued through the whole history of ani- 

In 1766, Linnaeus pu1}Iished a small piece under the title of 
Clavis Medicine duplex, extei-ior et interior. (Holm. 8to. 
pp. SQ*) This may be considered as a syllabus of his medical 
lectures. It is an enlarged view of the theory lately mentioned, 
connecting it with general patlwlogy and therapeutics. In the 
latter part, all simples are arranged in 30 orders, founded on 
their sensible qualities, agreeably to the theory, and explain- 
ed more fully in two papers printed in the Amtrnitates Aca- 
demica, under the titles of Sapores and Odores Medicamen- 
torumy to be reviewed hereafter. 

It appears from several passages in tlie writings of Linna:us, 
that the dietetic part of medicine was a subject to which he had 
paid much attention ; and, in one of his letters to Ilaller*, he 
suggested that it was his intention to publish what he had col- 
lected upon that topic; but his manuscripts were left unarranged, 
and pretty nearly in the state wherein they were first written, as 
mere notes for his lectures. It is much to bo wished that they 
should, even now, be presented to the public, unmethodical and 
concise as they arc ; for, on a subject which Linnaeus himself de- 
clares to have been peculiarly interesting to him, it is scarcely 
to be conceived that he did not make many original and impor- 

» «' Quid in dlateticis colHgo, tandem vidcUs ; in kts per decern annos lal-oravi." 
(See Stoever'a CoUect'm Epist. ad HaUcrum, p. 43.) In another letter he says, *' in his 
mece delicue ; la kts plara coUegi quam quod mvi ttUus aiuis," (p, 55.) 

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170 SYSTKMA nature:. 

turit obsen-ations. Ti-anscripts* of the lectures were made by 
some of his pupils ; but none of these have hitherto been printed, 
nor (so far as we know) have they appeared in any other language 
except the Swedish, Many of the papers in the Amomitatei 
Acndemica, however, may be considered as records of Linna;us's 
doctrines, and probably the most material part of his collections 
has actually thus found its way to the press ; yet it would have 
been highly satisfactory to be possessed of the whole scheme and 
matter in its original state. 

AVe come now to the proper place for noticing the grandest 
and most important of Linnaeus's works — the Systema Natubje. 
The plan of tliis, as far as respected the vegetable kingdom, had 
been separately and largely exhibited (as before mentioned) in 
the Genera Plantauum, and the species given in the several 
jF/orteof our author, and finally in his Species Plantarum. As 
yet, however, though it had passed througli several editions -f-, little 

* There is one of these in the Banksian Library, together with other volumes of 
notes taken from Linnaus's lecture* on different branches of natural history-} ii was 
compiled by Dr. Lara Montin (who attended every course from the year 1742 to 1749), 
and it occupies 6l6 quarto pages very closely and fsurly written. 

t Ed. 1. Lugd.Bat. 1735. fol. pp. 12. (Seep. 44.) 

2. Holm. 1740. 8vo. pp. 80. 

Refused and enlarged by the author, the generic names and characters 
being added to the animal kingdom, 

3. Hal». 1740. 4to. obi. pp. 70. 

With the German names annexed. By J. Joachim Large. 

4. Paris. 1744. 8vo. pp. 108. 

With the French names. By B. de Jussieu. 
This edition was reprinted, with the Fimdamenta Botanica and Sponsalia Plantarum 
prefixed, at Lucca, in 1758 (Svo). 

5. Halae. 1747- 8vo. pp. 88. 

With the German nauies. By M, G. Jgnethler. 

Ed. 6. 



more had appeared in the animal kingdom than the generic 
characters and specific names, the ninth edition (printed at 
Leyden in 17-^6) being contained in a small octavo of 226 pages. 
But this, it must be observed, ivas only a republication of tho 
sixth edition in 1748. The scheme, therefore, cannot be con- 
sidered as completed by the autlior, until the publication of 
' Uic tenth edition in 1758*, the first part of which, relating to 
the animal kingdom, makes a volume of 821 pages; and the 
same part, in the 12th edition, is augmented by the addition of 
new subjects to 1327 pages. The three volumes published at 
Stockholm in 1766 — 17C7 — 1768, arc to be ctmsidercd as having 
received the author's finishing hand; the title is Svstema 

Ed. 6. Holm. 1 748. 8vo. pp. 238. Ubb. 8. By tke AiUkor. 

Augmented by Uie introductton of the essential generic characters of 
plants, and the species of the animal and mineral kingdoms. 

7. Lips. I74S. Svo. pp. 233. tabb. 8. 

With the German names, and a portrait of the author. 

8. ITolm. 1753. 6V0. pp. 136. labb. 3. 

Only the vegetable kingdom; in Swedish. By J. J. Haartman. 
This edition was reprinted at Wesleras in 1777- In the list of editions of the Sysl. 
Nat. prefixed to the 12lh by Linneus himself, is mentioned the Regnum Lapideum, by 
Moller, (Scane 8vo.) as forming a part of the ath. Unless this be a single sheet, 
(which is in fact a mere copy of the l st edition) mider the title of Observationes in Reg- 
fium Lapideum, it is unknown lo me. (Editor.) 
tf. Lugd. Bat. 1756. Bvo. pp. 226. 

With a few additions to the animals. Bv Gronovim. 
• Ed. 10. Holm. 8vo. Tom. l. pp. 821. — ^Tom. S. pp. 560. 

Greatly enlai^ed, and all the specific names annexed. By the Author. 
. 11. Halie. 1760. Svo. 2 Tom. 

(Lips. 1762. Svo. Very faulty.) 

12. Holm. Bvo. Tom. 1. 1706. Pars l. pp. 532. Pars 2. pp. 795, Jni' 
m«/iff.— Tom. 3. 1707. pp.730, Vegelaldia,— Tom. 3. 1768. pp.236, 
tabb. 3, Mineralia. By the Jnthur, 
(Vindob. 8vo. Tom. i. 1767. — Tom. 2. 3. 1770. pp. ct tabb. totidem.) 

z 2 Xaturj: 

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Natckje J3€r regna tria natiiree, secundum classes,' ordines, generot 
species, cum cbaracteribus, dijerentiis, synonymis, locis. 

Having given his great work the very comprehensive denomi- 
nation of Svste^a NATORiE, Linnseus considered it incumbent 
on him to preface his description of the three kingdoms (as they 
cannot with propriety be said to include all tlie objects of nature) 
with a concise view of the rest of the universe. The grandeur of 
his ideas and tlic Judicious manner in which he methodized them 
are as striking here as in the body of his work*. 

The three kingdoms are distinguished in the following man- 
ner, viz. 

1. MINERALS. Concrete bodies, i^ot endued with life or 

"Deos Sempitirmis, immetuus, omniscius, omnipotens. 

Movcns primus. Ens entium. Causa Causarunij Cuetos Rcctorque univeraij munduit 
hujus opcris Dominus et Artifex. 

McNDus complcctitur omnia, quae in notiliam nostram per scnsus cadere p6ssunt. 
AsTBA sunt reniotissima corpora lucida, quae gyranlur motu purpetuo ; sunt h«c aut 
1. SiDBKA — proprtiL luce radiantta ut Sol, remotioresque StelleeJixtE. 
vel s. Planet* — h. sideribus lucem mutuantes. 
£[,EMENTA, corpora sinaplicissima atmosphceram Plaoetarum constitucntia. 
Xellus, globus planetarius, horis 34 rotatus, circumf clem quotaniiis in orbem actus, 
ElementOTum atmosphEer^ obvelatus, renim Nalitraljum stupendo cortice 
tectus, Mijus cognoscendse superficiei studemus. 
NATunA lex immuubilts Dei, qua res est id quod est, et agit quod agerejiissa est. 

Naturalia sunt corpora cuncta Tellurem constitucntia^ in Rbgna Natusa tria 
divisa, quorum lioiites concumint in Zoophytis. 
1 . Lapides— corpora congesta, nee viva, nee sentienlia. t 

S. Veo ETA BII.I A— corpora organiaata et viva, non acntienliz. 
3. AKiMALiA-M^orporaorgaDisata, ctviva, et aentientiav 

2. VEGE- 




2. VEGETABLES. Organized bodies, endued witli life, but 

not with sensation. \ 

8. ANIMALS. Organized bodies, endued with both life 

and sensation. 
Then, beginning his system with a philosophical historj' of' 


in general, he proceeds to the natural division of animals, arising 
from their different internal structure, — a division partly esta- 
blished by Aristotle, and of which our own great naturalist Ray 
■ has made considerable use, in the introductory part of his Sy- 
nopsis Animalium. By this arrangement the whole animal king- 
dom naturally falls into 6 classes, as follows : 

Heart furnished ^vith 
Two ventricles and two auricles J Viviparous. Mammalia. 
B/ood warm and red \ Oviparous. Birds. 

One ventricle and one auricle f Respiration voluntary. Amphibia. 
Blood cold and red \Breathingby gills. Fishes. 

One ventricle without an auricle f Antennatcd. Insects. 
Sanies cold and colourless iTentaculated. Vekmes. 

He afterwards gives the natural characters at large of each 
class, taking in, with the foregoing internal structure, all the 
differences arising from the lungs, or other organs of respiration, 
as gills : from the maxilla, jaws, or mandibles ; from the organs 
of generation ; \ho%e of sensation ; the teguments ; and the /«/cra, 
or legs, wings, &c. 

At the head of each class is given a concise and most in- 
structive description of the classical character, so methodically 
framed as to include at the same time an explanation of all 
the terms appertaining to that class, and concluding with a 
2 ' general 

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general mentioa of the best writers thereon. After this, our 
author establishes the natural characters of each order of the 
class respectively. Lastly, he divides the several orders ioto 
genera^ or families, with abbreviated artificial characters at- 
tached to each. 

Class 1. MAMMALIA. 

Tliis class comprehends not only all the animals which we 
call Quadrupeds (the Lizard genus, or rather the Reptilia pcdala, 
excepted), but also the Cetaceous order, consisting of whales, 
cachalots, and porpoises. This arrangement of whales with 
quadrupeds, which did not take place in the first- editions of 
the work, has not been adopted by some very respectable 
zoologists; but our author thought himself fully justified by 
the agreement of these animals in the structure of the heart ; in 
the respiration being performed by lungs ; in their having move- 
able eye/ida; in their having ear*; in being viviparous; in being 
furnished with breasts ; and by other particulars, in which they 
differ so materially from fishes, as to more than balance that 
single agr~'^ment, of living in the same element. 

The MAMMALIA are divided by our author into 7 orders, 
the distinctions of which are, in this artificial arrangement, 
established principally on the difference in the number, situation, 
and form of the three kinds of teeth, namely, the primores or 
incisores, called fore-teetli, or cutting-teeth; the laniarii^ or 
eanini, called dog-teeth and canine, or lacerating teeth ; and 
the molares, double-teeth, or grinders. But he does not entirely 
neglect the feet, as will appear from his description of the na- 
tural characters of the orders, as well as from the following 
systematic arrangement: 

1 1. Digitated. 

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1. Digitated. 
Fore-teeth none. Bruta. 2. 

Fore-teeth 2. Canine none. Gliees. 4. 

]"ore-teeth 4. Canine single. Pbihates. 1. 

Fore teeth 6 — 2 — 10, conical. Canine single. Fee*. 3. 

2. Hoofed. 
Fore-teeth al>ove and below. Bellvm. " 6. 

Fore-teeth none above. Pecora. 5. 

3. Destitute of hoofs and claws. 
Teeth various in the different genera. Cete. 7- 

We shall give the charactere as they stand at the head of each 
order, and then enumerate the genera, adding to the latter 
only the abbreviated characters. 

Order 1. Primates. Animals furnished with fore-teeth, or 
cutting teeth : 4 above, parallel. Two breastft 
on the chest. 

2. Bruta. No fore-teeth. 

3. Fer;e. Fore-teeth in the upper jaw, ^ in number* 

sharpish. One canine tooth on each side. 

4. G LI RES. Fore-teeth in each jaw 2, close together, 

but remote from the grinders. No canine teeth. 

5. Pecora. No fore-teeth in the upper jaw ; 6 or 8 

in the lower jaw, very remote from the grinders. 
Feet hoofed. Breasts inguinal. 

6. Bellu-E. Fore-teeth obtusely truncated. Feethoofed. 

7. Cete, Breathing apertures on the head. Pectoral 

fins^ and the caudal fin horizontal. No claws. 


Howsoever the pride of man may be offended at the idea 
of being ranked with the beasts that perish, he neverthe- 

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less stands as an animal, in the system of nature, at the head of 
this order, and as such he is here described (with his several 
varieties observable in the different quarters of the globe) in a 
manner, and with an accuracy peculiar to our author, and which 
we may venture to say is no where else to be met with. But man 
is not leftby Linnseus to contemplate himselfmcre/yas an animal; 
he is emphatically defined to be an intelligent and moral beings by 
the Grecian sage's dictate *' know thxself," which is used as 
the generic character, and the true application of which is ppinted 
out and commented on at considerable length. 

Abbreviated Generic Characters. 

Genus 1. Homo. Man. 

2 Species. One the Troglodytes, or Orang'OUlang*. 

3. Simia, Ape. Canine teeth distant from the grinders. 

S3 Speciet. a. Without tails. True Apes. 3. 

b. With short Uuli. Babocm. 6. 

c. With long tails. Mimkeys. 24. 

3. Lemur. Macauco. Fore-teeth below 6 in number. 

5;Specic8. Mongoox, Black Macauco. Rtng-taiVd, ffc. ^c. 

4. VespertiUo. Bat. Korc-toes connected by membranes 

so as to perform the office of wings. 

6 Speciea. Fampyre, Common Bat, Long-ear' d Bat, &c. 

Order 2. bkcjta. 

5. Elephas. Ekphant. Tusks and grinders only. Long 

proboscis, or snout. 

* LJnnceus seems to have been misled by the accounts of credulous travellers, other- 
wise he would not have placed what is properly a Simia in the same genus with Mart; 
but indeed he confesses, when describing the Troglodytes, that he was in doubt which of 
those genera it ought to be referred to. Tlie writer of the 1 3th edition of the Systema 
(Professor Gmclin) and our countryman Dr. Sbaw have both described this animal as 
B Simia ', but the history of it and of the Simia Satyrus is not yet sufficiently elucidated 
for detengining with certainty bow the synonyms of authors ought to be applied, with 
respect to either of those species.^ 

6. Trichechus. 

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6. 'I'licfaechus. Walrus. Canine teeth above only. Grind- 

ers formed of a rugged bony substance. Hind 
feet formed into fins, 
t Speciea. Morse, and the Mtmati. 

7. Bradjpus. Sloth. Grinders only; first longer than 

the others. Body hairy. 

5 Species. 

8. Myrmecophaga. Ant-eater. No teeth. Body hairy, 

4 Species. 

9< Manis. No teeth. Body scaly. 

9 Specie!. 

10. Dasypus. ArmadiUo. Grinders <Mly. Body cnista- 



5. FERJE. 

11. Phoca. Seal. Upper fore-teeth 6, lower 4. 

3 Species. 

13. Canis. I>og. Fore-teeth 6 and 6 ; upper middle ones 

Species. Domesticattd Dofy with 11 varieties; lf7>^, H^eunt, 
Fax, Jdckall, &c. 

13. Felis. Cat, Fore-teeth 6 and 6; lower ones equal. 

Tongue very rough. 

7 Species. Lion, Tiger, Paatker, Lt/ttx, Sec. 

14. Viverra. Civet. Fore-teeth 6 and 6; lower middle 

one shorter than the others. 

6 Species. Ichneunum, Coati-numdi, Skunk, See. 

15. Mustela. IVeasel. Fore-teeth 6 and 6 ; lower ones 

close together ; 2 placed alternately interior. 

1 1 Species. Otter, GluUm, Martin, Pole-cat, Ferret, Ermine, &c. 

16. Ursus. Bear. Fore-teeth 6 and 6; upper ones hol- 


4 Species. Bear, Badger, Saccooa, QbkMo/cA. 

2 A 17. Didelphis. 

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17. Dklelphis. Opossum. Fore-teeth 10 above, 8beIov. 

18; Talpa. Mole. Fore-teeth 6 above, 8 below; 
S Species. 

19. Sorex. Shrew. Fore-teeth 2 above, 4 below. 

- 5 Species. 

20. Erinaceus. Hedge-hog. Fore-teeth 2 above, 2 below. 

3 Species. 

4. GI.IRES. 

21. Hystrix. Porcupine. Body cohered with quills. 

4 Species. 

23. Lepus. Hare. Upper fore-teeth double. 
4 Species. 

23. Castor. Beaoer. Upper fore-teeth truncated,hollowed. 

3 Species. 

24. Mus. Rat. Upper fore-teeth subulated, or awl- 


SI Species. Gmneorpig, AgtUi, Marmol, Mouse, Dormatsef 
Jerboa, &c. 

25. Sciurus. Squirrel. Upper fore-teeth cuneated, lower 


11 Species. 

26. Noctilio. Lower fore-teeth bilobated ; fore-toes 

connected by membranes, performing the office 
of wings. 
] Species. 


27. Camelus. Camel. No horns. Several canine teeth 

on each side. 
4 Species. Dromtdary, ite. 

28. Moschus. Musk. No horns. Canine teeth single on 

each side ; upper ones standing out of the mouth, 
a Species. 

92. Cervus. 

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SYSTEMA nature:. 179 

29. Cervus. Deer. Horns solid, branched, deeiduous. 

No canine teeth. 
7 species. Camelopard, Elk, Rein-deer, Roe-luck, 8cc. 

30. Capra. Goat. Horns hollow, erect. No canine teeth. 

IS Species. Chamois, Anlehpe, Bezoar, &c. 

31. Oris. Sheep. Horns hollow, bending backwards. 

No canine teeth. 

3 Species. 

32. Bos. Ox. Horns hollow, extending forwards. 

6 Species. Bull, Bison, Buffalo, &c. 
6. BELLilTJE. 

33. Equus. Horse. Fore-teeth 6 above, and 6 below. 

3 Specie*. Horse, Ass^ Zebra. 

34. Hippopotamus. Sea-horse. Fore-teeth 6 above, 4 

1 Species. 

35. Sus. Hog. Fore-teeth 4 above, 6 below. 

S Species. 

36. Rhinoceros. Fote-teeth 2 above, and 2 below. 

1 Species. 

7. CETE. 

37. Monodon. Narwhal. Two long teeth in the upper 

jaw, stretched forwards. 
I Species. 

38. Balaena. /f^7i«fr. Teeth in the upper jaw, homy. 

4 Species. 

39. Physeter. Cachalot. Teeth in the lower jaw only; 

4 Species. 

40. Delphinus. Dolphin. Teeth in both jaws, 

3 Species. Porpoise, Dolphin, Grampus. 

The specific distinctions, in this class, are drawn chiefly from 

the tail of the animal, but in few instances exclusivelj so, as 

2 A 2 the 

Digitized by 



the fitt^ ears, bredstSt &c. also enter into the descriptions. 
Among i\ie Pecora, however, the diversity of shape of the Aom», 
which form very remarkable and characteristic appendages in 
this order, senes almost throughout to constitute disciimina- 
tions ; and among the Cete, the nostrils and Jaws are chosen as 
marks of distinction, these parts, in their variations, altering 
very materially the character of the head. The nasal canal, 
or ^stula, of the Cetaceous tribe, is differently situated, being 
not always in the snout or rostrum, but sometimes in the fore- 
head, and sometimes in the neck ; and whilst some species 
have a simple^ others are provided vnth a double orifice. Colour 
is but little regarded by our author, except in the genus 
Simia, and in some genera of the Ferff, as Viverra, Mustela, &c. 
in which, being both permanent and striking, it has been 
judiciously included in the specific differences. 

This part of the system, including a few species ilescribed in the 
appendix to the third volume and in the Mantissa (of which we 
shall speak hereafter), contains about 230 species. It will naturally 
be concluded that, since Linnseus's time, from our having been 
made more extensively acquainted with the various countries of 
the globe, the number has been greatly increased ; not only have 
all the parts of the known world been much more fully explored, 
but a new continent and numerous islands have been discovered, 
the productions of which form a vast accession of subjects to 
the id^hole three kingdoms of nature. By the more general dif- 
fusion of science and the multiplication of observation8,erroneous 
reports have been rectified and the imperfect descriptions of 
travellers supplied ; and the introduction of the Liunean prin- 
ciples of arrangement has of itself more and more contributed to 
augment our acquaintance with the creation, because it has 
2 furnished 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

8TSTEHA KATVa£. 181 

fumialied the mostliappy clues to correct discrimination. The 
■writers who have followed Linnteus with most success, in me- 
thodical descriptions of the Mammalia, are Pennant*, Schreber-f-, 
Erxleben J, and Sbaw^, by whose united labours the number of 
spede* is now increased to nearly 600, which are upwards of 
150 more than are contained in the improved Syatema Natura 
(or 13th edition) by Professor Gmelinjl. In this edition, 8 new 
genera are constructed, which, however, affect only 3 of the 
orders, those of Primates, Bruta, Fera, and Cete retaining their 
primitive distribution, except in regard to some of the 

(Order 4. olihes). 
Cavia. Cavy. Fore>teeth cuneated ; grinders 4 on each side. 
No clavicles. 

6 Species (4 of them described by liniueuc, w Mttres.) 

The Linnean geaus Mus being very numerous, it was judged 
proper to sever from it some species very dissimilar to the 

* Synopsis <jf. Quadrupeds. Cheater 1771> 8vo. afterwards published ia 4to. The 
last edition of this work bears the title of History of Quadrupeds. London 1793. 
S Vols. 4to. 

t Die Saugtbiere m abbildtmgen tuuk dtr mttir, mil lesehmbtmgen. 4 Tbeil. Er- 
langenl77»— i799-4to. 

X Systema Regni Animalis. Classis I. Mammalia. Lips. 1777. Svo. 

§ Speadum Lmtueanum. PritmUes. Lat. ci Angl. London. 1790. 4to. 
Gemral Zoology. Loudon. 1800. Svo. Vol. 1. Part 1.3. 

H Tom. 1. Partes 7- Lips. 1788. Svo. pp. 41X0. Anivalia. 

S. — 3 — 1791. pp. ]66l. Veoktabilia. 

3. — — 1793. pp. 476. MlNERALIA, 

This edition has been translated Into English by William Turton, M. D. Part 1 . 
Animals. 4 Vols. Part 3.; of whinb only one volume has as yet itp- 


Digitized by 




others in habits though the teeth are nearl;^ the same in all ; 

it may be questioned whether Gmelin was equally justifiable in 

introducing the three first of the following. . 

Arctomys. Marmot. Fore-teeth cuneated. Grinders in the 

upper jaw 5, in the lower 4, on each side. Clavicles perfect. 

7 Species (4 of thein deGcribed by I^Boaeus ai Mares.) 

Myoxus. Dormouse. Vibrissa long. Tail round, thicker to- 
wards the apex. 

4 Speciet (3 of them described b^ Lianteus, one as a Scamis and the other 
two as Mures). 

Dipus. Jerboa. Fore-legs very short ; hind-legs very long. 

i Species (3 of them only described by Linnaeus), 

Hyrax. Fore-teeth in the upper jaw broad. No tail. 

3 Species, nearly allied to the Cavies, 

(Order 5. PECOitA). 
Camclopardalis. Camelopard. Horns very short. Fore-legs 
much longer than the hind-legs. 

I species ; the Gtraffa (described by Limueus as a Cervut). 

Antilope. Antelope. Horns solid^ simple, permanent. No 
canine teeth. 

SS Species, (7 of wbJi^ are contwned in LinoEus's 1 Sth edition as Gt^a). 

Pennant and succeeding systematical writers have considered 
the Antelopes as exhibiting characters sufficiently peculiar to 
authorise their being formed into a distinct genus, the place 
of which in Gmelin's edition of the Systema Nature is between 
i^amelopardalis and Capra. It appears doubtful whether many 
of this tribe described as distinct species be not merely varieties. 

(Order 6. belluje). 
Tapir. Front teeth in each jaw 10. 

} Species; called by Linoieus HippopotmiMS tarestris^—ta animal imperfectly 


Digitized by 



-kaown until the description of M. Bajon Appeared,. in the Mem. de 
I'Acad. des Sc. for 1774. 

Class ^. AVES. 

Belon and Gesner may be considered as the earliest authors, 
since the restoration of letters, who treated largely on ortti- 
thology. Nothing like method, however, was introduced into 
histories of birds until the time of our countrymen Willughby* 
and Ray-f-. The latter laid a ground-work, on which the system 
of Linnceus is in a great measure built ; and the precision of 
his terms almost equals that of our author's. The Fauna Sue- 
cicOf of 1746, and the 10th edition of the Systema reduced the 
birds into a stable arrangement. Our author's improved edition 
of the last-mentioned work was preceded by the laborious per- 
formance of BrissonJ, who was enabled to make' very conside- 
rable additions to what was before known of this class, from the 
communications and museum of the celebrated Reaumur. We 
shall now take a view of the state of the science left by Linnaeus's 
volume of 1767- 

Birds are here divided into 6 orders, the distiiictions of which 
are taken chiefly from the heak^ but in some genera our author 
found it necessary to call in the tongue, nottrih, and, in some 
instances, the feet and other parts. 

Order 1. Accipitres. Rapacious birds; having the upper 
mandible of the beak furnished on each side witU 
an angular process. 

* Omilhologite libb.' 3 recogitovit, digessit) st^>ptevit J, Saius, London 1676. folio. 
■f Synopm Methodica jtvium. London 1713, 8to, cum tabb. sen. S. 
X Omilhologia. Paris. 6 Vol. 1760*1 7d3«4to. 

3 "2. PiCiE. 

Digitized by 



2. PicjE. Pie*. Birds having the beak somewhat com- 

pressed and convex. 

3. Anseres. fVeb-footed birds; having a somewhat ob- 

tuse beak, covered with a thin sktn, or epidermist 
gibbous at the base underaeath, and wide at the 
end. The edges of the base, or faux, denticulated. 
The tongue fleshy. The feet webbed, or pahnated,' 
and formed for swimming. 

4. GiiALL£. JVaden. Birds having a subcjlindrical and 

rather obtuse beak. The tongue entire and fleshy. 
The thighs naked for some space above the knees. 

5. Gallinjb. Poultry. Birds having a convex beak; 

the upper mandible receiving the edges of the 
lower. Nostrils half covered with a cartilaginous, 
convex membrane. Tail-feathers (Rectrices) more 
than 12. Feet cloven, but the toes connected by 
a membrane as tiir as the inmost joint. 

6. Passerbs. Sparrow Tribe. Birds having a conical, 

acuminated beak. The nostrilsovated, open, naked» 

Abbrevitted Generic Chs^cten. 

Order 1. accipitres. 
Genw 41. Vultur. Vulture. Beak hooked. Head naked. 

S Specie*. Condor, King of the Ftdtures, itc. 

43. Falco. Falcon. Beak hooked, covered with a cera 
at the base. 
SS Species. Eagles, Hawks, Busxards, Kite, Sec. 

43. Strix. Owl. Beak hooked. Capistrtm^ or fentliers of 

the forehead, turned forwards- 

13 Speciei. 

44. Lanius. Shrike. Beak nearly strait, notched; 

M Speciea. Butcher-hirds, &c, 

3. picj:. 

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2. PICS. 
a. Feet fbfmed for walking. 
66. IVochilus. lioney-tttcker. Beak incurvated, filiform, 
forming a tube at the extremity. 
a Species. 
65. Certhia. Creeper. Beak incurvated, acuminaicd. 

33 Species. 1 only ^gUth. 

64. Upupa. Hoopoe. Beak incurvated, somewhat ob' 

3 Species. I Englidt. 

48. Buphaga. Beef-eater. Beak straight, quadrangular. 

1 Species. 
60. Sitta. Beak straight, cuneated at the end.. 

sSpetnet. I^'hatchf &e. 

52. Oriolus. Beak straight, conical, very acute. 

so Species. 

51. Coracias. Beak cultrated (sharp or cutting), in- 
cun'ed at the end, 
6 Species. 1 ^igltsh. 

53. Gracula. Beak cultrated, equal, naked at the base. 

8 Spedes. Mim, Dialbtrdj ttc. 
50. Corvus. Crow. Beak cultrated. Captstrum reversed. 

19 Species. Raven, Ro^, Jackdaw, Jay, Magpjfe, Chough, Sec. 

54. Paradisaea. Bird of Paradise. Beak somewhat cul- 

trated. Cflpi«^ru)n of a downy nature. 
3 Species. 

b. Feet with 2 toes before, and S behind; formed for climbing. 

46. Bamphastos. Toucan. Beak serrated; tongue frin- 
ged on the edges. 

8 Species, at) American. 

55. Trogon. Beak serrated, hooked at the end. 

3 Species, all Ammam. 

2 B 45. Psittacua. 

Digitized by 


.186 »T3T£MA NATUR/^. 

45. Psittacus. Parrot. Beak covered with the cerat' 
tongue fleshy, 

47 SpDciei. Maccaws, PanotSj Parroqueti, Sec, 

49- Crotophaga. Tick-eater. Beak rough ; upper man- 
dible angulated on each side. 

S Species. 

59- Picus. ffoorfpecArrr. Beak angulated > tongue vermi- 

tl Species. 
58. Yunx. Wryneck. Beakunootb; tongue vermi form, 

I Species; Ejigiisk. 

57 ■ Cuculus. Cuckow. Beak smooth; nostrils margi- 

22 Species, all exotic except one. 

56. BuccQ. Beak smooth, notched, and hocked at the 

I Specie). 
c. Feet with the middle and exterior roe joined (c^her, nearly the whole lengthy 
formed for walking. 

47. Buceros. Bom-bill. Beak serrated, famished with 
a protuberance, or hom,^ at the base of tha 
upper mandible. 

4 Species. Co/aff, Rhimcens, &c^ ' 

6S. Alcedo. King-jisheT. Beak triangular, sti>aight. 

la Species, all exotic except (Hte.- 
63. Merops. Bee-eater. Beak iocurvated, somewhat 

7 Species. 

6l. Todos. Tody. Beak linear, somewhat depressed, 


5 Species. 

8 Or^cF S, 

Digitized by 



Order 3. akseres. 
«. Beidc dmticulMod. 

Of, Anas. Duck, Beak furnished with membranaceous 
denticles, and unguiculated. 

43 Specie!. Swan, Cpote, Bemacle, Shoveller, OadtffU, tVigeent 
Tealj fw. 6cc. 

68. Mergus. Svtew, Beak furnished wjtji subulated den- 
ticles and unguiculated. 

Specie. 0<mwttdrr, teufr DunMvert &o, 
74. Phaeton. Beak cultrated. 

9 Specie*. Tii^k bird, and PengiUn, of Edwijrdi. 

73, PIptus. Jiarter, Beak subulated, 

1 Species. 

b. Beak edentulous. 

78. Rhyncopa. Skimmer, Upper mandible shorter tbaa 
the lower. 
S Speciea. 
71. Diomedea, Alhatrost. Lower mandible truncated. 

5 Speciet. 

^. Alca. Auk. Beak wrinkled transversely. 

i specie*. Aaks, Pu^n, Sec. 

70. Procellaria; Petrel. Nostrils superincumbent and 

6 SpKiei. Storm-JinKh, Skearwater, ttc, 

73^ Peliqanus. Pelica^i. Face entirely naked round the 
base of the beak. 

6 Specie*. Otrvormtf Skag^ Ganiwt, Botftn/, &c. 

76. Dams. Gull. Beak gibbous under the apex. 

H specie*. 

77. Sterna. Tern. Beak subulated, compressed ^t the 


7 Specie*. 

Sat 75. Colymbus. 

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75. Coljrmbus, IHvcr. Beak subulated, somewliat com- 
pressed at the sides. 

41 species. Quititmtts, Dioin, CMe$p in, 

4. GRALtJE. 
1. FouMoed. 

79. Phoenicopterus. Fleming. Beak incuirated as if 

broken, denticulated. Feet. webbed. 

I species, 

80. Platalea. Spoonbill Beak flattened* aad wide at the 


3 Species. 

81^ Palamedea. Screamer. Beak acutely hooked at th& 


82. Mycteria. Jabiru. I^wer nuiadible thick and tamed 
» Specie*. 

85. Tantalus. Beak- arcuated. Throal^ pouchei 

84. Ardea. Heron. Beak stcaight, sharp-pointed. 

S0 Species. Craae, Slork, Strms, Eg^et, ^tt^i ^*' 

B9- Recurvirostra. Avoset. i^eak subulated, thin, de- 
pressed, 9iaxL reeuxrea. 

861 Scolopax. Seakstrai^htiroundiTatber obtuse at the 

IS Species. Whimirett Wot^eojt,. ^te-lm^ S$^t Jack-sttipef 
Grmuhank, Redilumk, Godwiis, flu. 

67* Tringa. Sandpiper . Beak roundish, obtuse. Hinder 
toe very short, and placed high. 
S3 Species. Biffi'f Lapv/ing, Titrvt Grey-flowrytcc. 

S 91< Fulica. 

Dig'itized by 



91. Folica. Coot. Forehead bald froiu the base of the 
7 Speeiei. fFater-keit, Coott^ 8cc. 

. 92. Faira. Beak and forehead furnished with moveable 


93. Rallus. Rati. Beak somewhat carinated. Bodj 

rather compressed. 

10 Species. 

94. Psophia. Trumpeter. Beak somewhat arched, or 

convex ; nostrils ovated. 

1 species. 

83. Cancroma. Boat-hill. Upper maiidible very gibbons. 

3 Species. 

b. Three-toed^ formed for nmniDg. 

90. Hematopus. Oi^stcr-caicktr. Beak somewhat com- 
pressed, ending in a wedge. 


88. CSuuadriiis. Plover. Beak ronndish, obtuse. 

1« Sp*owi 5m Larki BHIret, 9 Plovers, > Sandtrting, &c. 

95^ Otis. Bustard. Upper mandible somewhat convex 
or arehed ; tongue notched. 

4 8pMiM. 

96. Struthio. Ostrich. Beak conical. Wings unfit for flying. 

» Sftatr. OUritkj Caasmnwy, tni JMev. 

97. Bidus. Do^. Beak cpntiacted in the middle, 

rugose ; face naked. 
1. Species. 

98. Pavo. Peacock. Head crested vriA reflex plumage. 

Beak naked. 

3 Species. 

99* Meleagris. 

Digitized by 



99, MeJeagris- Turkey, H^nd covered with canmcslet. 

3 Spocics, 

100. Crax. CurassQ, Cera investiug the whole base of the 


5 Species. 

101. Phasianus. Pheasant Legsand.koeea naked, smooth. 

fi Species, 

103. Tetrao. Grouse. Naked papiUoae membrane above 
the eyes. 

fUt Species, Cock y (Ae W^oii, Blttcknck, PtamtgaUt Partridge, 
Qitail, 8ccj 

102. Numida, Guinea-fowl. Carvnculated wattles at the 

hase of the mandibles* 

4 Speciei. 


-a. With thick bedci. CVeinnufref . 

109' Loxia. Beak conical and ovated. 

4S Specie!, Cross-hiU, Cnss-lieak, Bul^huh, Sreen^nckt &c. 

113. FringiUa. Chaffinch, Beak conical and acute. 

.30 Species. Brfimmng, GuitlfimA, CanaryrhiTd, Redpoll, Litmet, 
Sfianw), 8w, 
110. Emberiza^ Bunting, Beak subconipal : lower man* 
dible the broader, a little narrowed in, or con« 
.tracted on the sides, 

8i Specie*. Sttotv-btrd, YeUow-hmtmert Reed'Sparrotv, tic, 
b. With the upper mandible incurved at the end. Curvirostres. 

118. Capnmulgas. Goatsucker. Beak incurved, depressed, 
ciliated about the base ; nostrils tubular. 

8 Species, 

117. Hirundo. Swallow. Beak incurved, depressed. 

IS Speciei. Martin, Sw^, 8ec. 

115. Pipra. Manakin. Beak incurved, subulated, 

) 3 Speciet> chiefly S, American j a beautiliil genui of birds 1 

c. With 

Digitized by 



6* With the opper mandible twtched near the aptx. Emargkuttiroslres. 
JO7. Turdus. Thrush. Beak Botched, subulated, com- 
pressed at the base. 

38 Species, Mtssel-biri, Field-fare, Redwing, Throstle, Ouseh, 
Black-lird, 8cc. 

108. Ampelis. Chatterer. Beak notched, subulated, de- 
pressed at the base. 

7 Species, 

111. Tanagra. Tanager, Beak notched, subulated, conic 
at the base. 

t4 Species. 

113. Muscicapa. Fitf'catcher. Beak notched, subuliate^;^ 

base ciliated, or bristled. 

SI Species. 

d. With a strught, slender beak. Stmplicirostrei.- 
116. Parus. Titmouse. Beak subulated. Tongue truncated- 
Capistrum reversed. 
14 Species. 

114. Motacilla. Beak subulated. Tongue jagged. Claw 

of the hind toe moderately long. 

<9 Species. NighttngaU, Hedge-sparrow, Pistlychap, White- 
tkroat. Wagtails, Wheat-ear, H^unckat, Stone-chatterer, 
Biaek-cap, Red-slart, Red-breast, Wrens, &c. 

105. Alauda. Lark. Beak subulated. Tongue bifid. Claw 

of the hind toe elongated. 
l'> Species, 

106. Stumus. Starlhi^. Beak subulated ; apex depressed, 

6 Species. 
104. Columba. Pigeon. Beaksomewhatarchcd, or convex. 
Nos trils gibbous, almostobliterated by amembrane. 

40 Species. Pigeons, Doves, &c. 

Tlie specific characters in the class of birds are deduced £rom 

a great 

Digitized by 



a great variety of particalars. In several (as in the Falcon genus) 
the colour of the cera, or naked tunic that surrounds the basis 
of the beak, and the colour of the legs assist in distinguishing 
the species. The colour of the bird is subject to great variation 
in different countries, as well as in the same country at different 
seasons of the year, which is more particularly seen in the arctic 
regions ; not to mention that of the sexes in almost all kinds. 
Our author therefore does not trust to this,, wlierever a more 
permanent character can be found. It must, however, be con- 
fessed that, in too many instances, it is necessary to trust en- 
tirely to this distinction, unstable as it is. 7'hc form of the tail, 
as it happens to be even, cuneated, ot forked, is an excellent and 
finn chjuTicter. In the Parrot genus, its lengthy as less or greater 
than that of the body, is of much service. In others, the colour 
of the beak, a naked or crested heady contributes to form the 
note of distinction. Pinally, nature has stamped upon others 
some peculiarity, which points them out immediately; as the 
receptacle of the lower mandible in the Pelican; two long tail- 
feathers in the Tropic-bird; the direction of the mandibles in the 
Cro9s~bcak, &c. &c. Among the common marks, none more fre- 
quently occur than the differences of colour in the quiH-feathers, 
and those of the tail. 

Tliis class comprehends upwards of 930 subjects. It has, 
since our author's time, acquired large accessions, with some 
improvemenfe in point of arrangement, from the descriptions of 
Pennant* and others, but more particularly from Dr. Latham f-, 

• Genera of Birds. Edinb. 1773. 8vo. Lond. J 781. {with 16 plates) 4lo. 
t A General Synopsis of Birds. Ijondon 1781 — 1802. 4to. 3 Vols, in 6 Parts, be- 
sides two supplementary volumes j with plates. 

hidex Ormthologicus. Loud. 1790. 4to. s Vol. praeter Supplementum. 

. whose 



whose works may be considered as the most scientific of any, in 
this branch, that have appeared subsequently to the 12th edition 
of the System A Naturae. Of these Professor Gmelin has avail- 
ed himself, so as to increase the number of species in this class to 
nearly 2600, and he has formed 9 new genera, which we shall 
here notice. 

(Order 2. picje.) 
Glaucopis. Beak incurved, arched. Tongue serrated, ciliated. 

1 Species {the cinereous Wattle-bird, of Latham). 

This comes under Linnseus's first division of the order. 

(Orders, anseres.) 
Aptenodyta. Beak straight, narrow, sulcated on the sides. 

1 1 Species^ most of them Pengmru, otiginally descnbed by Coolcj 
FoistcTj and Sonoerat, and allied to the linnean geuus of DiomedeSs 

(Order 4. gralls;.) 
In the four-footed division. 
Corrira. Beak straight, narrow. 

I Species only, native of Italy. 

Vaginalis. Sheath'biU. Beak thick, somewhat convex : the 
apex of the upper mandible covered by a horny sheath. 

I Specieg, discovered in New Zealand. 

Scopus. Beak thick, compressed. Nostrils linear, oblique. 

1 species, the Seo^ Ombntttt of BuSbn. 

Glareola. Beak short, str^ght, uncinated at the apex. Nostrils 
linear, oblique. 

3 Species, called by Latham Pratincoles, the first being tlw Hintnda 
Pratintolaf of Lirniaeus. 

(Orders, gallinje.) 
Penelope. Head pennated ; beak naked. 

6 Species. Homed Turkey, Gnaa, Yacou, Marail, 8cc. 

This gciius is formed out of the Meleagris of Linnasus. 

3 c , (Order 6. 

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(Orders, passeres). 
Colius. Coly. Beak thick, convex on the upper part, narrowed 

5 Species, one of them described by linilffius under the nanw o£ 

Loxia Coliiis. 

Pliytotoma. Beak conical, straight, serrated. 

1 Species, veiy scarce^ and described only by Molina. An inha- 
bitant of Chili. 

The above two genej-a belong to the Linnean division of Cras- 

Dr. Latham has ventured so far to alter the Linnean arrange- 
ment of birds as to constitute 4 new orders, of which perhaps it 
may \)e thought by most modern ornithologists very fairly to 
admit. He has separated the Columb^; from the order of 
Passeres, raising them from a genus into an order of their 
own. Tlie Linnean genera of Didus and Struthio, with two 
species of the latter, viz. Casuarius and Rhea, form 4 genera of 
his 6th order, which he has denominated Struthjones. The 
8th order, called Pinnatipedes, comprehends tlie 3 genera 
of Phalaropusy Fulica, and Podiceps, before included among 
the Grall^c. The 9th, or Palmipedes, has 2 subdivisions, 
formed on the longer or shorter structure of the feet; in the 
first of these stand the Recurvirostra, Corrira, and Phanicop- 
terus, separated from the Grallje ; and in the second, all 
the genera of the Linnean order of Anseees, besides a new 
one called Vria, to which are allotted 4 species of Guilletnot. 
This ornithologist, profiting by the valuable descriptions of 
Shaw*, Vaillantf, and DaudinJ, has increased the number of 

* Naimahsi's Miscellany, and other works. 

t T^aite ekmentaire et complet d'OmUhologte, Paris ISOO. 4to. avec plaache*. 

I Hhtme NatWtUa ies Oiseaux d'Afrtque. Paris 1 799. 4\o, 


y Google 


Species to considerably more than 2500, of which indeed 500 at 
least were first described bji himself. 

Class 3. AMPHIBIA. 

This class is so called by Linnaeus, not because all the subjects 
of it are (strictly speaking) capable of living either in air or water, 
but principally from their power of Suspending or performing 
the function of respiration, in a more arbitrary manner than 
other animals. 

Id leducitig these creatures into a regular arrangement, our 
author had to strike out a plan entirely his own, for, except in a 
few of the genera^ no systematic writer had preceded him. 
Seba's work afibrded him a considerable number of figures, to 
which, as well as to Catesby's, he has made copious references, 
especially for the elucidation of the serpent tribe, but the de- 
scriptions given by these authors were of very limited use to 
him. — He has divided this class into 4 orders: 

1. Reptiles. Reptiles. Furnished with feet, and breathing 
through the mouth. 

2. Serpentes. Serpents. Destitute of feet; breathing through 
the mouth. 

3. Meantes. Gliders. Breathing by means of gills and lungs 
together. Feet brachiated and furnished with claws*. 

4. Nantes. Swimming jt"iphibia.'Fumished with &ra; breath- 
ing by means of lateral gills. 

* The vnly genus under this order i< the SiV*i, {Mud-Tnguana, of Carolina, de- 
srribed in the Pkiloscphical Traniactions, Vol. 56. p. 169.) It is first mentioned by Lin- 
n»us inlong ihe Adderum to his 1st volume of the Sy sterna. More will be said of 
this singidar animal in a subsequent page. 

S c 2 Abbreviated 

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I .^ 

iiAiiiijl .m 


Abbreviated Generic Characben, 

Order 1. re^ptiles. 

119. Testudo. Tortoise. Body protected by a shell. 

lASpeciee. Tortoises and Turtles. 
121. Draco. Dragon. Body winged, 
g Speciei. 

1S3. Lacerta. Lizard. Body Baked* furnished with a tail. 

a. With a compressed tail. Crocodile, &c. 

b. With a verticiliated uil. Common Lizards, 8cc. 

c. With a round imbricated tu\, ahorter than the body. CAd- 

misleon. Gecko, SkirA, £cc. 

d. With a ronod imbricated tail, longer than the body. Sasi- 

lisk, Inguana, Sec. 
e: With Tour toes on the fore feet ; body smooth an^ oalced 
ffater-Efi or Newt, SaJamander, &c, 
48 Species. 

120. Rana. Frog. Body naked, without a tail. 

37 Spedes. Fi-ogs and Toads. 


J23. Crotaliis. Rattlesnake. Body and tail covered un- 
derneath with small shields ; tail terminating in 
a homy rattle. 
5 Species, all American and venomous. 

124. Boa. Serpent. Body and tail covered underneath 

with small shields ; no rattle. 
10 Spedes, not fiiraisbed with vesromoos Esngs. 

125. Coluber. Viper. Body covered underneath with 

small shields; tail with scales. 

97 Species, of which 18 are known to have venomous ftngs. 

126. Anguis. Snake. Body and tail cov«ed underneath 

with scales. 

J6 Species. Snaies, Slow-worm, &c. 

127. AmphisbEena. Annulated Snake. Body and tail com- 

posed of auDulated segiaejit^. 

S species. 

2 128. Cecilia. 

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128. Ceeilia. Tentaculated Snake. Body and tail \rrinkled 

on the sides. 

8 Species. 



a. Sereral spiracles on each side. 

129. Petromyzon. Lamprey. Spiracles 7, lateyal. 

3 Species. 

130. Raia. Rat/. Spiracles 5, underneath. 

g Species. Torpedo, Skaite, Rays, &c. 

131. Squalus. Shark, Spiracles 5, lateral. 

16 Species. ^ 

13S. Cbimsera. Spiracle 1, dividing into 4 within. 

S Species. 

b. Spiracle solitary on each si4e. 

133. X4)pfeuu9. Toad-^h. ^Ventral 6ds 2, Mouth furnished 
with teeth. 

3 Spaciea. , 

1^. Acipenser. Sturgeon. Ventral fins 2. Mouth without 

3 Species, 

139. Cyclopterus. Lwnp-ji$h. Ventral fins 2, uniting 
nearly into one orbicular fin. 
3 Species. 

135. Batistes. Old-wife Ji$h. Ventral fin 1, placed like a 


S Spefiioi. 

136. Ostracion. Bonyakm-^h. Ventral fins none. Body 

covered with a bony coat. 

7 Species. 

* Seeooteinp. 19»< 

137. Tetrodon. 

Digitized by 



137. Tetrodon. Sun-JtsJi. Ventral 6n8 none. Bell^ rough, 

or muricated. 
7 Species. 

138. Diodon. Porcupine-Jidi. Ventral fins none. Body 

set with acute moveable spines. 
3 Specie*. 

140. Centriscus. Tnimpet-Jish. Ventral fins 10. A long 

moveable spine near the tail. 

2 Species. 

141. Syngnatbus. Pipe-fixh. Ventral fins none. Body 


7 Species. NeedU-_fisk, Sea-horse, &c. 

142. Pegasus. Dragon^sh. Ventral fias 2. Beak cili- 

ated or denticulated. 
a Species. 

In the order of Reptiles, the specific characters of the 
Testudo genus are deduced principally from the difference in the 
shells and the feet^ (which latter are, in the Turtles*, pinniform, and 
in the Tortoises, digitated); in the Lacerta genus, from the head, 
tail, toes, and various other parts ; and i n the flana, from the diver- 
sity in the make of the body and number of Ihe claws pn the fore or 
hind feet With respect to the Serpentes, the specific distinc- 
tions have ever been matter of great difficulty to naturalists, as they 
were commonly taken from the colour, which is subject to an almost 

• Later obaervation, however, has proved the apparent-oumber of cUws, or project- 
iDg extrcDuUea of the feet of Ttarlles to be no certain cri^on of the Bp^ies, but, on 
the contrary, to vary in such a manner as to contradict the LJnnean characters. The 
reader may consult Schoepff's Historia Testudmum, (Eriang. 1 793. 4to.) The Tortoises 
also are subject to the same variation. Dr. Shaw considers the shape, pattern, and 
cblours of the shell, the form of the head> &c., as the best grounds of distinction. 
(See General Zooiogt/, Vol. 3. Part 1.) 


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mfintte variation. Hence it has happened that Seba, depending 
on the colours alone, has, in the opinion of our author, figured 
Boa Constrictor (the Gigantic Serpent) ten times, as so many di- 
stinct species ; and Coluber Nqja {tlie Hooded Viper) fourteen. 
Liuneeus discovered what he cousidcred a much more certain 
and permanent note upon which to found his speciBc cliaracters, 
and which was first exemplified in the description of the Am- 
phibia Gylknborgiana* ; he retained it in all his works, sensible, 
however, that it is liable to failure. This note is the number 
of the small shiddsy and scales, or the rings and ruga of tlie belly 
and tail, and the proportion these bear to each other in the dif- 
ferent species ; for example, in our common Viper the shields of 
the bellif are usually about 146, and the scales of the tail (that is, 
all below the anus) about 40; .the shields in our commoji Snake 
about 170, and the scales about 60. Kxpprience has shown that, 
though often highly useful in the investigation of such animals, 
even this character is too uncertain to be permitted to stand as 
an established specific test. The pattern, or general distribution 
of markings in each species, is on the whole more constant, and 
has accordingly been much more dwelt upon in modern descrip- 
tions. The relative size of the head also, the length of the body 
and tail, the size and nature of the scales, and the shape of the 
scales in different parts of the animal, are often found to be pretty 
certain marks. 

The order of Me ANTES, which, as has been before remarked, 
was made solely for the genus Siren, has, together with 
that of Nantes, been thrown out of the class Aupiiibia 
by most systematical writers subsequent to Linnaeus. 'I'hough 

* See Amoen. Acad. Vol. 1. 


Digitized by 



possessed of Jungs, however, it is far from being yet determined 
whether this singular genus be the /«rra of a Zocer^d, oraperfect 
animal. Dr. Shaw places it as a sort of anomaly^ not referriog 
it positively to any class. But, as the object of a general system 
is to include every known creature in the place which the ex- 
isting state of science seems on the whole to render most 
eligible for it, and as wc are unacquainted with any species of 
fsh* to which the genus bears the smallest resemblance, it may 
fiiirly be asked why the Linnean order of Meantes should dot 
still be retained. 

The Nantes have, with propriety, been transferred to 
another class, in which they were originally included by Artedi, 
and the character of which depends on the respiration being 
carried on by gills. The specific characters are very short, but 
Tery various in the dtiFerent genera, as to the parts of the animal 
fh>m which they are deduced ; in the Petromyzon and RaiOy 
from the mouth, fins, teeth. Sec. (in the Rata very much from the 
body itself) ; in the Squaliis, from a variety of particulars ; in 
the Acipenser, from the c/rrAi, or beard, and the dorsal «^eft/9 ; 
in the Balistes, from the ^ns and tail ; in the Ostracion, from 
the differently angulated form of the body; in the Tetrodon, 
from differences in the body chiefly; and in the remaining 
generOi from the form of the body, and the differences in the 

Linnsus has described upwards of 290 subjects in this part of 
the system, which, however, may now be considered as contain- 

* In the GmeliniaQ edition of linnteus, the Sinn described by that author ia placed 
(among the PISCES) in the genus Murtena! Gmelin seems to have been misled by 
an opinion of Camper^ that the creature had oo lun^j— an opinion proved since to be 
perfectly erroneoui. 


Digitized by 


flTSTBUA ]749UB^. 201 

ing above 50 more, exclusively of the orders of Meavtes and 

Dr. Shaw enumerates still more than Gmelin, the species con- 
tained in the General Zoology amounting to very nearly 400. 

Among the modern writers who have elucidated with success 
this class of animals, we ought to mention Schoepflf *, Schneider-f-, 
and Russell J, to whom, almost exclusively, we are to ascribe the 
reformation of description now introduced. 

Class 4. PISCES. 
In the earlier editix)ns of the Systema Naturae our author, in 
the distribution of fishes, had followed the method of his friend 
and fellow-collegian Artedi, whose Ichthyology S he had published 
during his residence in Holland, in 1738. This method, which 
included the Cetaceous order (now among the MAMMALIA) 
and the Nantes (now referred to tlie AMPHIBIA), was esta- 
blished on the structure, or rather l/^^«I^«m»of the tail in the CetCy 
and in other orders, on the diflerence of the giU:^, an(} of the 
rays of thejSns, whether cartilaginous or bony. In the two last 
editions, however, Linnaeua adopted a disposition of his own. 
After having dismissed the Cetaceous order to his 1st class, 
and the Chondropterygii (or cartilaginous fishes) and the 
Bhanchiostegi to the 2nd, he formed 4 orders of the bony 
fishes (respiring by mean* of gills) from the situation of the 
ventral fins, which he analogically considers as the feet of the 

* See note in p. 198. 

t ^tegetaeine naturgetchickU der S£hildkrStea, Leipzig 17fi3. fivo. 

Historia Amph'tliorum. Jena. sFasc. 17fl9 — 1801. 8vo. 
J Account of Indian Serpents. Lond. 1796. large folio, with plates. 
§ See p. 73. 

S D animal. 



animaU according as they are placed either before, under, or 
behind the pectoral or gill fins, or (as in one order) wanting the 
ventral fins. 

1. ApoDEs. Destitute of ventral fins. 

2. JuGULAREs. ^''entral fins placed before the pectoral finr. 

3. Thoracici. Ventral fins placed underneath the pectoral 


4. Abdominales. Ventral fins placed behind the pectoral 


Abbreviated Geoeric Characters. 

Order 1. apodes. 

143. Mursena. Eel, Apertures of the gills on the sides of 

the chest. 

7 Speaes. 

144. Gymnotus. Back d^titute of any fin. 

5 Species. Torpedo, Sec. 

145. Trichiurus. Needle-taiL Tail without any fin, 

I specie*. iJi 

146. Anarhichas. Wolf-jish. Teeth rounded. 

1 species. * , 

147. Ammodytes. Sand-eeL Head more slender than the 


1 Species. 

148. Ophidium. Snake-Jish. Body ensiform* 

3 Species. 

149. Stromateus. Pampm. Body ovated. 

S Species. 

I50r Xiphias. Sword-Jish. Upper mandible terminating; 
in an ensiform beak. 

I Species. 


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the neck. 

3 Species. 

152. Uranoscopus. Star-gazer. Mouth flat, opening up- 

1 Speciw. 

153. Trachinus. Weever, Anus near the breast 

I Specie!. 

154. Gadus. Cod. Pectoral fins slender, and ending in a 


a. With 3 dorsal fina, and the jaw bearded. Haddock, Tortk, 

Bib, JVhiting, &c. 

b. With 3 dorsal fins; jaw not bearded. Cole-Jish, Wtuting- 

poltack, &c. 

c. With 3 dorsal fins only. Hakt, Ling, Burbot, 

d. With 1 dorsal fin. Mediterraaean. 
Total 17 Spcpies. 

155. Blennius. Bknny* Ventral fins of 2 rays, not prickly. 

13 Species. 


156. Cepola. Mouth opening upwards. Body ensiform. 

< Species. 

157. Echeneis. Sucking-fish. Top of the head flat, trans- 

versely sulcated. 
3 Speciei. .. 

158. Coryphaena. Anterior part of the head very obtuse 

or truncated. 

IS Species. R'tver-dolpkin, Parrot 'Jish, hcc 

159. Cobius. Goby. A'entral fins unitjd into cue ovated 


S Specie*. 

Sd3 160. Cotti.s. 

Digitized by 




160. Cottus. Bull-head. Head broader than the body. 

6 Specie*. Pogge, FMther-ltaher, MiUer's-tkumii, Bcc. 

161. Scorpana. Head set with prickles or beards. 

3 Species. 

1G2. Zeu3. Doree. Upper lip arched by means of a trans- 
verse membrane. 

4 Species. 

163. Pleiironectes. Plaise. Both eyes on one side of the 

a. On the right side. Holilui, Plaife, Fiounder, Dab, Sole. 
, h. On the left side. Pearl-^fish, Turhot, &c. 
Toul ] 7 Species. 

164 Chaetodon. Teeth like bristles, very numerous and 

■ 23 Species. Pilot-Jish, Stc. 

165. Sparus. Teeth strong ; fore-teeth very sharp, and 

the grinders very obtuse. 

S6 Species. Gilt-head, Sea-bream, &c, 

166. Labrus. Wrasse. Connecting membrane of the dorsal 

fin extending beyond the extremity of each ray, 
in the form of filaments. 
4] Species. 

167. Sciaena. A groove in the back to receive the dorsal 


5 Species. 

168. Perca. Perch. The gill-covers jagged, or serrated. 

9i species. 
1^. Gasterosteus. Stickle-back. Tail carinated on each 
side. Spines on the back distinct. 

11 Species. 

170. Scomber. Mackarel. Tail carinated on each side; 
spurious fins, in most species, near the tail. 

10 Species, 

171. Mullus. 

Digitized by 



171. Mullus. Surmullet. Scales of the body and head de- 


3 Species. 

172. Trigla. Gurnard. Distinct appendages resembling 

fingers near the pectoral fins. 
g Speciea. 


173. Cobitis. Locke. Body nearly of an equal width with 

the tail. 

5 Species. 
174:. Amia. Mud~jish. Head naked, bony, and rough. 
1 Species. 

175. Silurus. Skeat. First ray of the dorsal fin and of 

the pectoral fins dentated. 

%l Species. 

176. Teuthis. Liver-Jish. Head anteriorly truncated. 

e species. 
177- Loricaria. Helmet-Jish. Body invested with a shelly 
crust, set with points. 

S Species. 
178* Salmo. Salmon. Posterior dorsal fin adipose. 

a, Troitts; with a variegated body. Satmony Salmon-iroul, 

Char, &c. 

b. Smells ; with a dorsal and anal fiu opposite. 

G. With teeth scarcely to be seen. Gu/miard^ Vmher, Gray- 
ling, Src. 
d. With 4 branchiostegous rays only. 
ToUl 39 Specie!. 

179. Fistularia. Pipe-^sh. Very long cylindrical beak, 

with the mouth at the end. 
3 Species. 

180. Esox. Pike. Lower jaw the longer, punctated. 

g Speciee. 

181. Elops. 

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ISl. Elops. 5car^si. Branchiostegous membrane double ; 
the exterior one the smaller. 

I Species. 

182. Argentina. Argentine. Vent very near the tail. 

S Spedes. 

183. Atherina. Atherine. Lateral band or line silvery. 

5 Spcciea. 

184. Mugil. Mullet. Lower jaw carinated inwards. 

S Species. 

185. Monnyrus. Branchial aperture linear, without covers. 

4 Specie*. 

186. Exocoetus. Flying-Jish. Pectoral fins nearly the length 

of the body. 

5 Species. 

187- Polynemus. Finger-fish. Distinct appendages, like 
fingers, near the pectoral fins. 

3 Species. 

188. Clupea. Belly carinated, and serrated. 

I I Species. Herring, Pilchard^ Sprat, Shad, Aiuhovy, &c. 

189. Cyprinus. Carp. Branchiostegous membrane with 

3 rays. 

«. Bearded (or with a cirrhose jaw). Barlel, Carp, Gudgeon, 

b. Tail-fin entire. Carasse, Chul, 

c. Tail-fin trifid. Gold-fish. 

A. Tail-Hn bifid. Minnow, Dace, Roach, Rud, Bleak, Bream, 
Total 31 Speciea. 

Hence the number of fishes described in Linnceus's 12th 
edition of the Systema is about 400. But very great additions 
have been made to tliis class by later discoveries, so that in the 
13th it amounts to nearly 750; in which number, however, it 
must be remembered that the order of Nantes, formerly con- 
tained among the AMPHIBIA, is included. 


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Besides having removed Linnaeus's order of Nantes from the 
AMPHIBIA into this class. Professor Gmelin has in some other 
respects added to its divisions. 'J'o the Apodes are added two 
new genera, and the same number to the Thoracici. Among 
the JuGULARES, too, we find a genus called Kurtus introduced. 
These new genera are thus characterized, viz. 

(Order 1. afodes.) 
Stemoptyx, Body ovated, naked, with a plicated breast. 

I Species. 

Leptocephalus. No pectoral fins. 

I Species^ first diacovered near Holyhead. 

(Orders, jugvlares.) 
Kurtus. Back elevated. 

1 Species^ originally describad by Bloch. 

(Order 3. TnoBACici.) 
Scarus. No teeth. Jaw denticulated on the edge. 

7 Species, 6 of them discovered by Porskahl, by whose travels in Arabia' 
great additions were made to this clasa. 
Centrogaster. Tail carinated at the sides. Ventral fins con- 
nected by a membrane ; the 4 first rays spinose, the other 
6 without spines. 

4 Species. 

Dr. Shaw's General Zoology contains a very remarkable new 
genus, which was originally described in the Linnean Transac- 
tions, and which he has thus defined, viz. 

(Order 1.) 
Stylephorus. Eyes pedunculated, standing on a sh6rt thick 
cylinder. Snout lengthened, directed upwards, retractile 
towards the head by means of a membrane- Branchite S 


Digitized by 



pair beneath tbe throat. Pectoral fins small : dorsal the 
length of the back ; caudal short, with spiny rays. Body 
very long, compressed. 
Of this extraordinary animal only one species is at present 
known ; it is a native of the West-Indian seas. 

There are many other new genera introduced in the above- 
mentioned work, on the authority of the laborious Bloch*, who, 
both as a describer and as an icimiographist, is certainly entitled 
to very high estimation, and who has given additional stability 
to the Linnean principles of arrangement, by making the situ- 
ation of the fins the foundation, of his orders. 

We have mentioned before . that Artedi's distinctions of 
Branchiostegi and CnoxDROPTERYCii, which two orders 
Linnaeus had himself adopted in all the editions of the Sy- 
stema anterior to the 10th, are again received into this class, on 
the authority of anatomical proofe that the species included 
under those denominations do not breathe by lungs. 

Great pains were taken by Artedi, and afterwards by Grono- 
vius and our author, to distinguish the species of fishes by the 
number of the rays in the fins. Though, from repeated observa- 
tions, the number is found to agree, in many, very remarkably, 
yet, in others, it varies so much as not to form a firm character. 
In the last edition of the Systema^ the specific characters are 
taken from a great variety of particulars, among which, however, 
the number of the pinnal rays is frequently the most distinctive ; 
and, whether so or not, it is subjoined to most species, and 
usually as they have been obscr\'ed by different authors. The 

• See his " Systema Ichthyologite iconihus 1 10 ilhttstratum {post olitum auctorU opus 
ehtoluit correxit, mtapokvit Jo. Gottlieb Schmeider)" Berel. 180K fivo. 

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form of the taii^ the cirrhiy or beard, the length of the jam, the 
tpois and I'met on the body, &g. all conspire in their turn to the 
same end. 

Class 5. INSECTA. 

This branch of natural history, before the time of Linnaeus, 
was nearly without method; for though the oeconomy, structure, 
and metamorphoses of insects had been elucidated by various 
authors, and numberless species had been accurately 6gured and 
described, yet no one had constituted a general arrangement 
that enabled the student to investigate them with faciHty. 

The class INSECTA comprehends 7 orders, founded mostly 
on the differences observable in the number and texture of the 

Order 1. Coleoptera. Wings 4; the upper 2 cnistaceous, 
divided by a straight suture, 

2. Hehifteba. Wings 4; the upper 2 semicrustaceous, 

incumbent on each other at the inner edges. 

3. Lepidoptera. Wings 4; all of them having imbri- 

cated scales. 

IfTail without 
Wmgs4; ^ 

all of them i . * 
membranaceous. '^^^ ^** 
L a sting. 

6. DfPTERA. Wings 2; each having a balance or club 


7. Apteba. No wings. 

In forming the genera under each of these orders, the antenna 
hold a principal rank, especially in the Coleoptera, but the 
author does not trust to them alone. The elytra^ or cnistaceous 
cases, the head, the rostrum^ or beak, the thorax, and tail are. 

Digitized by 




in almost every genus of this order, altogether or partially called 
in to assist in forming the character. In the Hbmiptera, the 
rostrum is of primary use, but here also the avtenna, ivings, and 
feet, are introduced. The antenna and wings form the charac- 
ters of the Lepidoptera, as do the mouth, wings, and tail of 
the Neuropteua. In the Hymenoptera, Linnajus was di- 
rected by the sting, as well as the mouth and wings ; but in the 
DiPTERA, exclusively by the mouth or proboscis. In the last 
order, or Aptera, various parts of the insect are made subser- 
vient to generic distinction — the eyes, tail, number of feet, 
See. &c. 

Abbreviated Generic Characters. 
Order 1. coleottera. 

a. Jjiiermce club-«hapcd, the thick part outwards. 

189. Scarabaeus. Chafer. Antenna with a fissile club. 

Fore legs dentated. 

87 Species. 

190. Lucanus. Stag-beetle. Antenna with a flattened 

club : the broader side fissile. 

7 Species. 

191. Demicstes. Leather-eater. Antenna with a perfoliated 

club. Head bent under the thorax. 

30 Species. 

193. Histei. Antenna with a solid club. Head retractile 

within the thorax, 
6 Species. 
195. Byrrhus. Antenna with a solid, ovated club. 

5 species. 

194. Gyrinus; Antenna somewhat rigid. Four eyes. 

3 Species. 

SOS. Attelabiis. Hind part of the head attenuated. 

203. Curculio. 

Digitized by 



202. Curculio. Antenna iasident Saout honjy. 

95 Species. 

196. Silpha. Tliorax and u^per wings or ^ra marginftted. 

35 Species. . 

\Qti. Coccineila. Antenna with an obtuse club. Palpiy or 
feelers, with a truncated club. 
49 species. Lady-Cotv, 6cc. 

b. Antmnee filiform. 

$01. Bnichus. Antenna filiform, thicker outwards. 

7 Species. 

197. Cassida. Body ovated. Elytra marginated. Head 

covered with a corselet, 
31 Species. 
193. Ptinus. Thorax receiving the bead. X^ast joints of the 

antenna the longest. 
6 Species. 

199- Chrysomela. Body ovated, and not marginated. 

188 Species. 

200. Hispa. Antenna stretched forwards, approximated, 

4 Species, 

215. Meloe. Tln»'ax roundish. Head gibbous, bent in- 


Blister'mg-Jly, toz. Ifl Species. 

314. Tenebrio. Thoi-as loarginated. Head protruded. 
Body oblong. 

33 Species. 

207. Lampyris. Glow-worm. Elytra flexible. Corselet 
sheltering and receiving the head. 

18 Species. 

216. Mordella. Xamints at the base of the a^omen. Head 

bent inwards. 
6 Species. 

2 E 2 217. Staphylinus. 

Digitized by 



S17' Staphjlinus. Rove-beetle. Elytra curtailed, covering 
the wings. Tail with two vesicles, 

S6 Species. 

c. Antemut setaceoui. 

204. Cerainbyx. Thoraa with tubercles on the sides. 

83 Species. 

205. Leptura. Elytra attenuated at the apex. Thorax 

Great fFasp-beetle, Stc. S5 Speciefl. 

208. Cantharis. Elytra flexible. Sides of the abdomen 
papiUous and folded. 

37 species. 

210. Blater. Under part of the /Aoror terminating in a 
point lodged in a pore, or cavity, of the ab- 

38 Specie*. 

210. Cicindela. Sparkler. Jaws prominent, dentated. 

Eyes prominent. 


211. Buprestis. Head half concealed within the Morai-. 

Cow-humtr, &c. 99 Species. 

212. Dytiscus. Boat-beetle. Hind feet fringed, formed for 


33 Species. 

213. Carabus. Thorax somewhat heart-shaped, truncated 


43 Species. 

206. Necydalis. Elytra curtailed. Wings naked. 

II Species. 
218. Forficula. Ear-wig. Elytra curtailed. Wings covered. 
Tail forcipated. 

8 Species. 


Digitized by 




219- Blatta. Mouth with jaws. Wings coriaceous, flat 
Feet formed for running. 

10 Species. 

220. Mantis. Mouth with jaws. Fore feet serrated ; with 

a single claw. 

14 Species. 

221. Gryllus. Cricket. Mouth with jaws. Hind feet formed 

for leaping. 

* AcRiDA. Head longer than the thorax. jintemuB eniifbnn. 

** Bulla. Thorax carinated. Antenna shoner than the thorax, filifbnn. 
*•• AcHETA. TmI with two bristles. 

Mole Cndtel, Common Cricket, field Critket, &c. 
••«« Tettioonia. T^ of the female ensifi»oiu. A^enaee briatfy. 
Grasshopper, Sec. 
*••«• I^cusTA. Tail simple. Aatetma filifoim. Locust-tr^. 

In the whole 61 Species. 

222. Fulgora. Lantern-carrier. Beak bent inwards. 

Forehead lengthened out, empty. Antenna 

223. Cicada. Beak bent inwards. Hind feet made for 


* FoLiACR/E. With a compressed^ tnembranaceous thorax, lai^ thaa 

the body. 
** Cruciate. With the thorax homed on each side. 
••• Mannifer^, not leaping. 
•*•* RA^ATH*, leaping. 
•*••• Deflexjv. With the wings deflexed over the sides. 
31 Species. 

324. Notonecta. Beak bent inwards. Hind feet formed 
for swimming (fringed). 

225. Nepa. 

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225. Nepa. Water-Scorpion. Beak turned inwards, fore 

feet clawed. 
7 Species, 

226. Cimex. Bug. Beak bent inwards. Feet formed for 


* a * AfTBROUS. OmiTnon hug. 

• b * ScoTELLATED. Smtellum the length of the aMomen. 

• c * CoLKOPTnATED. Etijtro aloiost wholly coriaceous. 

* d • Mkmbrakaceoub and much depressed, like a leaf. 

• c * Thobny. Thorax armed with a thorn on each side. 

• f * Rounded, orovated; Morox without thonu. 

* g * Bbistls-hornbd. jtntaauB bristly at the apex. 

♦ h* OstOMO. 

• i * Antennts bristly, the length of the b<»dy. 

* k * Thobh-footeo. Tih'ue marked with thorai. 

* I * LivxAii. Body iiarrow. 

Total 121 Species. 

227 Aphis. Blighter. Beak bent inwards. Abdomen with 
two horns. 

S3 Species. 

22S. Chermes. Beak on the breast. Hind feet formed for 

1 7 Species. 

229. Coccus. Beak on the breast. Abdomen of the males 

bristly on the hinder part. 

SS2 Species. 

230. Thrips. Beak obsolete. Wings lying on the reflexile 

i Species. 


231. Papilio. Butterfiy. Antenna thicker towards the 

ends. Wings erect. 
This genus being extremely numerous, Jiuueus divided it into 6 PhMtanget (as be 
calls them) under the names of 

s a. tamrEB, 

Digitized by 



8. EouiTES, OF Knights (which hare the aatKrior wings longer from the posterior 
angle to the tip than to the base ; and the an/nina of this tribe are 
generally filiform). 
Trojan (with blood-coloured spota on the breast, and generally black). 
Grecian (with blood -coloured breasts, and ocelUted at the angle of the ams. 
wings withouthands. 
wings with bands. 
. b. Hbliconh (with wings narrow and very entire, often doiiidtted j the anterior ob- 
loag, the posterior very short). 

c. Djinai (witti winga very entire). 

White (with white wings). 
Festive (with vari^ated wings). 

d. Nthphalgs (with denticulated wings). 

Gemmated (with ocellated wh^). 

all the wii^ ocellated). * 

the anterior only). 

the posterior only). 
Phalcraled (wings not ocellated). 

e. Plbbbii (the larva ofien contracted). 

Rural (winga with dull spots). 

Urban (wings frequently having pellOpid spots on them). 
Total 373 Spacies. 

232. Sphinx. Hawk'tnoth, Antenna thicker in the middle. 
47 Species. 

335. FhaliSDa. Motki Antenna thicker towards the base. 

This genus also, which is almost twice as numerous as the Papiliof has been diridetl, 
for the sake of more commodious investigation, as follows, viz. 
1. Attaci. Wings patulous and inclined. 

Pectitticomes. Without tongues. 

Selicames. Spiral-tongued. 
•. BttURTOBS. Wings iacumbent ; onlmMP pectinated. 
Etinguef. Tongue not obviously spiral. 
Wings reversed, 
Spir^ngues. Tongue spiral, 
crisuted on the back. 

3r NocrsM. 

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3. NecTVf. WingB incumbent } antemut hnatlyt not ptctiaaied. 


4. Ggohbtba. Wings expanded, horizontal, quieicent. 



With rounded wings. 

5. ToETtuCBa. Wings ver)* obtuse, and with the outer edge curved. 

6. Ptralidss. Wings connivent, so as to fonn a deltoid appearance. 

7. TiNBA. Wings conroluted almost into a cylindrical sh^e. Forehead prominent. 

8. Aldcita. Wings digitated, or cut, almost to the rery base. 

In all 460 Species. 


234. Libellula. Dragon^^. Tail forcipated. Mouth with 

several jaws. Wings extended. 

<1 Species. 

235. Ephemera. May-fly. Tail with 2 or 3 bristles. Mouth 

without teeth. Wings erect, 
tl Species. 
238. Myrmeleon. Tail forcipated. Mouth with 2 teeth. 
Wings deflexed. 

a Species. 

336. Phryganea. Tail simple. Mouth without teeth. 
Wings deflexed. 

34 Species. Spring-fiy, 8tc. 

237. Hemerobius. Tail simple. Mouth with 2 teeth. 
Wings deflexed, 
15 Species. 

239- Panorpa. Tail clawed. Mouth beaked. Wings 'mr 

4 Species. 

240. Raphidia. Tail with a long flexible bristle. Mouth 
with 2 teeth. Wings deflexed. 
3 Species. 


Diaitizcd \y 
' -^y '-^ -^ - - .11,- ■ ■■' . ,1 .^k 


-ZDi-- yjiisuus. auii. ivj.uuiu siiui, ur wituung. 
i Species. 

252. Tipula. Mouth with lateral lips. Talpi 4. 

AS Species. Long-legs, 8dc. 

253. Musca. Fly. Mouth with a profioscis, but no teeth. 

1A9 Species. Cliameemeleon-fly, ftesh-fijf. Sec. 

254. Tabanus. Mouth with a jm-o^scm, and connivent teeth. 

19 Species. Stivging-fly, Stc, . ' 

2f 255. Culex. 

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255. Culex. Gna^ Mouth with a aiphon-like nutant beak, 

or snout. No Stemmaia. 

7 Species. 

256. Empis. Mouth with an ioBexed beak. 

5 Species. 

257. Conops. Mouth with a lengthened, geniculated beak. 

13 Species. 

258. Asilus. Moutli with a lengthened, awl-shaped beak. 

1 7 Species. 

259- Bombylius. Mouth with a lengthened, bristly beak. 

5 Species. 

260. Hippobosca. Horae-Jltf. Mouth with a nutant, very 

short beak. No Stemmaia. 

4 Species. 

a. Feet 0. Head separate from the thorax. 

261. Lepisma. Tail wiUi projecting bristles. 

3 Species. 

262. Fodura. Tail forked, inflexed, leaping. . 

14 Species. 

263. Teimes. Death-watch. Mouth with 2 jaw& 

3 Species. 

264. Pedit^lus. iMue. Mouth containing a sting. 

40 species. 

265. Pulex. Flea. Mouth having an inflexed beak, with 

a sting. Feet formed for leaping. 

3 Species. 
b. Feet from 8 to 14. Head and thorax united. 

266. Acarus. Tic*. Eyies 2. Feet 4. IPalpi. 

33 Species. 

267. Phalangium. Eyes 4. Feet 8. Valpi with claws. 

9 Species. 

268rAranea. Spider. Eyes 8. Feet 8. iPc/p with cluba. 

47 Spedest Tarttotuia^ its, 

$69. Scorpio. 



269. Scorpio. Scorpion. Eyes 8. Feet 8. Paipi with daws. 

6 Species. 

270. Cancer. Craft. Eyes 3. Feet 10 ; — the foremost with 


87 Species. Lol/tter, Shrimp, Praivn, Crau>fisk, Commm Oafi, 8tc. 

271. Monociilus. Eyes 2. Feet 12 ; — 10 of these with claws. 

g Spcciea. 

272. Oniscus. Eyes. 2. Feet 14. 

19 Species, ffbod-louse, tec. 
c. Sevdral fttt. Head se])Bratc fhtm iiutkvax. 

273. Scolopendra. Body linear. 

1 1 Species. 

274. Julus. Body somewhat cylindrical. 

8 Specie*. 
Lionseus has been succeeded, in the arrangement of insects, by 
an author whose generic distinctions are considered by many 
naturalists as preferable; we allude to Fabricius*, who has 
chosen the instrumenta c'lbarim, or different parts and appendages 
of the mouth, as the chief basis of entomological discrimination. 
Whatever may be the merits of the Fahrician classification 
(which, afta' all, are ascribable to the labours of our own author 
as their source), the Linnean still retains its original estimation 
with some of the fint writers on the subject, and ought not, in 
our opinion, to be deviated from essentially, unless another me- 
thod were known possessing much fewer defects. Villers-f* 

• Syslema Ent<mologus. Fknsb. et Lips. IZ?*. fivo. 
Species Insectorum. H^wb. et KiloD. Tom. S. ITAl. 8ro. 
Mantissa. Tom. s. lUfiu I787. Spo. 

Eniotaologia systemaiicfffMfdata. H«fi(i. Tom. 4. cum Suppl. IJQi — 1768. 8ro. 
t Cabdu. l-m^-miiill^t^mit^^i/Fimna Smcka ^cr^tioaihtis aucta; D. D. Sco- 
poti, Geoffrey, De Geer, Fabrlcii, Schrank, Wc. speciebm vel in tystemate lumenume- 
ratis, vel nuperritne deUclis, vel speciehus GaUite australis locupklata, genenim speci- 
tnimque rariorum icoitilus ornala, airmtie et.augente Cttrolo de Fillers, Lugd. Tom. 4. 
1789. Sto. 

2 F 2 has 

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has rendered great service to entomology, and to Linnean scholar* 
in particular, by reducing the species of Fabricins to a confor- 
mity with the Systema Naturee, and tlius no small part of the con- 
fusion which would otherwise again have taken place in this 
branch of natural history, has been prevented. 

The following are the new g-enera adopted in the 13th edition 
of the Shfstema by Professor Gnielin, viz. 

(Order 1. coleopteea.) 

b. jlntemits with perfoliated clubs. 

Melyri8. Lip clubbed, notched. 

jC Species. 

Tritoma, Anterior Palpi hatchet-shaped. 

7 Specie!. ; 

Ilydrophilus. Jaw bifid. 

so Species. - * 

c. With a solid club. 
Pausus. ^w/enn^e with two joints. Club uncinated. 

1 Species on^. 

BostrichuS. Head bent under the thorax, which is scarcely 

SS.Species; 6 of Aem deKribed in former editions uoder the gcnuft 

Anthrenus. Jaw bifid. 

7 Species ^ 3 of them described by linnieus as BtfrrhL 
Nitidula. Thorax and elytra marginated. 

30 Species ; S df them forareriy Siiphw, ^ 

*• ^H/cTmie necklace-shapedJ ■ ■ ' -: i' ' ^ 
Brentus. Beak elongated, horny, straight, ~ 

1 1 Species ; fi of them [Aaced by tWtuma under the genus CurcuUa. 

Erodius. Lip homy, notched. 

4 Species. 

Scauru$. Lip truncated, entire. 


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Zygia. Lip elongated, membranaceous. 

1 Species ooly. 
Opatrum. Thorax and Elytra marginated. 

33 Species; 1 of ihem described \>y LinDaens as « SUpha, 

Iloria. Palpi unequal. Jaw bifid. Lip rounded. 

3 Species ; I of them described by Liniueus as a Cantharts. 

•"• jintenncB filiform. 

Apalus. Thm'ox roundish. Head gibbous, inilexed. 

1 Species. (Mehe himaculata of Linnaeus). 

Manticora. Jaws protruded, dcntated. Eyes prominent, 

I Species, found at the Cape of Good Hope, by Thunberg. 

Pimelia. TAorcfx marginated. Head protruded. Body oblong. 

85 Species } so of them placed by X^mifeus under the genus Tenebrio. 

Cucujus. Lip short, bifid ; lacinia distant. 

II Species; one of them, only, known to Linnxus, [Caniharis san- 


Cryptocephalus. Body ovated, not marginated. 

36S Species ; 43 of these described by liniueus under the genus Chry 
iomela, I under Dermestes, and 3 ua<{er the genus Meloe^ 

Kotoxus. Lip bifid ; lacinia connivent, and obtuse. 

4 Species t 9 of these described by Liniueus, one as an ^telalms, 

and- the other as a Meloe. 

CaU^us. Th^tFox with calious knobs on the sides. 

3 Species, all described by Linnseus under the genus Ceramljfx^ 

Alurnus. Jaw fornicated or arched. 

3 Species. 
Lytta. Thorax roundish. Head gibbous, inflexed. 

3S Species, including 3 of the Linnean genus Meloe. 
••• AnlenncB bristly. 

Scrropalpus. Anterior Palpi deeply serrated. 

t Species ,- one the Elater lupresloides of IJnnseuB. 
Rhinoraacer. Antenna placed on the beak. 

3 Sp««ies. 

Zonitis. Lip notched. 

8 Species^ both aaUvea of the East. 


Digitized by 


222 sySTEMA KATUR«. 

(Order 2. uehipteka.) 
Pncumora. Mouth furnished with jaws. Wings membranaceous, 
turned downwards. Feet formed for running. Body hol- 
low, inflated, and diaphanous. 

4 Speciei j i of them the Gryllut variotana of liturnu. 

Macrocephalus, Beak inflexed. Antenna very short 

I specie? only, first described by Sweder in the Sto^holm TVoRfoc- 
tiom. 1787, 

(Order 5. htmenoIptera.) 
Scolia. Tongue inflexed, trifid< I^p membranaceous at the 

S7 Species, 

Tliynnus. Tongue very short, involuted. Lip trifid. 

3 Species> natives of New HolUnd. 

lieucopais. Lip longer than the jaw, and notched. Antenna 

-3 Spedes. 

Tiphia. Lip short, homy, and tridentated. 

i 7 Species. 
Chalcis. Antenna short, cylindrical, and spindle-shaped. 

7 fipeoes ; one of them doacribed by linnsBos as k Spkex, aad l as a 


(Order 6. diptera.) 

* With a pn^oseis and luaaUUtan. 
Diopsis. Head with 2 horns. Eyes terminal. 
1 Species only, found in South America. 

* With a haustellum, but no protosas. 

Stomoxys. HamteUum with a convoluted univalvular sheath, 
geniculated at the root. 

Ofipeciesj of which 3 are described by Hatmn under the genus 


(Order 7. 



(Order 7- aptera.) 

** Haviug from 8 to U feet i head and thorax united. 
Hjdracfena. Eyes 2 — 8. Feet 8, on the fore part of the 

49 Species, all described first by MuIIer. 
It will readily be imagined that in the prodigious number of 
creatures contained in this class, the specific characters must be 
drawn from a correspondent variety of circumstances, which it 
would be too great a task to detail. The species described by 
Graelin amount to nearly 11000, of which almost 900 (a number 
. sufficient to fprm a Class) belong to the genus Papilio alone ! 

Class 6. VERMES. 
The sixth and last class of the animal kingdom contains the 
VERMES, which are divided by our author into 5 orders. He 
very early adopted the system of Peysonell, Jussieu, and others, 
in introducing the Corals and Corallines among animals, under the 
names of Lithophyta and Zoophyta, Great light was thrown 
on this system by Trembley •, and also by our country*jan Ellisf. 
In the distribution of Testacea, Linnaeus adopted a method 
entirely his own; and, though he was preceded by a great number 
of systematical writers on this branch of natural history^, his 
originality and happy mode of classification are no where more 
conspicuous. With respect to the other two orders, Intestina 
and MoLLuscA, it was not possible to bon-ow much assistance, 
for very few authors had even attempted any regular history 

* Mmoires pour servtr d I'kisioire d'un genre de Polypes. Leidc 1 744. 4to. fee. 8tc. 
t Essay towards a Natural History of Corallhits, London ]755. 4to. 

Natural History of mavy curious Zoophytes. Lond. 1786, 4to. and in Phil. 
X SceXtnneaa TVaatattions. Vol. J. p. U9—i35. 

fi of 

Digitized by 



of them; indeed, excepting Bohadscli *, there was scarcely one 
worthy of being consulted. The characters of all these orders 
are necessarily very various. 

1. Intestixa. Animals simple, destitute of limbs, naked. 

2. MoLLUscA. Animals simple, naked (not included in a shell), 

furnished with limbs. 

3. Testacea. Animals, mostly of the foregoing order, simple, 

commonly included in a calcareous habitation of their 

4. LiTHOPiiYTA. Animals, of the molluscous kind, fabricating, 

and affixed to, a calcareous base called Coral. 

5. Zoophyta. Composite animals, resembling a flower, and 

springing from a vegetating stem. 
The generical distinctions among the Iistestina arise from the 
diversity of the boidy of the animal, ^most solely; among the 
AIoLLuscA, from the body and feelers, or tentacula, and irom 
ptlicr parts; among the Testacea, from the included animal, 
the general differences between the shells themselves, but, prin- 
cipally, from the cardo, or hinge in the bivalves, and the mouth, 
or aperture in the univalves ; among the Lithophyta, from 
the inhabiting animal and the form of tlie coral i^elf ; and 
among the Zoophyta, from the animal, and the very diffeiieot 
forms of the fabrications. 

Abbreviated 'Generic CharacterB. 

Order 1. intestina. 
A. Having a. lateral perforation, or poie. 
277. Lumbricus, Routid worm. Body round, with a fleshy 

8 Species. 

* De quibusdam AnimaUlus maHnis, Dresdae I76l.4to. 

1 279- Sipunculus. 


Diaitized bv 

279. SipUDCulus. Tube-worm. Body round, with a con- 
tracted, cylindrical beak. 

S Species, 

278. Fasciola. Fiuke. Body flattened, with a rentral 

S Species. 

b. Destitute of a lateral pore. 

275. Gordius. Guinea-worm. Body filiform the whole 


S Species. 

276. Ascaris. Tkread-werm. Body round, subulated at 

each end. 

3 Species. 

277. Hirudo. Leeek. Body roundish, truncated at each 

9 Species. 

281. Myxine. Hag. Body carinated, with cirrhated jaws. 

1 Species. 

2. M0LI.USCA. 
a. Mouth on the upper part of the animal, which attaches itself to some other substance. 
288. Actinia. Sea-Anemone, Aperture single, common, 
and dilatable. 

3 Species. 

287- Ascidia. Two apertures ; one lower than the other. 
6 Species. 

b. Mouth anterior. Body with a lateral pare. 

282. Limax^ S^M^. Tentacula 4. Vent common with the 

lateral pore. 

6 Species. 

283. Laplysia. Seo'Hare. Tent. 4. Vent above, posterior. 

1 Species, 

. . ' 2 o • 284. Doris. 

Digitized by 


226 SrSTEHA NATuaa. 

284. Doris. Tentacula 2. Vent above, posterior. 

4 species. 

,289. Tethys. 'Vwo foramina^ or pores, on the left side. 

5 species. 

c. Mouth anterior. GoOy surrounded anteriorly wttit drrhi. 

290. riolothuriii. Tentacula fleshy. 

9 Species, 

291. Tercbella. Tentacula capillary. 

1 Species, 
d. Mouth anterior. Body with artn>like processes. 

292. Triton. Arms bipartite ; some of them witli claws, 

t Species. 

296. Sepia. Cuttlc-jish. Arms 8 or 10, having small coit- 
cave discK on tlie inside. 

A Species. 

295. Clio. Arms 2, dilated. 

3 Specie). 

293. Lemaea. Arms 2 or 3, round. 

4 Species. 

294. Scyllsea. Arms 6, remote, of equal lengths. 

d. Mouth anterior. Body ped^ed. 

585. Aphrodita. Mouth unanned. Body oval. 

4 Species. 

586. Nereis. Mouth unguiculated. Bodj elongated.^ 

n Species. 
f. Mouth in the centre of the under paK. 
S97' Medusa. Sea-Jelltf, or hluhber-Jish. Body gelatinous^ 
298. Asterias. Stttr-Jish. Body with a conaceous covenngy 

S99< EbfainuK 

Digitized by 



299. Echinus. Sea Hedge-hog. Body with a crtistaceous 

covering ; (often) furnished with (moveable) 

17 species. 

a. MulUvalvea. 

300. Chiton. Sea-Louse. Shell with several valves con- 

nected iengthwajs, on the back of the animal. 

301. liepas. Barnacle. Shell with several unequal valves; 

attached to some extraneous body. 

10 Species. 

302. Pholas. Piddock. Two large valves, with a set of 

smaller ones attached to the hinge posteriorly. 

6 Species. 

b> Bivalves. Omchte. 

303. Mya. Gaper. Hinge of the shell furnished, generally, 

with a solid tooth not inserted into any groove 
of the opposite valve. 
Pearl-Oysierf Sec. 7 Species. 

304. Solen. Spout. Lateral teeth of the hinge remote. 

Razor-sheUf Sword-skell, &c. 1 1 Species. 

305. Tellina. TeUen. Lateral teeth of one valve not in- 

serted into opposite grooves. 

■ 49 Qpectes. 

306. Cardium. Cockle. Lateral teeth remote, inserted 

into irrooves of the nnnnsite vjdvp. 


907- Mactra 



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308, £)ohax. Wedge'shcll. A single lateral tootlv remote, 

not inserted into the opposite valve. 

1 Species. 

309. Veuus. Venus's ahcU. Teeth of tlift hinge approx- 

imated ; the lateral divergent from the apex. 

Dione, North American Chm, Hens, fee. 39 Spedes. 

3-10. Spoadylus. Spomiyk. Two teeth in the hinge, wit& 
an intennediate cavity, or groove. 

Electric Oyster, of Ramphms, See. 3 Species. 

311. Chama. Chame. Hinge with two oblique obtuse teeth. 

Btill's heart, G'tant-Ctlame, 8tc. U'Species. 

312. Area- Ark-shell. Hinge with numerous interlbcking. 

Noah's Ark, Bearded Jrk, Velvet Ark, 8cc. 1 7 Species. 
SIS. Ostrea. Oyster. Hinge without teeth, and having- 
only an pval cavity. 

Escallop, Tile-Oyster, Ducal Mantle, Hammer Oyster, Common 
Oyster, Ice. 31 Species. 

314. Anemia. Hinge without teeth. A linear cavity in 

the margin of the plain valve: 

S7 Species (many of them foimd only inafbEsU state). 

315. Mytilus. Muscle. Hinge without teeth, and having 

a Kubulated distinct cavity. 
Cock's comh Mtacle, Stonc'eater, Pond-Muscie, Sea-Muscle, 
Motker-qf-ptarl shell, 8ec. SO Species. 

316. Pinna. Nacre-skelL Hinge without teeth. Valves 

coalescing on one sidjp. 

8 Species. 

8. Univalve*, with a regular spire. CodUea. 

317. Argonauta. Argonaut Shell consisting of one celU 

The Animal a Cuttle-fislu 
P^ir-Nautilus, txc. f Species, 

318. Nautilus. 

Digitized by 



318, Nautilus. Sailor-shell. Shell consisting of several 
cells, which communicate with each other by a 
17 Species. 
319- Conus. Cone, Aperture of the shell dilating, linear, 
without teeth. 
Admiral shells^ Cloth of gold tbell, Butter-ehum, Orange Admiral, 
&c. 35 Species. 

320. Cypraea. Cowry. Aperture dilating, linear, dentated 

on each side. 

Mt^-Co»ry, Argus, Mouse-Coivry, Bull's moitth. Tiger-shell, 
Skgro-Tooney, Louse-Cowry, tec. 44 Species. 

321. Bulla. Dipper. Aperture of the shell somewhat con- 

tracted, and running obliquely. 
Poached-€gg, ^ittdle, Figyioi. 93 Speeds. 

322. Voluta. Volute. Aperture dilating ; the oolumelta 


Jkda^e Ear, Olive, Mitre, Musie-sheU, Meloni &Ci 
46 Species. 

S33, Buccinum. Trumpet-ahell. Aperture terminating in 
a spout to the right. 

Helmet, Ox-lip, Harp, fVkelk, Sec. 51 Species. 

324. Strombus. Wing-sliell. Aperture terminating jn a 

spout to the left. 

Distaff, Pelican's foot. Spider, Millepedt, Oel, &c^ 
99 Species.. 

325. Murex. Bock'shell. Aperture terminating ina straight 


Thorny Woodcock, Scorpion, Tower of Babel,. Trtton's^rumpet, tec. 
61 Speciea. - 

326. Trochus. Top-ekell., Aperture, somewhat contracted 

towards the belly of the shell, and usually of a 
sort of tetragonal form. 

Pharoa^s-lMtm, T^tesMpeytK, 96 Species. 

327. Turbo. 

b, Google 


3Si7. Turbo. jyhirL Aperture differing from tliat of the 
former principally in its approach to an orbicu- 
lar outjine. 

PeriwinkU, Silver-mouth, Gold-mmah, Pagoda-shell, Ma^U, 
Waitle-lrapy &c... 50 Speciea, 

328. Helix. Snail. Aperture approaching to a lunated (or 

cre*cent) ^ape. 

Goat's eye, Bern's horn, Common StiaiU, ficc. 60 Species. 

329. Nerita. Nerite. Aperture semi orbicular. 

White of egg. Nipple, Green Netite, BU^-tnoth, Chameeleon, 
Sec 89 Speciea. 

330. Haliotia. Sct^-tar, Aperture much dilated, with a 

r<yrr of parforatioDs on one side. 

Mida^t Ear, -&)c. 7 Speciei. 
d. Unamlves destitute of c Tftgular ifiie, 

z 331. Patella. Linnet, ^ell conical, open, quiescent. 

Fiuls-a^, Sec. 38 Species. 

332. DentaUum. Tooth^hcll. l^ell at liberty, subulated, 

open at each end. 
El^hant's tooth. Sec, s Species. 

333. Serpula. Worm-akell. Sbell adhering to some extra- 

neous body, tubular. 

. ^ Watering-pott Sec. Ifl Species. 

334. Teredo. Ship-worm. Shell inserted into timber. 

I Species. 

335. Sabella. Sand-shell. Shell composed of arenaceous 

7 Species. 


336. Tubipora. KiiwAw C«ral. 

4 Spedes. 

337. Madrepora. Madr^ore. Colal with concave stelke. 

^MKAfitfAroMI, lie. «9 ^fmt»^ ' 

3 338. Millepora. 



338. Miliepora. Million, Coral with subuUte pores. 

14 Species. 

339. Cellepora. Celluiar Coral. 

6 Species. 

a. Fixed. 

340. Isis. Stem stony. 

lUd Coral, Encrinms, Sec. 6 Species, 

341. Gorgonia. Stem somewhat horny. 

Sea Fan, &c. 16 Species. 

342. Alcyoniam. Stem of a corky texture. 

Sea-Hand, Sea-Pttrse, &c. IS Specie*. 

545. Spongia. l^nrnge. Stem of a texture resembHog tow. 

16 Species. 

344. flustra. Stem very porous. 


345. Tubularia. Stem fistular, 

B Species. 

546. Corallina. Coralline. Stem with filifiH'm, calcareous 


8 Species. 

347* Sertularia. Stem with filiform, fibrous articulationsr 

S&t-MosSf tUc. 49 Species. 

S48. VoTticella. Stem with fibrous, gelatinous articula- 
Jbivmal-plant, &c. 14 Species. 
b. I^ooomotive. 

349. Hydra. Mouth terminal, surroimded with fentacula. 

Polgpe, HtfiUtid, See. J Sptcies. 

350. Pennatula. Sea-Pen, Stem piuiated, with a M4>oli- 

ferous margin. 

7 Species. 

351. Taenia. 

Digitized by 



351 Taenia. Tape^uorm. Body with a multitude of joints, 

•resembling a necklace. 

Common Tape-wepm, Broad-uorm, tec. 4 Species. 

352. Volvox. Body roundish ; the offspring nidulating io 

the pores. 

Globe-animal, Sec. 4 Species. 

353. Furia. Tury. Body linear, with reflex aculei, o^r prickles. 

1 Species. .. 

354. Chaos. Body renewable, destitute oJF external limbs 

and senses. 

Smul-AnimaUules {^various ^tds, 5 Species. 

The numbCT of ^ecies described by Linnseus, in this class, 
amounts, to about 1150, Professor Gmelin, however; collect- 
ing the descriptions of Muller*, Goeze-f-, and various other 
indefatigable helminthologists later than the times of our author, 
has increased the number of the Imtestin a and Mollusc a alone, 
to upwards of 500. In the .order ,of Testacea, the labours of 
Martini^, Ciiemnitz§« Schroeter[|, &e, have augmented our 
knowledge of those infinitely varied and beautiful' creatures to 
an amazing extent ; and the discoveries of Muller have not 
only multiplied the sjtecies of Animalcules, but rendered it 

* Vermiitm terrestrtum et^ttviatiUum, seu jinimalitim hifiisor'unwn, Helnanthicorum, 
el Teslaceorum non wuvinorum succmcta kistaria. Havn. 2 Vol. 1773 — 1774. 4to. 

t Enlomologiscke beytriigexudes Riltftr Lift^^.tuolften <msgabe des Kaiursystems. 
I^ipzig. 3 Theil. 1777—1783. 8vo. ; 

X Keites Systemalitcfie Omchglt^-Cahinet. Nurnbei^. 8 Band. 1769 — 1777. 4to. 
- § — — I. .. - ■■■ — -^ Band. 4— 9. 1780—1788. 

tl Einleiking in die Condiylienhnntmss nacb Linnf. (Halle 3 Band. 17B3 — 1766. 
Svo.) .&c. 

5 necessary 

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necessary to constitute a new order ior tbonx, id vUeh fanot^en 
given the term of Ihfdsoria, and which, in tlie 13A edition 
(rf Uie Syrfema, stands as follows : ««.' t 

Order 5. ' .S 

Infusoria. Animals very nunute, and of a. simpler, sinicjture. 

a. l^iimiBhed wjlh eKtemal organB.'" '"* - ' 

Bradvomis. Body ^over^d with a sbeU, cU^i^ed a^ t)i& i^fyn- 

. 11 Species;. . :_. 

Trichoda. Body hairy in one part. ,.,'.. ^ 

47 Species. ■ ;^;, .,;,,„.;,; .,:..<! .^n. ■,! ^ 

CercaritL Body rounded* witj^.^-tait, j .. " . .Drnni 

,, 9Specics. . '.,'.''' *. ,\ ■' 

Leiicopera. Body ciliated all round- ' ^ 

3 Species. ' " 

b. With no eztemal organs. • - ■-■ « 

" ftattmed. ■'■' ; -i ■ .;:. I 

Gonium. Body angular. - ' ■ 

& Spetiies.- . . .' . 

Colpoda. Body sinuated. 

6 Species. 

Paramecium. Body oblong. > ■ .• s. 

5 Species. 

Cyclidium. Body orbibular, or oval, ; ! 

7 Species. 

•• rounded. 

Bursaria. Body hollow. 

S species. ' ' ' 

Vibrio. Body elongated. 

18 Species. 'I 

Knchelis. Body cylindrical. 

11 Species. 

Bacillaria. Body composed of trabecule accpiniuodated to 
various forms. 
1 Species. 

2 u ■ Monas. 

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f34 srrtEUA XATasK 

Bddy iiks a point . / ' 

To this order are now referred the ilAaa^tm gattra of VorH- 
ceHa and ^o/eor. It ought to be remarked also* that those of 
r<rTita and fwrwi have been removed to the order of IsnEMTiUfA, 
io which they muck more, properly belong. 

To Ae Intestina 12 new gewra hive been added, viz, 
Trichocephalus. Body round, witli a long, filiform head. 

6 Spcdu. 

Vncinaria. Body filiform, elastic. Head labiated ; Kps mem- 
braoaceous, angulat: Tail {of fhe femtik) needte-shaped, 
(0/ the maU) armed with 2 hooks inclosed in a pellucid 

r S^tcciet. 

Filaria. Body wholly filiform. 

18 Speoea. 
Scolex. Body minute, gelatinous, opaque, with s retractile 
head, and 4 pellucid auricles. 

S Species. 

Ligula. Body linear, equal, elongated. 

8 Species. 

Linguatula. Body depressed, oblong ; the anterior orifice s«r- 

rounded by 4 o$tia. 
1 Specicf • 
Strongylus. Body rounded, -elongated, anteriorly globose and 

truncated. Aperture with a circular, ciliated margin; 

posteriorly (m the female) acuminated, {in the male) hooded. 

S Species. 

Echinorhynchus. Body round, with a! cylindrical, retractile 
proboscis^ crowned with ho<^ed aculei. 

4S Species. 

Hseruca. Body round. Head crowned with acutei. 


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Cucallanus. Body posteriorly acuminated, anteriorly obtuse. 
Mouth round. 

8 Spfcies. 

Caryophyllffius. Body round, smootfa, with a wide mouth. 

1 species. 

Flanaria. Body depressed, with a ventral pore. 

48 Species. 

All these new genera, except Planaria^ are comprehended, 
with the Linnean genera of Ascaris, Fasciolot Taniat Furia^ 
and Myxine, in a division entitled Inhabitants of the ttuide of other 
animals; and the other genera in anothier, m Inhabiting 4he out' 
side of other animals. 

To the order of Mollusca are added 13 new genera^ the 5 
first of which belong to the first of the Linneaa divisions; tbo 
Pterotrachea is distinguished from all of them as having a 
moveable fin on the abdomen^ or tail ; the 2 taext come under the 
brachiated division ; the AmphitritCy Spio, and Nois under 
the pedaled; and the 2 last under the last of the Linnean divi- 
sions : I . 

Clava. One common aperture, dilatable, vertical, surrounded 
by club-shaped tentacula. 

I species. 

Alammaria. One aperture, with no cirrhi, smooth. 

3 Species. 

Pedicellaria. Body pedunculated, fixed; tJle peduncle rigic^ 


Salpa. Two i4>ertures, each terminal. 

I I SpiBcies. 

Dagysa. Two apertures, l^dj^ angular. 

1 $pcaeif. 

Pterotrachea. Body pervious, gelatinousj tracheated. , 

4 Specie*. * ■ - ■ t 

2 H 3 Lobaria. 

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es6 srsTsvA VATcntJc. 

• LoWia. Body convex on the upper part, flat and lobed on 

the under. 
1 Species. 

Glaiicus ? Ama 4, ramose. 

Species ? 

Amphitrite. Mouth unarmed. Body roundish. Eyes none. 

7 Species. 

. Spio. liody extended in a tube, articulated with filiform jhxj- 

cesses on the back. 
•\ . ■ fi'Spect«. 

\ Naia. Mouth unarmed. Body elongated. TeniacyJa nona 

10 Species. 

. Physsophora? Body geiatinous, suspended to a vesicle of air. 

3 Species. 

Lucenjaria. Bo^y gelatinous^ rugose, forachiated. 

3 Species. , 

■ Among the ZoopiiVTA, the only new genus is Aniipathe$^ cha- 
iacterized by its horny stem being beset with small spines, and 
havinig a gelatinous covering. But in this order the Lituo- 
PHYTA (Linnaeus's 4th) are now included, being considered as 
aiferih'gfrOrti the fortoer only in the calcareous nature of the 
stem, which, in the latter, is of a softer texture ; and hence two 
divisions are ibnned, vhich supersede the linnean distinctions 
ti Tilted and Locomotive. 

•]fbe uurobei^ of VERM^ daubed i^i tl^e 13th, edition of the 
Systema is considerably more than 6000. 

After having thus exhibited a TiflT of tibe gnnd systematical 
divisions of the Animal Kingdom, it remains fot ut to give some 
account of the method panned in treating of the speeiei. To 
this end, it must be observed that, throughout the system, the 
classical^ orSnai, and generic(d characters always make, or are 
.3 understood 

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understood to make, a part in the description of each species. 
After these, our author begins with his own specific name for 
the animal, estabhshed upon the most essential difference ob- 
servable between that and every other species of the genus ; and 
here it must be allowed that he has, in general, happily succeed- 
ed, by giving, in the space of two or three lines, a distinction 
which more immediately points out the animal sought for, than 
all the long and laboured descriptions of foregoing autliors. If 
the specific name be the same that is adopted in any of his 
former writings, he refers to it. He has, however, in many parts 
of this enlarged edition of the Si/stemOi formed new names to 
animals noticed in the preceding edition and in the Faima Sue- 
eica. Indeed, where the essential or specific distinction is the 
point in view, this mast frequently be the case, so long as new 
species continue to come in ; for, as the essential character of 
each species results lirom the most careful comparison of the 
whole genus, the introduction of a new one must, in many in- 
stances, clash with the old, and require perhi^s a total altera- 
tion of aft the others. 

After his own specific name, he gives the synonyms of the most 
reputed and authentic writers, with references to the pages of 
their works, and to the best figures of his subject ; then the 
hteM nataUs ; and, in many instances- (more especially among the 
Mammalia and Aves) a short but comprehensive history c^ 
the nature, ceconoraj, and uses of the animal. To every spcciea 
the author, has affixed his trivial name, expressive, most common- 
ly, of the fdace where the animal is found, of its colour, form, or 
otl^er quality ; or, in a great variety ofcases wherein the subject has 
been veil known by anarbitrarj term, he retains thai as his tri- 

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Tial name: for iostance, the Partridge and Qiiaii (which both 
belong to his genus Tetrao) are called, the former Tetrao Ferdix, 
and the latter Tetrao Cotuntix, 

It has been objected to Linnseus's classification, tliat bj keep- 
ing too closely to one kind of character, he has thrown together, 
in various parts of his system, subjects too different in their gene- 
ral appearance and ceconomy; — as, for example, in the Mam- 
malia, by confining himself to tlie teeth. To this it may be 
answered, that, perhaps tlie very observance of such a rule gives 
Linnaeus's system tlie greatest advantage over all others. Not 
quadrupeds only, but the whole creation, being under bis eye, 
and the subjects therefore almost infinite, it was absolutely ne- 
cessary to construct every great division, as far as possible, on 
one simple foundation. Nature does not seem to have observed 
any system, and an artificial one will ever be attended with ano- 
malies. Whatever method therefore most readily leads to thn 
subject under investigation, is c^tainly the best, and in this 
case, it is of small importance where that subject is placed, 
or how far removed from others to which it seems to bear a 
general resemblance. 


The second part of the Syttema Natura, or the Vegetable Kingr 
dom, in all the editions prior to the 10th was very compendiously 
exhibited ; the author having, after his Clavit Clatsium, rally given 
the names of the genera^ with their essential, or abbreviated cha- 
racters, without touching at all on specific distinctions, which 
were reserved for the present enlarged edition, and for the Spe- 
ties Pkmtarum, a work before spoken of. 


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Before we proceed to a particular account of this part of the 
system* H may not be improper to prcDiisc some observations on 
methods of botany in general, before our author wrote. It a 
needless to urj^e the necessity of method in the »tudy of antare, 
as it is the very soul of science ; and, amidst sitcfa a multitude of 
objects as the vegetable kingdom affords, all attempts to- 
wards the acquisition of knowledge, without it, must eml in un- 
rertainty and confusion. We have sufficient proofs of this in the 
writers upon plants, before the inveation of systems, to the want 
of which must be attributed the loss of many valuable articles^ 
not only of the Materia Medical but of the Materut ficioriti and 
Tincforia of the antieots. Articles, the virtues and properties of 
which appear to have been well ascertained, are now lost to us; 
for want of a more scientific arrangement of the sul^ects, and 
of more accuracy in the description of them. 

Botanical writers have chosen very different methods of ar- 
ranging plants, not only before, but since, the invention of the 
sexual system. The alphabetic ha» been much followed, espe- 
cially in local catalogues. Some have disposed plant» accord- 
ing to the time <^fioweringy as Pauli m his Quadripartitum Botani' 
CMffl, published in 1639; Besler in the Hortut Eystettenntj 1640; 
and Dilleiiius in the Cafalogtts Gissenm^ 1719> Others, have ar- 
ranged tliem according to the different places of growth^ as the 
authoi-s of the Historia Lugdttnenmy in 158.?; and some according 
to their virtues m medicine. Othen again, observing that num- 
bers of vegetables agreed with each other in their general habit 
and appearance, or had a certain harmony and proportion in the 
form and disposition of their roots, leaves* flowers, or fruit, or 
in (heir particular mode of growing, flowering, or foliation, have 
planned a reduction of them into classes agreeable to such 
1 distinctions:; 



distinctions: hence their division of treei into p^nij^ra, prani- 
fera^ baccifera, iiucifera, glandiferaf ^c. ; of herbs into buibosa^ 
siliqvoscty umbelliferat verticillatat papilionaceat ^c. These are S9 
many classes, or orders^ which nature has characteiized in such a 
roanner, that they could not escape notice, and, if all the subjects 
of the vegetable kingdom could be propeiiy reduced under such 
combinations, and the whoje -chain prep^ly ccnmected, we should 
then see what is meant by the Natural Method, that ultir 
mttm €t desideratum of botany, of which however our auth[»' 
says, "necsperarefas e$ti quod nosira atas a^ttema quoddam natUr 
rale videre queat, etvie seri nepotes." Nevertheless the best writers 
of the last century (such were John and Caspar Baufain) endesf 
voured to preserve the above-mentioned arraDgement, although 
it was in a rude manner. In this they were followed by our owa 
countrymen Gerard and Parkijison ; but as they established no 
predae definitions of their classes, so in their subdivisions, or 
chupters, they paid little or no regard to tiie minuter parts of 
distinction taken from the fructification. Hence nothing like 
generic notes can. be discovered in their methods; and tha 
only resource, in seeking many of their species^ was to read over 
their long and tedious descriptions, which, after all, were fre^ 
quently insufficient to distinguish the plant sought for. 

That great paturalist Conrad Gesner (who died in 1565, in 
his 50th year) appears to have been the first who thought, with 
a»y precision, of a method of classing plants from the ficmer cw 
fruit;, hut be only slightly touched wi it, in his epistles, and 
never brought any thing of the kind to perfection. It was re- 
ao^'ed for Ctesalpinus (physician to Pope Clement YIII.) to 1^ 
tlte first author who ammgcd plants in a truly systematic mai^ 
vikxm In his Uibri de plantiit published in 1583, he establishes 


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the characters principally on the fruit. It is wonderful that, 
though so many eminent botanists afterwards flourished, (among 
whom were the two Bauhins) no one ever thought of pursuing 
the plan he had laid down, until Morisonand Ray; who both pub- 
lished, nearly together, their separate systems, which were also 
founded on distinctions drawn principally from the fruit. Since 
their time, others have laboured to bring those systems to perfec- 
tion, as Knaut, in Germany ; Paul Hermann and Boerhaave, in 
Holland; and Dillenius, Professor of Botany, at Oxford, who 
still further perfected the method of Ray, as is evident from the- 
arrangement he has given to the British plants, in the third 
edition of that author's Synopsis. 

Several ingenious systems have been formed from the fiower 
also, as the basis of the classical character; in considering which, 
both the regularity and irregularity^ as well as the number of the 
petals, have been made the principal distinctions. Rivini (at 
Leipsic, in 169O) was the first who took the flower as the foun- 
dation of a method, in which he was followed by Ruppius, in 
17 18. But no one carried this method to such perfection as 
Toumefort, (in 1694), who formed his classical character from 
the figure of the flower, and his orders, or subdivisions, on 
the diflferent situation of the fruit, whether above or below 
the empakment, or receptacle. Besides these methods, in which 
the authors have considered one part only, either _^0Bper or fruit, 
as the basis of their systems, several others have been con- 
structed, in which vegetables have been arranged, as far as 
possible, according to what have been called the natural 
classes, taking in a numerous set of characters, which arise 
from a combination and agreement in the habit of the plants, 
as well as in the essential parts of their fructification. Among 
2 I these, 

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tkesc, the system of Van Royen (Professor at Lejden) is one of 
the most elegant attempts towards this important object; it is 
exhibited in the Prodromus Flora Leydensis. He was followed 
by (inielin, in the Fiora Sibirica, &.c. These authors, as also 
1.. Gerard, in his Flora Gallo-Provincialis (Paris 176I), havepre*- 
served the natural generic characters of Linnjeus almost entire 
throughout their systems ; and the latter writer has, with some 
variations, taken the orders of a natural method constructed by 
Bernard de Jussieu, for his classes. Haller also planoed and 
brought to great perfection a method of this kind, which is exhi- 
bited in his Emimeratio Stir pium Helvetia (1742), and in the /for^ux 
Gotthi^ensis (1753); and which he afterwards still more elaborated 
in a work of infinite industry and merit, the HistortaStirpiianHel- 
•tetiee (3 Tom. folio, 176S). Linnaeus himself very early attempted 
a natural method ; but it is evident tliat he thought too many 
links wanting in the chEun to render it the readiest guide to bo- 
tanical science. 

Methods have been formed also from the different kinds and 
arrangement of the calyx, or cup, of the flower, in plants. Pro- 
fessor Magnol, of Montpellier, published on this plan in 1720; 
and Linnaeus himself in 1737, but he did not pursue it. 

LinnEBUs was the first who constituted the stamina and. pistilla 
the bases of an artificial method of arranging plants; and he tells 
us, in his Classes Plantardm, that he was led to it by con- 
sidering the great importance of these parts in vegetation. They 
alone are essentially necessary to fructification, all other parts, 
except the anthera and stigmata, being wanting in some flowers ; 
and the present philosophy of botany regards the former as 
the male, and the latter as the female organs of genecation. 
As such indeed they must be considered, analogicaUif ; yet per- 
4 haps 


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haps the Linnean system, admirable as it is, would not have 
been less acceptable, had the cUssical terms been expressive 
only o^ number and situation, without r^ard to the offices of the 
parts, in framing the terms. Ludwig, of Leipsic, who has en- 
deavoured to combine the systems of Rivinus and Linnsus, by 
taking his clmscs from the method of the former, and his orders 
from that-of the latter, has avoided this mode of expression, by 
substituting the terms monanthera^ monostylee^ &c. 

Our author begins the new and enlarged edition of the S^stema 
Vegetabilium, of 1767, by premising a compendious view of the 
philosophy of vegetation, and then proceeds to what he calls 
Delineatio Plant{£y something analogous to what he had entitled, 
in the editions prior to the 10th, Methodut demonstrandi VegetO' 
inlia, and which was published separately also, for the use of his 
pupils*. Here he introduces all the terms he makes use of in 
describing plants ; and, by a methodical and apt disposition of 
tliera, explains them at the same time. After this, he gives 
the Clavii et Characteres Classium, and then comes to the system 

The prerogative of an artificial system in botany is supposed 
to consist in its keeping together the genera, as much as possible, 
in what are called the natural classes or orders, and thus ap- 
proaching to the system of nature. All artificial systems, being 
founded on some, oc other, or all the parts of fructification, with- 
out regard to habit, will be found in many instances to break the 
natural orders, and disjoin genera which nature seems to have 
classed. The more simple and uniform the classical characters 
of any system may be, tlie more they are likely to interfere in 

• " C. JJmuei Delineatio Phnlte, m uatm Audihrnm." Upsal. 17*6. gvo. pp. e. 
ii X 2 this 

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this respect: nevertheless, it is pleasing to observe how well 
many of the natural classes are kept together in the Linnean 
system, the characters of which enjoy the advantage of being 
very simple and easy to retain in the memory, and of being 
founded on parts of plants as little subject to variation as 
any whatever; yet, like all other methods, it has its defects, of 
which no one was more sensible than the author himself. There 
are many instances of particular species that break through the 
classical and generical characters of the system itself; but for 
these defects there is no other repiedy, at present, than that 
which Linnaeus has applied, in the volume under consideration, 
and which ought ever, in arrangements of this kind, to be ri- 
gidly observed. Wherever such anomalies take place, they are 
mentioned among the fictitious- characters, under the class and 
order in which the number of stamina or pistils entitles them to 
a place. 

The SEXUAL SYSTEM is briefly as follows— All known 
plants are divided into 24 CLASSES, the characters of which, 
are established upon the number^ or difference of situation, or ap- 
rangement of the stamina, or male organs; and the Orsebs, or 
subdivisions of these, classes, as far as possible, on a similar 
number, situation, or arrangement of the pistilla, or female 

The first 20 classes contain what the author calls hermaphrodite 
flowers, or such as have the stamina and pistilla, both, within the 
same cup or petals, or, where those are wanting, standing on the 
same receptacle. Of these twenty, the first ten classes proceed 
in an uninterrupted series from 

MONANDRIA to DECANDRIA; the plants of each having 
as many stamina as the title expresses^ 


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The nth class is DODECANDRIA, as there are no plants 
jet discovered which have only 11 stamina. 

The 12th, ICOSANBRIA, contains such plants as have about 
20 stamina, but always arising from the cahjx or corolluy and not 
from the receptacle. 

The 13th, POLYANDRIA, such as have from 20 to even 1000 
stamina^ but always arising from the receptacle. 

The 14th, DIDYNAMIA, such as have 4 stamina^ two long and 
two short. The essential character of this class does not consist 
in the number of stamina, {otherwise the plants might be referred 
to the class TETRANDRIA), but in having two of the stamina 
shorter than the others, one pistil only, and an irregularly-shaped 

. The 15th, TETRADYNAMIA, plants with 6 stamina, four 
long and two short 

The I6th, MONADELPHIA, such as have the stamina not 
distinct at the base, but united. 

The 17th, DIADELPHIA, such as have the stamina Hmte4 
at the base, into two sets. 

The 18th, POLYADliXPHIA, such as have the stamina 
united, at the base, into several sets. 

The 19th, SYNGENESIA, such as have the anthers, but not 
the filaments, coalescing, so as to form a tube or cylinder, through, 
which the pistil is commonly transmitted. 

The 20th, GYNANDRIA, such as have the stamina springing 
from the pistil itself. 

The 21st, MONCECIA, such as h&ve ths stamina and pistils 
in separate flowers, on the same plant. 

The 22d, DICECIA, such as have the stamina and pistils on 
separate plants. 

1 The 

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The 23a, rOLYGAMIA, such as have constantly, besides her- 
inaphroditeflowers,others,eithermale or female, on the samepiant. 

The 24th, CRYPTOGAMIA, containing those plants, the mode 
and organs of whose fructification are not yet sufficiently ascer- 
tained : heretofore called imperfect plants. 

llie secondary part of the system, viz, theOaDERS, or sub- 
divisions of the classes, are established chietly on the number of 
the pistils or female parts ; but there are some deviations, which 
we shall notice as we proceed. The arrangement from num- 
ber is pursued no further than through the first 13 classes : — 
for, 80 long as the classical character, uninteiruptedly, de- 
pends on the number of stamina, so long the orders likewise de- 
pend on the number of pistils ; but when dittcrence ofsiluation, or 
arrangement becomes the ground of distinction of the classes, 
the orders are most commonly founded on other circumstances, 
which we shall briefly specify. 

The ]4th class, or DIDYNAMIA, is divided into Gymno- 
BPRRMiA, and ANGtosPERMiA; the former having four naked 
seeds, and the latter having the seeds inclosed in a seed-vessel. 

The 15th,TETRADYNAMIA, has two orders, founded on the 
size and shape of the pod, viz. Siliculosa (short) and Sili- 
quosa (long). 

The orders in the three next classes, MONADELPHIA, DI- 
ADELPIIIA, and POLYADELPHIA, are formed from the 
mtmber of the stamina. 

Those of the class SYNGENESIA are 6, in 5 of iv-iich the 
plants are Polygami.e, and in the remaining one Monogami«. 
The differences in the former of these orders arise from the dif- 
ference of structHre or sex of the Jloscuks cOD»tituting the whole 
flower. Thus in 


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8V3TEMA NATUltS. 247 

PoLYGAMiA EQUALis, the floFcts are all hermaphrodite ; 

PoLYGAMiA supEUFLUA, the florcts of thc disk hermaphro- 
dite, and of the circumference female ; 

FoLYGAMiA PEUSTRANEA, tho florets of the disk hermaphro- 
dite, and of the circuniference neutral ; 

PoLYGAMiA NECEssARiA, tlic flwcts of the disk male, and of 
the circumference femiile ; and in 

PoLYGAMiA SEGREGATA, the fiorcts are in separate cups, 
within a common calyx, or empalement. 

In the 20th class, GYNANDRIA, the arrangement of the 
orders arises from the number of the stamina (as in the I6th, 17th, 
and 18th classes), and they therefore assume the same names as 
the first ten classes and the thirteenth. 

In the 21st and 22d classes, viz. MONCECIA and DIOE- 
CIA, the classical characters of the foregoing parts of the system 
are adopted as characters of the orders, as iar down as to the 
MoNfficiA class itself. Thus the first order of those classes con- 
tains MoNANcaocs plants, and the last Gynasdrous. 

The"23d class, POLYGAMIA, is divided into tliree orders, as 
the plants are Mon<eclous, Djacious, orTRioscious. 

The 24th, and last class, CRYPTOGAMIA, is divided into 
four orders, viz. Pilices, Musci, Algje, and Fungi. 

The genera of the vegetable kingdom are far too numerous 
to admit of our giving definitions of them similarly to the plan 
which we have followed in the animal kingdom. Their names 
therefore will alone be inserted, with occasional mention of the 
more remarkable species, and notices of the number belong- 
ing to each, genus. 

Class I. 

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Class 1. MONANDRIA. 
Order 1. 

Genus 1. Canna. 

3 Specie!. 
3. Amomum. 

Ginger, Cardamom, kc. 
4 Speciei. 

3. Costus. 

1 species. 

4. Alpinia. 

1 Species. 

5. Maranta. 

S Species. 

6. Curcuma. 

f Specie!. 

Order 2. digynia. 

12. Corispermum. 14. Blitum. 

S Species. s Species. 

13. Callitriche. 15. Cinna. 

S Species. 1 Speciei. 

Class 2. DIANDRIA. 
Order 1. monogynia. 


Genus 7- Kaempferia. 

3 Species. 

8. Thalia. 

1 Species. ■ 

9> Boerhaavia. 

6 Species. 

10. Salicomia. 

5 Species. 

11. Hippuris. 

I Species. 


l6. Nyctanthes. 

Ulac, Sec. 5 Species. 

17> Jasminum. Jasmine. 
6 Species. 

18. Ligustrum. Privet. ■ 

19. Phillyrea. 

3 Species. 

20. Olea. Olive. 

3 Species. 

21. Chionanthus. 

S Species. 

22. Syringa. 

S Species. 

1240. Dialium. 
1 Species. 

Genus 23. 

y Google 




Cen. 23. Erantheraum. 

1 species. 

24. CircEea. Enchanter's 


5 Species. 

25. Veronica. Speedwell. 

34 Species. 

26. Psederota. 

s Species. 
27- Justicia. 
so Species. 

28. Dianthera. 

3 Species. 

29. Gratiola. 

4 Species. 
1333. Schwenkia. 

1 Species. 

30. Pinguicula.Btti/eriE'or^. 

4 Speues. 

31. Utricularia. 

6 Species. 

Gen. 32. Verbena. Verviiin. 

16 Species. 

33. Lycopus. 

a Species. 

34. Amethystea. 

1 Species. 

35. Cunila. 

3 Specter 

36. Ziziphora. 

4 Species. 

37* Monarda. 

5 Species. 

38. Ro5inahnu8.Ilojemari/. 

1 species. 

39. Salvia. Sage. 

36 Species. 

40. Collinsonia. 

I Species. 

41. Morina. 

1 Species. 

Orders, digynia. 

42. Anthoxantlium. 

3 Species. 

Order 3. trigtnia. 

43. Piper. Peppen 

CO Species. 

Order 1. uonooyitia. 
44. Valeriana. Valerian. 45. Olax. 

so Sfwcies. 1 S{iwies. 

a K Gen. 46. 


Digitized by 




Gen. 4$. Tamarind uSrraffjflnVirf. 

I Speciea. 

47. Rimiphia. 

1 Species. 

48. Cneorum, 

1 Species. 

49. Camocladia. 

2 Species. 

60. Melothria, 
1 Species. 

51. Ortegia. 

I Species. 

52. Loeflingia. 

I Species. 

53. Polycnemum* 


54. Hippocratea. 

1 Specks. 

55. Crocus. {Sqfrm,) 

1 Specm. 
^. Ixia. 

L3 Species. 

57. Gladiolus. 


58. Antholyza. 

4 Species. 

N. B< TImk are 

71. Bobartia. 

1 Specie. 

72. Cornucopia, 

J Specif. 

Gen, 59. Iris. 

S3 Species, 

60. Mpraea. 

3 Specie*.^ 

61. Wachendorfia. 

2 Species, 

62. CoBimelinav 

9 Species. 
C3. CalUsia. 

I Species. 

64. Xyris. 

t Species. 

65. Schoenus. 

II Species. 

66. Cyperus. 

Pvpynsr &CC. 31 SjKuei. 

67. Scirpus. 

38 Species. 

68. Eriopnorum. Coiton.- 

5 Species. 

€9- Nardus. 


70. Lygeum. 

I Spedes. 

a]pfff* ^l Grasset. 

73 Saecharum. Sugar" 
s Species. 
74* Phalaris. 

Gen. 15. 

y Google 

srSffiHA SAtVtitt. 


Gen, 75. Paspahim. 

4 Species. 

76. Panicum. - 

30 Species. 

77. Phleum. 

5 Species. 

78. Alopecunis. Fax-tail 


7 Species. 

79. Milium. Millets 

i species. 

80. Agrostis.- 

fil Species. 

81. Aira. 

i« species. 

82. Melica. 

5 species. 

83. Poa. 

25 Species. 

84. Briza. 

a Species. 

85. Uniola. 

4 Species. 

86. Dactylis. 

3 Species. 

87. Cynosiirus. Dog's-tail 


10 Species. 

Orders, teioynia. 
100. EriocauloD. lOl. Montia. 

* Sp«i«. 1 Species. 


Gen. 88. Festuca. fescue. 

89. Bromus. 

so Species. 

90. Stipa. 

8 Species. 

91- Avena. Oat-grass. 

16 Specie^. 

9S< Lagurus. 

3 Specid. 

93. Arundo. Reed. 

6 Species. 

94. Aristida. 
3 Species. 

95. Lolium. Darnel, 

3 Species. 

96. £lymu5. 

9 Species. 

97. Secale. Rye, 

4 Species. 

98. Hordeum. Barley. 

8 Species. 

99. Triticum. rVhcat. 
1 1 Species. 

Gen. 102. 

y Google 



Gen. 103. Proserpinaca. 

1 Species. 

103. Triplaris. 

1 Species. 

104. Holosteum. 

4 Species. 
1241. KoBuigia. 

1 Species, 

105. Polycarpon.. 

1 Species. 

Gen. 106. MoUu^o.- 

S Speeiei. 
107.. Minuartia. 

3 species. 

108. Queria. 

S Specie*. 

109. I^echea. 


Order 1. momootnea. 

110. Ijcucadendron. 

lO species. 

111. Protea. 

S Species. 

112. Glubularia. 

7 Species. 

113. Cephalanthus. 

1 Species. 

114. Dipsacus. TeaseL 

9 Species. 

115. Scabiosa. 

S6 Specie*. 

116. Knautia. 


117- AlUonia. 

3 Specie*. 

118. Hedyotis. 

9 Species. 

1242. Scabrita. 
t Species. 
119* Spermacoce. 

6 Species. 

120. Sherardia. 

5 species. 

121. Asperula. 

6 Species. 

122. Diodia. 

1 Species. 

123. Kuoxia. 

1 Species. 
1^4. Houstonia. 

3 Species. 

125. Galium. 

$5 Species,. 

126. Cnicianella. 

i Species, 

Gen. 127. 




1. 127. Kubia. MmUer. 

Gen. 143. Scoparia. • 

3 Species. 

s Species. 

128. Fuchsia. 

144. Bhacoma. 

1 Speeiefl. 

] Species. 

129. Siphonanthus. 

145. Centunculus. 

1 Species. 

1 Species. 

130. Catesbtea. 

146. Sangui^orba. 


3 Species. 

131. Ixora. 

147. Cissas. . 

3 Species. 

a Species. 

132. Pavetta. 

148. Epimedium. 

1 Species. 

1 Species. 

133. Petesia. 

149. Comus. 

1 Species. 

e Species. 

134. Mitchella. 

150. Fagara. 


4 Species. 

135. Callicarpa. 

151. Tomei. 

s Species. 

1 Species. 

136. Aquartia. 

152. Ptelea. 


S Species. 

137. Polypremum. 

153. Ludvigia. 

1 Species. 

3 Species. 

138. Penaa. 

154. Oldeolangia. 

8 Species. 

J Species. 

139. Bteria. 

. 155. Ammannia. 

s Species. 


140. Buddleia. 

156. Isnardia. 

S Species. 

1 Species. 

141. Exacum. 

157. Trapa. 

S Species. 

1 Species. 

142. Plantago. Flmlain. 

158. Dontenia. 

■ so-Sptcies. 

t Species. 

Gen. 1243. 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

254 ' 8T8T1IIA KATVR£. 

Gen. 1243. Cometes. • Gen. idS. Eivina. . 

1 Species. 4 S^ies. 

159. Elceagnus. 163. Salvadora. 

4Species. I Spflciei. 

1244. Stnithiola. 164. CamphoTosma. 

4. Species. 4 8p«des. 

160. Brabejum. 165. Alchemilla. 

1 Species. « Spcctei. . 

16 1. Krameria. • 

I Species. 

Order 2. digtnia. 

166. Aphanes. 169- Hamamelis. 

1 species. I Species. 

167. Crurita. 170. Cuscuta. Dodder. 

1 Species. s Specjes. 

168. Bufonia. 171. Hypecoum. 

1 Species. 3 Species. 

Order 3. tetraoynia. 

172. Ilex. HoUi/. 176. Sagina. 

5 Species. •••■ 9 Specie*. 

173. Coldenia. 177- Till«a. 

1 Species. 9 Species. 

174. Potamogeton. 178. Myginda. 

IS Species. 1 Specie*. 

175. Ruppia. 

1 Species. 

Order 1. monogtnia., 
179* Heliotropium. 180. Myosotis. Mouse-ear. 

• SlwcicB. 4Sp««ie8. 

Gen. 181. 

Diaitized bv VjOOQIC 

-. -. . ■ n ■ iiiir- i1 



Gen. 181 



Ijthospemi um. 

e Speciea. 
e Speaea. 
Cjf noglossum. J/9«nd'« 
e Specie*. 
Pulmonaria. Lung- 

5 Spe<u«s. 


Comfrey, See. 3 Species. 


S Species. 


3 Specie*. 

Borago. Borage. 

4 Species. 


5 Species. 


Ecliium. Viper-grass. 

g Species. 

1 Specie^. 


S Species. 

1 Species. 

9 Species. 


Gen. 195 




i. Aretia. 

1 Species. 

Ant) rosace. 

i Species. 

Primrose^ Cowslip, Oxigs, 
&c. OSpecuen. 

S Species. 


1 S pedes. 


I Specie*. 


S Spaciu. 

Mmiyanthes. Buci- 
a Speciea. 

I Speciet. 


fi Speeiet. 

Lysimacbia. Im)S€- 

II Species. 


Pimperml, Sec. 4 Species. 

I Species. 


Gen. 20a 

Digitized by 




Gen. 209- Opbiorrhiza. 

ft Species. 

1248. Lisianthus. 

8 Species. 

210. Bandia. 

5 Specicc. 

211. Azalea. 

6 Species. 
2f2. Plumbago. 

4 Species. 

1246. Nigrina. 

1 Specie*. 

213. PIUoK. 

10 species. 

214. Convolvulus. 


47 Species. 

215. Ipomeea. 

1 9 Species. 

216. Polemonium. 

4 Species. 

217. Campanula. Bell- 


48 Species. 

218. Roella. 

3 Species. 

219. Ph^-teuma. 

6 Species. 

220. Trachelium. 

1 Species. 

221. Samolus. 

1 Species. 

222. Nauclea. 

1 Species. 

223. Rondeletia. 

4 Species. 

224. Macrocoemum. 

1 Species. 

225. Bellonia. 

1 Species. 

226. Portlandia.- 

5 Species. 

227. Cinchona. 

Peravlan Barky See. 
X Species. 

228. Psycbotria. 

S Species. 

229. Coffea. Coffee-tree. 

3 Spepies. 

230. Chiococca. 

1 species. 

231. Hamelia. 

I Species. 

232. Lonicera Honey- 

14 Species. 

233. Triosteum. 

S Species. 

234. Morinda. 

3 Species. 

235. Conocarpus. 

3 Species. 

236. Kuhnia. 

1 Species 

Gen. 237. 

y Google 





Gen. 23T 











'. Erithalis. 

1 Species. 


1 Species. 


3 Species. 

1 Species. 


I Species. 

Jatap, 8cc. I Species. 


1 Species. 

1 Species. 


1 species. 

Verbascum. Mullei^. 

13 Species. 


Thorn-apple, &c. 
6 Species. 

Hyosciamus. Hen- 
7 Species. 

Tobacco-plant, &c. 
6 Species. 


Mandrake, Deadly-nighl- 
shade, Stc. 5 Specie^«» 

Gen. 249. Physalis- 

IVmter-Cherry, &c. 
IS Species. 

£50. Solanum. 

Bitter-sweet, Potatoe, 8cc . 
33 Species. 

251. Capsicum. 

4 Species. 

852. Strychnos. Nux Vok 
9 Species. 
253. Jacquinia. 

3 Speues. 
£54. Chironia. 

8 Species. 

855. Cordia. 

208. Patagonula. 

1 Species. 
256. Ehretia. 

4 Species. 

257- Varronia. 

6 Species. 

258. Langeria. 

1 Species. 

259. Brunsfelsia. 

1 Species. 

260. Cestrum. 

2 Species. 

261. Lycium. 

3 species. 

262. Chrysophyllum. 

2 Species. 
L Gon. 26a 

Digitized by 



Gen. 263. 














8 Species. 


Buckthorn, Jujul, &c. 
33 Species, 


3 Species. 


3 Species. 


1 Specie*. 


1 Specie* 


1 Speues. 


6 Species. 


3 Species. 


7 Species. 


S Species. 

1 Species. 


I species. 


1 Species. 

1 species. 

Gen. 276. Mangifera. 


I Species. 

277. Hirtella. 

1 Species. 

1249. Plcctronia. 

1 species. 

278. Ribes. 

Currant, Gooseberry, 8cc. 
8 Species. 
279- Gronovia. 

1 Species. 

280. Hedera. Ivy. 

i Species. 

281. Vitis. Tine. 

7 Species. 

282. Lagoecia. 

I species. 
1234. Roridula. 
1 Species. 
285. Sativagesia. 

I Species. 

284. Claytonia. 

3 Species. 

285. Achyranthes. 

10 Species. 

286. Celosia. 

7 Species. 

287. Illecebrum. 

13 Species. 

. 288. Glaux. 

1 Species. 

Gen. 289. 




Gen, 289- Thesium. 

6 Species, 

290. Rauvol6a. 

3 Species. 

1252. Paederia. 

1 Species. 
1251. Carissa. 

1 Species. 

291. Cerbera. 

3 Spwies. 

292. Gardenia. 

1 Species. 

293. Vinca. Periwinkle. 

4 Species. 

Order 2. 
• 1255* Pergularia. 

i Species. 

300. Periploca. 

4 Species. 

301. CjnaDcbum. 

6 Species. 

302. Apocynum. 

A Species. 

303. Asclepias. 

Id Species. 

304. Stapelia. 

9 Species, 

305. Hemiaria. Rupture- 

4 Species. 

306. Chenopodium, 

18 Species. 

Gen, 294. Nerium. 

4 Species. 

295. Echites. 

1 1 Species. 

296. Plumeria. 

3 Species. 

297- Cameraria. 

5 Species. 

298- Tabemaemontaaa, 

6 Species. 

299. Ceropegia. 

307. Beta. Beet. 

8 Species. 

308. Salsola. 

19 Species. 

309< Anabaftis. 

3 species. 

310. Cressa. 

1 Species. 
1254. Steris. 

I Species. 

311. Gooipfarena. 

7 Species. 

312. Bosea. 

1 Speciu. 

313. Ulmus. Elm. 

3 Species. 


Gen. 314. 

Digitized by 




Cen. 31$. Nama. 

« SpecFci; 

315. Hydrolca. 

1 Species. 

316. Schrebera. 

I Spectea. 

317. Heuchera. 

I Species. 

447. Velezia. 

I Species. 

318. Swertia. 

» Species. 

319. Gentiana. Gentian. 

30 Species, 

320. Phyllis. 

I Species. 
* ITmbellatv. 

321. Eryngium. Eryngo, 

Q Species. 

322. Hydrocotyle. 

a Species. 

3!23. Sanicula. Sanicle, 
3 Species. 

324. Astrantia. 

S Specier. 

325. Bupleurum. 

15 Species. 

326. Echinophora. 

S species. 

32T. Tordylium. 

8 Species. 

328. CaucaUs. 

7 Species. 

Gen. 329. Artedia. 

i Species. 

330. Daucus. Carrot. 

i Species. 

331. Ammi. 

3 Species, 

332. Bunium. Pig-nut. 

I Species. 

333. Conium. 

Hmdoek, &c. 4 Species. 

334. Selinum. 

4 Species. 

335. Athamanta. 

9 Species. 

336. Peucedanum. 

A Species. 

337. Cnthmam. Samphve, 


338. Cachrys. 

5 Species. 

' 339' Hasselquistia. 
I Species. 

340. Ferula. 

^srfeetida, &c. 
O Species. 

341. Laserpitiutn. 

10 Species. 

342. Heracleum. 

6 Species. 

543. Ligusticum. Lwagt, 

6 Species, 

544. Angelica. 

4 Speues, 

Gen. 3451 

y Google 



Gen. 345. 


Gen. 356. 


9 Species. 

1 Species. 





6 Species. 

12 Species. 





4 Species. 

5 Species. 

348 Cuminum. 



1 Species. 

3 Species. 


(Enanthe. Dropwort. 



5 Species. 

5 Species. 




Anetbum. DM. 

s Species. 

» Species. 




Carum. Carrawatf, 

3 Species. 

1 Species. 





1 Species. 

s Species. 




Apium. Parsley. 

3 Species. 

S Species. 




.Slgopodium. Gout- 

9 Species. 



8 Species. 

1 Species. 

Order 3. 






"IS Species. . 

1 Species. 





Guelder-rose, Sec. 

s Species. 

Q Species. 


Tamarix. Tamarisi. 



1 Species. 

9 Species. 




Sambucus. Elder. 
4 Species. 

4 Species. 

Gen. 374. 

y Google 


Gen. 374. Telephium. 

S Species. 

375. Comgiola. 

* 1 Species. 

376. Phamaceum. 

4 Specie*. 
377- Alsine. 

3 Spedet. 


Gen. 378. Drypia. 
1 Species. 

379. Basella. 

9 Species. 

380. Sarothra. 

1 Species. 

Order 4. tetragtnia. 

381. Pamassia. 
1 Specks. 

382. Erolvulus. 

383. Aralia. 

I Species. 

384. Statice. 

T7 Species. 

385. Linum. Flax. 

at Species. 

386. Aldrovanda. 

] Species. 

Order 5. pentagtwia. 

387. Drosera. 

6 Species. 

388. Crassula. 

85 Species. 

1255. Mahemia. 

8 Species. 

389. SibbaJdia. 

3 Species. 

Order 6. poltgtnia, 
390. Myosurus. Mouse-tail. 

1 Species. 

Class 6. HEXANDRIA. 
Order 1. MoNOGTNii. 

391. Broiaelia. 393. Bunnannia. 

T Species. s Species. 

392. Tillandsia. 394, Tradescantia. 

9 Species. 5 Species. 

Gen. 393. 

Digitized by 



Gen. 395. 






3 Species. 

4 Species. 
Galanthus. Snow-drop. 

I Species. 


9 Species. 

13 Species. 

7 Species. 

5 Species. 


II Species. 

1 Species. 
] Species. 


Onion, Garlic, Sec. 
38 Species. 

Lilium. Lilt/. 

g Species. 


Croum Imperial, Sec, 
* Species. 


3 Species. 

3 Species. 

1 Species. 

Gen. 411. 








Tulipa. Tulip, 

3 Species. 


s specie*. 

4 Species. 

Star tf Bethlehem, 8cc. 
n Species. 

SciDa. Squill. 

10 species. 

I Species. 

3 Species. 


) 1 Species. 

4 Species. 


1 3 species. 


5 Species. 


Libj of the Valleif, So- 
lomon's Seal, &c. 
8 Species. 


1 Species. 
Hyacinthus. JJ^a- 

13 Species. 

3 Species, 

Gen. 425. 


hT • I ^iiiM 



8¥«TE2iA NATUBjE. 

Gen. 425. Yucca. 

4 Species. 

426. Aloe. 

Q Specie*. 

427. Agave. 

4 Species. 

428. Alstroemeria. 

3 Species. 

429. Hemerocalis. 

5 Specie*. 

430. Acorus. 

1 Species. 

431. Orontium. 

1 Species. 

432. Calamus. Bamboo. 

1 Speciea. 

439. Juncus. Rusk, 

1 9 Species, 

Order 2 
443. Oryza. Rice, 

I Species. 

Order 3. 

445. Flagellaria. 

1 Species. 

446. Rumex. 

Dock, &c. fiS Species, 

447. Scheuclizeria. 

1 Species. 

448. Triglochin. 

2 species. 

449. Melanthium. 

3 Species. 

Gen. 434. Richardia. 

I Species. 

435. Achras. 

3 Spetues. 

436. Prinos. 

3 Species. 
437- Bursera. 

1 Speciee. 

438. Berberis. Barberry. 

2 Species. 

439. Lorantbus. 

9 Species. 

440. Hillia. 

1 Specie*. 

441. Frankenia. 

3 species. 

442. Peplis. 

S Species. 


444. Atraphaxis. 

S Species. 


450. Medeola. 

S Species. 

451. Trillium. 

3 Species. 

452. Colchium. 

Meadow Saffron, 8tc. 
3 Species, 

453. Helonias. 

2 Species. 

Order 4. 

Digitized by 



Order 4 tetragysia. 

454. Petiveria. : 

3 Specie*. 

Order 5. poltgynia. 
455. Alisma. 

7 Species. 


Order 1. uonogynia. 
456. Trientalis. 457- JEacuXus.Horse-Ches- 

i Specica. nUt. 

S Speciei. 

Orders, digtnia. 

458. Limeum. 

1 Species. 

Order 3. tetraoynia. 

459. Saururus. 

1 Specie)!, 

Order 4. heftagynia. 
460. Septas. 
I Species. 

Class 8. OCTANDRIA. 

Order 1. monogynia. 

461. Tropaeolum. 464. CEnothera. 

4 Species. 7 Spedes. 

462. Osbeckia. 465. Gaura. 

1 Species. 1 Species. 

463. Bhexia. 466. Epilobium. 

5 Species. 7 Species. 

3 u Gen. 1257 

Digitized by 






Gen. 1257. Antichorns. 

1 Species. 

467. Corabretum. 

S Species. 

468. Grislea. 

1 Specien. 

469. AUophyllus. 

1 Species. 

470. Ximenia. 

3 Species. 

471. Mimusops. 

3 Species. 

472. Jambolifera. 

] Species. 

473. Melicocca. 

I Species. 

474. Amyris. 

Balm of GiUad tree, &c. 
8 Species. 

475. Santalum. 

1 Species. 

476. Memecjlon. 

1 species. 

Order 2. 

1259. Schmidelia. 

I species, 

487. Galenia. 

1 Species. 

Gen. 1258. Chlora. 

3 Species. 

477. Lawsonia. 

5 Species. 

478. Vacciuium. 

Billierry, Cranlerry, &c. 
1 S Species. 

479. Erica. Heath. . 

44 Species. 

480. Daphne. 

Mexereon, Spurge Law 
«/, &c. 13 Species. 

481. Dirca. 

I species. 

482. Gnidia. 

6 Species. 

483. Stellera. 

3 Species. 

484. Passerina. 

S Species. 

485. Lachneea. 

3 Species. 

486. Baeckea. 

1 species. 

488. Weinraannia. 

1 Species. 

489- Moehringia. 

1 Species. 

Orders: trigynia. 
490. Polygonum. 491. Coccoloba. 

■ £»(or/, &c.37C;.-,ies. 6 Species. 

Gen. 492. 

y Google 



Gen. 492. Paullinia. Gen. 494. Sapindus. 

7 Species. 3 iSpeciu.- 

493. Cardiospennum. 

3 species. 

Order 4. tetragynia. 

495. Paris. - 497. Elatine. 

1 Species, 3 Spedes. 

496. Adoxa. 

1 Species. 

Order 1. uokootkia. 
498. Laurus. 499- Tinus. . 

GimatKon, Cassia, Ctan- 1 Species. 

pkoTy and Sassafras- 500. Cassyta. 
trees, Laarel, &c. i Species. 

1 1 Species. 

Orders, trioynia. 
501. Rheum. Rhubarb. 

5 Species. 

Order 3. uexagtkia. 
502. Butomus. 


Class 10. DECANDRIA. 
Order 1. houtogtnia. 
503. Sophora. 506. Bauhinia* 



13 Species. 
504. Anagyris. 

1 Spedes. 
'505. Cercis. 

S Species, 

8 Species. 


1 species. 
508, Parkinsonia. 

1 Species. 

Gen. 509. 

Digitized by 




Gen. 509. Cassia. 

Gen. 524. ZygophyHuni. 

Soma, &c. 30 Species. 


510. Poinciana. 

525. Quassia. 

a Species. 

1 Species. 

511. Cffisalpinia. 

526. Fagonia. 

3 Species. 

3 Species. 

512. Guilandina. 

527. Tribulus. 

5 Species. 

■ 4 Specits. 

513. Guaiacum. 

528. Thryallis. 

3 Species. 

1 Species. 

514. Cynometra. 

529. Limonia. Lime. 

S Species. 

I Species. 

515. Anacardium. 

530. Monotropa. 

I Species. 

4 Species. 

516. Dictamnus. Dittany. 

531. Trianthema. 


3 Species. 

517. Ruta. Hue. 

532. jussiffia. 

4 Species. 

" 4 Species. 

518. Toluifera. Tolu-tree. 

5S3. Heisteria. 

1 Species. ' 

1 Species. 

519. HEematoxylum. 

534. Quisqualis. 

1 Specie*.. 

1 Species. 

1260. Prosopis. 

535. Dais. 

1 Species. 

S Species. 

1261. Chalcas. 

536. Melastoma. 

1 Species. 

11 Species. 

530. Adenanthera. 

537. Kalmia. 

1 Species. ' 

2 Species. 

521. Trichilia. 

538. Ledum. 

■ 4 Species. 

1 Spectes. 

523. Swietenia. 

539. Rhododendron. 

' ) SjKcies. 

6 Species. 

523, Me)ia. 

540. Andromeda. 

' sSpecfes. 

10 Species. 

* 1 

Gen. 541. 

Digitized by 




Con. 541. 


Gen. 346. Styrax. Storai. 

. I Speciea. 

1 Species. 



547. Saniyda. 

1 Species. 

» Species, 



548. Copaifera. Copaiba, 

4 Species. 

1 Species. 



549. Bucida. 

1 Species. 

■ I. Species, 


e Species. 

Order 2. 



Eoyena. • 

556. Mitella. 

4 Species. 

. S Species, 


Hydrangea. , 

557. Scleranthus. 

1 Species. 

. B Species. 



353. Gypsopbila, , 

I Species. 

11 Species. 



559. Saponaria. Soapmort. 

8 Species. 

7 Species. 


Saxifraga. Saxifrage. 

360. Dianthus. 

39 Species. 

Pink, Carmiion, Sweet- 



9 Species. 

W^iZ&nn.&c. ItSpecies. 

Order 3. 




363. Cherleria. 

15 Species.- 

1 Species. 


Silene. Catch-fly. 

566. Garidella. 

34 Species. 

- 1 Species. 


SteDaria. Slarwort. 

567. Malphigia. 

■ 6 Species. 



Arenaria.' Sandwort. 

568. Banisteria. 


. jSp<lclc. 

Gen. 569. 

y Google 



Gen. 5^. Hiraea. 

1 Specirs. 

570. Triopteris. 

1 species. 

Gen, 571. Erythroxylon. 

3 Species. 

Order*, pentacynia. 

578. Oxalis. 

Sorrel, ice. 14 Specio. 

679. Agrostemraa. 

572. Averrhoa. 

3 Species. 

573. Spondias. 

9 Sp«^iei. 

574. Cotyledon. 

7 Species. 

575. Sedum. Stone-crop. 

19 Speeiei. 

576. Penthorum. 

t Sp«uei. 

577. Suriana. 

1 €pectei. 

1235. Grielum. 

' 1 Speeiei, 

Order 5. decagtnia. 
587. Neuiada. 588. Phytolacca. 

1 Species. * Species. 


580. Lychnis. 
7 Species. 

581. Cerastium. 
16 Species. 

586. Spergula. Spurry. 
5 Species. 
1262. Forskohlea. 
I Species. 

Order 1. monocynia. 

589. Asanim. 

3 Specks. 

590. Bocconia. 

1 Species. 

591. Gethyllis. 

. 1 Species. 

592. Rhizophora. 

7 Species. 

593. Blakea. 

1 Species. 

594. Garcinia. 

Gen. 596. 

y Google 


sySTEMA NATUniE. 271 

Gen. 596. Halesia. Gun. 1263. Hudsonia. 

2 Species. 1 Specie*. 

597- Decuniaria. 602. Jsitraria. 

1 Species. 1 Species. 

598. 'Wintevania. 603. Portiilaca. 

I Species. 7 Species. 

599. Crataeva. 604. Lythrura. 

3 Species. 10 Species. 

600. Triumfetta. 605. Ginora. 

3 Species. 1 Species. 

601. Peganum. 

9 Species. 

Order 2. digtnia. 
606. Heliocarpus. 607. Agrimonia. 

1 Species. S Species. 

Orders, teigynia. 

608. Reseda. 6O9. Euphorbia. Spurge, 

Ifitad, See. 11 Species. 63 Speciet. 

Order 4. pentagynia. 

610. Glinus. 

1 1 Species. 

Order 5. octagynia. 

611. lUicium. 

1 Species^ 

Order 6. dodecagynia, 

612. Sempervivum. 

House-leek, Stc. 7 Species. 

Class. IS-. 

Digitized by 



Gen. 6l3. -Cactus. 

24 Species. 

614. Philadelphiis. 

5 Species. 

615. Psidiura. 

3 Species. 

616. Eugenia. 

6 Species. 

617. Myrtus. 

Myrtles, PtmentQ, &c. 
13 Species. 


Class 12. ICOSANDRIA. 
Order 1. monoqtnia. 

Gen. 6I8. Vunic^ Pomegranate. 

S Species. 

619* Amygdalus. 

Peach, NectarirUf Al- 
monds. 4 Species. 

620. Prunus. 

SloCy Cherry, Sec. 
13 Species. 

621. Chrysobalanus. 

1 Species. 

Order 2. digtnia. 

622. Crataegus. 
Hontheam, Hawthorn^ See. 9 Species, 

Order 3. teigtnia. 

623. Sorbus. 694. Sesuvium. 

Mountain-Ask, ice. ) Species. 

3 Species. - 

Order 4. pentagynia. 

625. Mespilus. 

Medlar, &o. f Species. 

626. Pyrus. 

Apple, Pear, &c, 
i Species. 

627. Tetragonia. 

3 Species, 

628. Mesembryanthe- 


45 Species. 

629. Aizoon, 

3 Species. 

630. Spiraea. 

Dropwort, Meadow- 
sttieet. Sec. 1 1 Species. 

Order 5. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

T if — 



Order 5. polygynia. 
Gen. 631. Rosa. Rose. Gen. 636. Geum. 

14 Species. 
633. Rubua. Kaspberry. 

13 Species. 

633. Fragaria. Strawberry. 

4 Species. 

634. Potentilla. 

88 Species. 

635. Tormentilla. 

i Species. 

i Species. 
637. Dryas. 

S Species. 
633. Comarum. Marsh- 

1 Species. 
639. Caljrcanthus. 

9 Species. 

Class 13. POLYANDRIA. 

Order 1. monogynia, 

640. Marcgravia. 650. 

1 Species. 

641. Rheedia. 651. 

1 Species. 

643. Capparis. 652. 

13 Species. 

644. ActEea. 653. 

3 Species. 

645. Sanguinaria. 

1 species. 654. 

646. Podophyllum. 

2 Species. 655. 

647. Chelidouium. Celan- 

dine. ^^^^9^ 

A Species. 

648. Papaver. Poppy. 656. 

g Species. 

649. Argemonc. ^^7. 

3 Species. 


1 Species. 

1 Species, 


S Species. 

Water-LMy, Egyptvm 
Lotus, ice. 4 Speci<s. 

I Species. 


S Species. 


1 Species. 

S Species. 

2 Species. 

Gen. 659. 

Digitized by 




Gen. 639. Grias. 

Gen. 667. Lagers troeniia. 

1 Species. 

1 Species. 

658. Calophyllum. 

668. Thea. 

S Species. 

Bohea ond iSreen Tea. 

660. Tttia. Lime-tree. 

3 Species. 

s Species. 

6^. Caryophyllus. Clove. 

661. Leetia. 


9 Species. 

671. Plinia. 

663. Elseocarpus. 

1 Species. 

67s. Cistus. 

66A. Lecythis. 

9; Species. 

S Specie*. 

674. Prockia. 

672. Delinia. 

1 Species. 

1 Species. 

675. Corchorus. 

666. Vateria. 

7 Species. 

i Species. 

676. Seguieria. 

670. Menteelia. 

1 Species. 

1 Species, 

677. Symplocos. 

1286. Loosa (of Jacquin). 

1 Species. 

I Spcdes. 

Order 2. 


678. Paonia. Paon^. 

680. Calligpnum. 

S Species. 

1 Speciei). 

679. Curatella. 

I Species, 

Order 3. 


681. Delphinium. 

682. Aconitum. 

Larkspur, 8ic. 7 Species 

Monk's-haodt &c. 6 Species. 

Order 4. tetraoynia. 

683. Tetracera. 

1 Species. 

Order 5. 




Order 5. pentacynia. 
Gen. 684. Aquilegia. Gen. 686. Reaumuha. 

Coiumlime,iK, 4 Species. 1 Species. 

685. Nigella. 
7 Speoes. 

Order 6. hexagynia. 
687. Straliotes. 

S Species. 

Order 7* polygynia. 

688. Dillenia. 

1 species. 

689. liiriodendron. 

Tulip-tree and Uly-lree. 
s Species. 

690. Magnolia. 

4 Species. 

691' Michelia. 

s Species. 

692. Uvaria. 

5 Species. 
QQ5. Anqjona. 

6 Species. 

694. Anemone. 

S4 Species. 

^5. Atrageoe. 

3 Species. 

696. Clematis. 

Travpllei^s Joy, &c. 
II Species. 

Order 1. gymnospermia. 
705. Ajuga. Bugle. 706. Teucrium. 

* Species. ff'uod-Sage, Ground-Pine, 

&c. 35 Species. 

2 N 2 Gen. 707- 

697. Thalictrum. 

14 Speciqs. 

698. Adonis. 

Pheasant's Eye, &c. 
i Species. 

699- Ranunculus. 
39 Species. 

700. Trolliug. Ghhe-flower. 

8 Species. 

701. Isopyrum. 

3 Species. 

702. Helleboms.Heifcfiore. 

i Spscies. 

703. Caltha. Marsh Mari- 


I Species. 

704. Hydrastis. 

1 species. 

Digitized by 




Gea. 707. 


Geo. 723. Phlomis. 

jr Specie*. ' 

13 Species. 



724. Moluccella. 

2 species. 

J Species. 


Hyssopus. IIi/ssop. 

725. Clinopodium. 

3 Species. 

3 Species. 



726. Origanum. 

Cat-mint, he. uSpecies. 

Marjoram, &c. 1 1 Species . 


Lavand iila. Lavender. 

727. Thymus. Thyme. 

4 Species^ 

g Species. 



728. Melissa. 

1 1 Species. 

€ Species. 


Mentha. Mint. 

729. Dracocephalum. 

16 Species. 

11 Species. 



730. Horrainum. 

1 Species. 

3 Species. 

714. Glecoma. Ground Ivt^. 

731. Melittis. 

I Species, 

I Species. 



732. Ocymum. 

Dead-Nettle, kc. 

II Species. 

6 Species. 

733. Trichostema. 



i Species. 

3 Species. 

734. Scutellaria. ScwZZ-cap. 


Betonica. Betony. 

14 Species. 

4- Species. 

735. Prunella. 



3 Species. 

All-heal, &C. 13 Species. 

736. Cleonia. 



1 Species. 

5 Species. 

737. Prasium. 



S Species. 

Horehotmd, 8cc. 

738. Phryma. 

10 Species. 

1 Species. 



Mother-wortj &c. 
* Species. 

Order 2. 

y Google 


'?- ■ VK. 



Orders, angiospermia. 

Gen. 739. Bartsia. 

Gen. 754. Torenia. 

4 Species. 

1 Species. 

740. Rhinanthus. 

755. Besleria. 

7 Species. 

3 Species. 

741. Euphrasia. Etfe- 

756. Scrophularia. 


IS Species. 

7 Species. 

757. Celsia. 

742. Melampyrum. 

1 Species. 

3 Species. 

758. Digitalis. Fox-glove. 

743. Lathraea. 

6 Species. 

4 Species. 

759. Bignonia. 

744. Schwalbea. 

17 Species. 

I Speaies. 

760. Citharexylum. 

745. Tozzia. 

2 Species. 

1 Species. 

761. Halleria. 

746. Pedicularisr X«Mse- 

. I Species. 


762. Crescentia. 

T6 Speciesi 

1 species. 

747. Gerardia. 

■763. Gmelina, 

6 Species. 

1 Species. 

748. Chelone. 

764. Petrea. 

4 Species. 

i Species. 

749. Gesneria. 

765. Lantana. 

3 Species. 

9 Species. 

750. Antirrhinum. Snap' 

766. Comutia. 

40 Species. 

1 Species. 

767. Loeselia. 

751. Cymbaria. 

I Species. 

I Species. 

768. Capraria. 

752. Cranioluriar 

3 Species. 

9 Species. 

769. Selago. 

753. Martynia.. 

10 Species. 

3 Speoies.- 

Gen, 1264.- 

y Google ' 



Gen. 1264. Manulea. 

1 Species. 

770. Hebenstretia. 

3 Species. 

771- Erinus. 

4 Species. 

772. Buchnera. 

4 Species. 

773. Browallia. 

3 Species. 

774. Linneea. 

1 Species. 

775. Sibthorpia, 

3 Speciea. 

776. JAm(xe}\a. Mud-weed. 

1 Speciet. 

1265. Vamiellia. 

1 Species. 

777. Stemodia. 

) Species, 

778. Obdaria. 

1 species. 

779- Orobanche. 

7 Speciea. 

780. Dodartia. 

S Species. 

781. Lippia. 

3 Species. 

782. Sesanmm. 

S ^tecies. 

Class 15. 

Gen. 783. Mimulus. 

3 Species. 

784. Ruellia. 

13 Species. 

785. Barleria. 

7 Species. 

786. Duranta. 

8 Species. 

787. Ovieda. 

e Species. 

788. Volkameria. 

3 %>ecies. 

789- Clerodendrum. 

4 species. 

790. Vitex. 

4 Species. 

791. Bontia, 

1 Species. 
1237. Avicennia. 

3 Species. 

792. Columnea. 

5 Species. 

793. Acanthus. 

5 Species. 

794. Pedalium. 

1 Species. 

795. MeHanthiis. 

S Species. 


Order 1. siliculos*. 
796. Myagrum. 797. VeHa, 

9 Species, S Species, 

Gen. 798. 

Digitized by 




Gen. 798. Anastatica. 
1 Species. 

799. Subularia. 

1 Species. 

800. Draba. 

8 Species. 

801. Lepidium. 

JV<Ul-pepperj 4cc. 
19 Species. 

802. Thlaspi. 

Shepherd' s-parse, &c. 
10 Species. 

803- Cochlearia. 

Horse-radish, &c, 
8 Species. 

Order 2, 

810. Ricotia. 

I Species. 

811. Dentaria. 

3 Species. 

813. Cardamine. 

15 Species. 

813. Sisymbrium. 

ffater-Cress, &Cr 
S6 Species. 

814. Erysimum. 

€ Species. 

815. Cheiranthus. Wall- 

Gen. 804. Iberis. 

'»7 Species. 
816. Heliophila. 
S SpecieSr 

Canitj-tyft, &c. 
IS Species. 

805. Alyssum. 

1 7 Species. 

807. Clypeola. 

9 Species. 

806. Peliaria. 

1 Species. 

808. Biscutella. 

3 Species. 

809- Lunaria. Moon^ort, 

' 8 Species. 


817. Hesperis. 


818. Aribis. 

9 Species. 

819. Turritis. 

3 Species. 

820. Brassica. 

Rt^e, Turnip, &C. 
13 Spethes. 

821. Sinapis. Mustard 

IS Species. 

822. Baphanus. Modish. 

3 Species. 

823. BuDias. 

« Specie*. 

Gen. 824. 

Digitized by 




Gen. 824. Isatis. 

4 Species. 

.825. Crambe. 

Sea-Cahbage, k*. 
3 Species. 

Gen. 826. Cleome. 

16 Specie*. 

Class 16. M.ONADELPHIA. 
Order 1. pESTANDftiA. 

,827. Waltheria. 829. Melochia. 

S Species. 6 Species. 

.828. Hermannia. 

8 Species. 

Order 2. enneakdria. 
833. Brownaea. 

I Species. 

Orders, decandria. 

630. Connarus. 832. Geranium. 

1 Species. 00 Species. 

831. Hugonia. 

1 species. 

Order 4. dodecandhia. 
834. Pentapetes. 
3 Species. 

Order 5. polyandria. 
836. Adansonia. 1266. Malachra. 

I Species. S Species. 

635. Bombax. 838. Napaea. 

4 Species. 3 Species. 

S37. Cida. 839. Althaea. 

SI Species. Marsh-Mallow, txc, 

4 Species. 

Gen. 84a 

y Google 



Gen. 840. 

Alcea. Gen. 846. Hibiscus. 

3 Species. 25 Species. 


Malva. Mallm. 847. Stewartia. 

39 Species. 1 Species. 


Lavatera. 848. Camellia. 

Tree'Mallow, &c. 1 Species. 

9 Species. 665. Mesua. 


Malope. 1 Species. 

1 Species. 642. Morisonia. 


Urena. l Species. 

3 Species. 


Gossypium. Cotton- 


5 Species. 


Order 1. pentandria. 

850. Monnieria. 

1 Species. 

Order 2. uexandeia. 


Saraca. 849. Fumaria. Fumitory. 

1 Species. 1 3 Species. 

Order 3. octandria. 


Polygala. 852. Securidaca. 

Milk-wort, 8cc. s Species. 

35 Species. 

Order 4. decandria. 


Nissolia. 854. Pterocarpus. 

s Species. 1 Species. 


Abrus. 855. Erythrina. 

1 Species. 4 Species. 

2 o Gen. 856. 

y Google 


Gen. 356. Piscidia. 

Gen.S69. Clitoria. 

a SpeciM. 

3 Speues. 

857. Borbonia. 

870. Pisum. Pea. 

7 Specie*. 

4 Species. 

858. Spartium. Broom. 

871. Orobus. 

11 Species. 

9 Species. 

859. Genista. 

872. Lathyrus. 

13 Species. 

ffl Species. 

860. AspaJathus. 

879. Vicia. Vetch. 

19 Species. 

IS Species. 

881. Ulex. Furse. 

874. Ervum. 

< Species. 

6 Species. 

861. Amorpha. 

875. Cicer. 

1 Species. 

1 Species, 

862. Crotalaria. 

876. Cytiscus. 

17 Species. 

1 1 Species. 

863. Ononis. 

873. GeoflFrcea. 

Rest-harrow, Sec. 

1 Species. 

SO Species. 

879- Robinia. 

864. Anthyllis- 

7 Species. 

10 Species. 

880. Colutea. 

876. Arachis. 

3 Species. 

1 Species. 

882. Glycyrrhiza. Liquo- 

895. Ebenus. 

rice. \, 

1 Species. 

S Species. 

- 865. Lupinus. Lupin. 

883. Coronilla. 

6 Species. 

1 1 Species. 
884. Ornilhopus. BirJ's- 

866. Phaseolus. Bean. 

15 Species. 

867. Dolichos. 

Cowhage,&c. g? Species. 

868. Glycine. 

4 Species. 

885^ Hippocrepis. Horse- 

10 Species. 

shoe Vetch. 

3 Species. 

Gen. 886. 




Gen. 886. Scorpiurus. Gen. 893. Bissenila. 

4 Species. 1 Species. 

888. Aeschynomene. 894. Psoralea. 

7 Species. 15 Speciea. 

887. Hedysarum. 896. Trifolium. Trefoil 

49 Species. 40 Species. 

889. Indigofera. Indigo- 879- Lotus. 

plant. ' ISSpedes. 

s Species. 898. Trigonella. 

890. Galega. lO Species. 

10 Species. 899- Medicago. 

. 891. Phaca. 9 Species, 

5 Species. 

892. Astragalus. 

40 Speciea. 


Order 1. pentandria. 
900. Theobroma, Cacao. 

3 Species. 

Order 2. dodecandria. 

1268. Monsonia. 
1 Species. 

Orders, icosandria. 

901. Citrus. Citron. 
3 Species. 

Order 4. foltandbia. 
1269- Melaleuca. 902. Hypericum. Tutsan. 

I Species. 33 Species. 

1270. Hopea. 903. Ascyrum. 

1 Species. 3 Species. 

2 o 2 Class 19. 

Digitized by 




Class 19. SYNGENESIA. 
Order 1. polygamia jEQUalis. 

Gen. 904. 






Geropogon, Old 
Man's Beard. 

S Species. 

Tragopogon. Goat's 
11 Species. 


10 Species. 

3 Species. 

Sow-thistle, &c. 
10 species. 
Lactuca. Lettuce, 

7 Species. 


1 Species. 


9 Species. 

Leontodon. Dande- 
7 Species. 

Hieracium. Hawk- 

89 Species. 

16 Species. 

3 Species. 


Q Species. 

Gen. 917. 


4 Species. 


4 Species. 


4 Species. 


5 Species. 

Cichorium. Endive. 

3 Species. 


3 Species. 

Bw-iveed, Stc. 3 Species. 

Serratula. Saw-wort. 

16 Species. 

Carduus. Thistle. 

86 Species. 


8 Species. 

4 Species. 

Artichoke, 8tc, 4 Species. 

7 Species. 

3 Species. 


'9 Spedes. 

Gen. 1287. 





128T. SpUanthus of Jac- Gen 




5 Species. 

3 Species. 

939. Chrysocoma. Golden- 

932. Bidens. 


13 Species. 

9 Species. 

933. Cacalia. 



14 Species. 

1 Species. 

934. Ethulia. 



S Species. 

9 Specie*. 

935. Eupatorium. 



22 Species. 

4 Species. 

936. Ageratum. 



3 Species. 

1 1 Specie!. 

937. Pteronia. 

2 Species. 

Order 2. polygamia 


944. Tanacetum. Ta?tsi/. 


Tussilago. Colt's-fooL 

8 Species. 

10 Species. 

945. Artemisia. Wormwood. 



24 Species. 

Ragwvrt, Groumisel, itc. 

946. Gnaphalmm. Cud- 

4] Species. 



Aster. Star-wort. 

41 Species. 

37 Species. 

947. Xeranthemum. 


Solid ago. 

11 Species. 

Golden-rod, Sic. 

948. Carpesium. 

14 Species. 

2 Species. 



949- Baccharis. 

13 Species. 

7 Species. 



950. Conyza. 

22 Species. 


S4 Species. 


951. Erigeron. 
18 Species. 

m^'s-hane, &c. 
7 Species. 


Gen. 959. 

y Google 


Gen. 959* Doronlcum. 

3 Species. 

960. Perdicium. 

3 Species. 

961. Helenium. 

1 Species. 

962. Bellis. Daisy. 

a Species. 

964. Tagetes. 

African Marigold, Stc. 
3 Species. 

963. Leysera. 

3 Species. 

974. Zinnia. 

S Species. 

965. Pectis. 

S Spmes. 
9^- Chrysanthemum. 

S3 Species, 

967. Matricaria. 

7 Species. 

Gen. 968. Cotula. 

10 Species. 

969. Anacydus. 

3 Species. 

970. Anthem is. 

Chamomile, &c. 
17 Species. 

971. Achillea. 

Yarrow, 8cc. 31 Species. 

972. Tridax. 

I Species. 

978. Amellus. 

1 Species. 

973. Siegesbeckia. 

3 Species. -. 
975. Verbesina. 

13 Species. 
977. Buphthalmum. 

U Species. 

Orders, polygamia frustranea. 

979. Helianthus. Sun- 

IS Species. 

980. Rudbeckia. 

6 Species. 

981. Coreopsis. 

II species. 

983. Osmites. 

, 3 Speciet, 

981. Gorteria. 

i Species. 

1271. Zoegea. 

1 Species. 

984. Centaurea. 

Centaury, Blue-lotile, &c. 
6i Species. 

Order 4. 

y Google 



Order 4. folygaui^ necessaria. 


Gen. 985. Milleria. 

Gen. 991. Arctotis. 

8 Species. 

1 1 Species. 

986. Silphium. 

992. Osteospermum. 

5 Species. 

5 Species. 

987. Polymnia. 

993. Othonna. 

4 Species. 

S Species. 

988. Chrysogonum. 

99^ Eriocephalus. 

1 Species. 

3 Species. 

989. Melampodium. 

995. Filago. 

t Species. 

7 Species. 

990. Calendula. 

996. Micropus. 

8 Species. 

8 Species. 

Orders, polygamia seoregata. 

997- Elephantopus. 

1000. Gundelia. 

8 Species. 

1 Species. 

998. Sphieranthus. 

1001. Stoebe. 

3 Species. 

1 Species. 

999. Echinops. 

4 Species. 

Order 6. 


1003. Seriphium. 

1006. Lobelia. 

4 Species. 

88 Species. 

1002. Strumpfia. 

1007. Viola. Violet. . 

1 Species. 


1004. Coryinbium. 

100& Impatiens.roHc*-nw 

3 Species. 


1005. Jasione. 

7 Species. 

1 Species. 

Class 20. 

Digitized by 



Class 20. GYNANDRIA. 
Order 1. diandria. 
Gen. 1009. Orchis. Gen. 1014. Arethusa. 

32 S[)ecieB. 3 Species. 

1010. Satyrium. 1015. Cypripedium. 

B Species. Ladies' Slipper, 

1011. Ophrys. 2 Species. 

18 Species. 10l6. Epidendrum. 

1012. Serapias. HellehO' 30 Speaes. 

rwje. 1272. Gunnera. 
6 Species. 1 Specie*. 

1013. Limodorum. 

8 Species. 

Orders, tkiavdkia.. 

1017. SisyriDchiQm. 1273. Stilago. 

B.SpecieB. I Species. 

1018. Ferraria. 

1 Species. 

Order 3. tetrandeia. 
1019. Nepenthes. 

1 Species. 

Order*, pentandria. 

1020. Ayenia. 1021. 

3 Species. 

Order 5. hexandria. 
1022. Ari8tolochia.B:r(A- 1023. Pistia. 

wort. iSpedoi. 

80 Species. 

Passiflora. 'Passion-' 
S6 Species. 

Order 6. 

Digitized by 





Order 6. oecandbia. 
Gen. 1024. Kleinhovia. Gen. 1025. Helicteres, 

1 Species. 5 Species. 

Order 7- dodecandria. 

1233. Cytinus. 

1 Species* 

Orders, polyandbia. 
1027- Xylopia. 1029- Draconlium. 

3 Species. 5 Species. 

1026. Grewia. 1030. Calla. 

4 Species. 2 Species. 

1238, Ambrosinia. 1031. Pothos. 

1 Species. 7 Species. 

1028. Arum. 1032. Zostera. 

22 Species, 2 Species. 

Class 21. MON(ECIA. 
Order 1. monandbia. 

1034. ZanniclieUi^. 1203. Cliara. 

1 Species. 4 Species. 

1035. Ceratocarpus. 1036. Klatcrium. 

1 Species. 3 Species. 

1033. Cynomorium. 

1 Species. 

Order 2. diandria. 
1037- Angaria. 1038. Lenina. Buckreeed, 

3 Species. 4 Species. 

Order 3. tuiandbia. 
1040. Typha. Cat's Tail, 1041. Sparganium. 

2 Species. 2 Species. 

3 p Gen. 1042. 

Digitized b> 



Gen. 1042. Zea. Indian Com. Gen. 1047- Axyris. 

1 Specie*. 4 Specie*. 

1044, Tripsacum. 1039. Omphalea. 

1 specie*. 1 Species. 

1043. Coix. 1048. Tragia. 

1 Species. 5 Species. 

1043. Olyra. 1049. Hernandia. 

1 Specie*. .1 Speciea. 

1046. Carex. Sedge. 1030. Phyllanthus. 

39 Species. 6 Speciea. 

Order 4. tetrandria. 

i051. Cenlella. 1033. Buxus. Box. 

5 Species. 1 Species. 

1274. Serpicula. 1034.. Urtica. Nettle. 

1 Species. 19 Species. 

1275. Cicca. 1053. Morus. Mulberry, 

1 species. 7 Species. 
1052. Betula. Birch. 

6 Species. 

Order 5. pentandria. 

1277. Nephelium. 273. Hartogia. 

1 species. * Species. 

1036. Xanthium. 1060. Amarauthus. 

3 Species. 

SS Species. 

1057. Ambrosia. 

1061. Solandra. 

4 species. 


1058. Parthenium. 

1276. Leea. 

S Specie*. 

3 Species. 

1059. Iva. 

S Species. 

Order 6. 


1062. Zizania. 

1063. Pharus. 

9 Species. 

I Species. 

Order 7 

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Order 7- ueptandria 

Gen. 1064. 


1 Species. 

Orders, polyandria. 




Juglam. Filbert. 

$ Species. 

4 Specie*. 




Fagus. Beech. 

S 'Species. 

3 Species, inclusive of 


Sagittaria. Arrowr 

the Horse-Chesmtt. 




4 Species. 

2 Species. 




Corylus. Hazel. 

I species. 

S Species. 




Platanus. Plane. 

3 Species. 

2 Species. 


Quercus. Oak. 



14 species. 

S Species. 

Order 9. diadelphia. 


Pinus. Pine-tree. 



13 Species, inclusive of 

81 Species. 

the Cedar, Larch, 



Firs, fee. 

1 Species. 



' 1084. 


4 Species. 

8 Species. 


Cupressus. Cypress. 



4 Species. 

8 Species. 





1 Species. 

8 Species. 





1 Species. 

3 Species. 





4 Species. 

1 Species. 


Gen. 1278. 

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Gen. 1278. Gnetuin. 

I S{>eciea. 


Gen. 1087- 


1 Specie*. 

Order 10, syngekesia. 

1089. Trichosanthes. 1092. 

4 Species. 

1090. Momordica. 

Spirting CucumitTfUc, 

8 Species. 1093. 

1091. Cucurbita. Gourd. 

e Species. 1094. 

Order 11. gvnandria. 

1095- Andrachne. 
1 Species. 

Class 22. D I CE C I A 

Order 1. uonandkia. 
1096. Naias. 

1 Species. 

Order 2. diandria. 

1097. Vallisneria. 1098. 

1 Species. 

1099. Cecropia. 

1 Species. 

Orders, tria^dria. 

1100. Empetnim. 1102. 

5 Species. 

1101. Osyris. 128a 

I Species. 

Cucumis. Cucumber. 

1 1 Species, inclusive of 
the Sitter jfyple^ 
Melon, &c. 
Bryonia. Bryony, 

7 Species, 

e ^cies. 

Salix'. JrUhw, 

31 Species. 


1 Species. 


2 Species. - 

Order 4. 

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Order 4. teteandbia. 
Gen. 1103. IVophis. Gen. 1106. Hippopbae. 

1 Species. S Species. 

1104. Batis. 1107. Myrica. Myrtle, 

1 Species. . b Species. 

llOo. Viscum. Misletoe, 
6 Species. 

Order 5. pentandkia. 

1108. Fistacia. 1113. Spinacia. Spinach. 

l^rpenlme'lreef &c. S Species. 

* Species. 1114. Acnida. 

1109' Zanthoxjium. i Species. 

s Species. 1115. Cannabis. Hemp. 

1111. Astronium. l Species. 

1 Species. Ill6. Humulus. Hop. 
1281. Canarium. i species. 

I Species, 1117. Zanonia. 

1118. Antidesma. i Species. 

1 Species. 1118. Fcvillea. 

1113. Iresine. g Species. 

1 Species. 

Order 6. hexandria. 

1119. Tamus. 1131. Raiania. 

S Species. 3 Species. 

1120. Smilax. 1122. Dioscorea. 

Sarsapanlia, Ckputf 8 Species. 

Sec. 13 Species. 

Order 7. octandeia. 
1123. Populus. Poplar. 1124. Rhodiola. 

^Spectus. . 1 Species. 

Order S. 

Digitized by 



Order 8. eukeandeia. 
Gen. 1125, Mercurialis. Afer- Gen. 1126. Hydrocharis, 

cur^. Frog's-bit. 

4 Specieg. 1 Specie*. 

Order 9* decandria. 
1127- Carica. 1130. Schinus. 

8 Species. 8 Speciei. 

1128. Kig£jelaria. 1129. Coriaria. 

1 Specie!. 9 Speciei. 

Order 10. dodecandeia. 
1132. Datisca. 1131. Menisperraum. 

3 Speciei. 8 Speciei. 

Order 11. polyandria. 
12B2. Cimicifuga. 1133. Cliflfortia. 

1 Speciei. 4 Speciei. 

Order 12. mouadelphia. 
1134. J umpenis. Juniper. 1136. Ephedra. 

10 Species, iacluiiveof 3 Species. 

Bermuda Cedar, 1138, Cissampelos. 

FTantincense-tree, 3 Speciei. 

*»'«> *"• 1137. Adelia. 

H35. Taxus. Yew. 3Spo;iei. 

' 9 Species. 

Order 13. syngenesia. 

1139. Ruscus. 

i Specia. 

Order 14. gynandria. 

1140. CluUa. 

7 Species. 

Class 23> 

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Class 23. POLYGAMIA. 

Gen. 1141. Musa. 

4 Species. 

1142. Ophioxylon. 

I Species. 

3 Species. 
1144. Veratrum. 

3 species. 

1143. Andropogon. 

18 Species. 

1146. Holcus. 

10 Species. 

1147. Apluda. 

3 Species. 

1148. Ischaemum. 

5 Species. 

1149. Cenchrus. 

6 Species. 

1150. Aegilops. 

S Species. 

Order 1. uon(£cia. 

Gen. 1151. Valantia. 
8 Species. 

1152. 'PaTieta.TiSL.PeUitori/. 

6 Species. 

1153. Atriplex. 

10 Species. 

1283. Terminalia. 

I Species. 

1154. Clusia: 

4 Species. 

1155. Acer. Maple. 

1 Species. 

1157. Gouania. 

I Speaies. 

1156. Begonia. 
1 Species. 

1158. Mimosa. 

Sensitive Plant, 8cc, 
44 Species. 

1159. Gleditsia. 

1 Species. 

1160. Fraxinus. ^sA. 

3 Species. 

116>. Diospyros. 

S species. 
1163. Nyssa. 

1 Species. 

Orders, dkecia. 

1164. Anthospermum. 

S Species. 

1165. Arctopus. 

1 Species. 
1162. Pisonia. 
3 Species. 

1166. Panax. 

3 Species. 

Order -3. 

b, Google 


I If'— '11 mk. 




Order 3. 
Gen. 1167. Ceratonia. 

1 Species. 

Class 24. CRY 
Order 1. 

1169. Equisetum. JiarcV 


7 Species. 

1170. Oiioclea. 

7 Species. 

1172. Osmunda. 

17 Spedeg. 

1173. Acrostichum. 

30 Species. 

1174. Pteris. 

Brakes, See SOSpeciea. 

1175. Blechnuin. 

3 Species. 
II7& Hemionitis. 

3 Species. 
1177. Loncliitis. 

4 Species. 

Order 3. 

1185. Lycopodiuni. 

Club-moss, &c. 
S4 Species. 

1186. PorelJa. 

I Species. 

1187. Sphagnum. 


Gen. 1168. Ficus. Fig^. 
8 Species. 



(, &c. 

3 Speciei 

1178. Asplenium. 

S4 Species. 

1179. Polypodium. Po/y- 


64 Species, 

1180. Adiantum. 

30 Species. 

1181. TricliomajQes. 

1 1 Species. 

1182. Marsilea. 

S Species. 

1183. Pilularia. 

1 Species^ 

1184. Isoetes. 

1 species. 


1189. Pliascum. 

4 Species. 

1190. Fontinalis. 

4 Species. 
1188. Buxbauiflia. 
I Species. 

1191. Splachnum. 

4 Species. 

Gen. 1192. 

b, Google 



Gen. 1192. Polytrichum. 

3 Species, 

1593. Mnium. 

IB Species. 

Order 3. 
1196- Jungennannia. 

SS Species. 

1197. Targionia. 

1 Species. 

1198. Marchantia. 

7 Species. 

1199. Blasia. 

1 Species. 

1200. Riccia. 

5 Species. 

1201. Anthoceros. 

3 Species. 

Gen. 1594. Bryum. 

33 Species. 

1595. Hypnum. 

43 Species. 

1202. Lichen. 

Liverwort, I^mgwort, 
Cnpmoss, &c. 
gi Species. 

1204. Tremella. 

g Species. 

1205. Fucus. 

54 Species. 

1206. Ulya. 

Lover, Sea Lettuce, 
tec. 10 Species. 

1207. Confisrva; 

SI Species. 

1208. ByssuB. 

IS Species. 

Order 4. fungi. 

1209. Agaricus. 

Common Mushroom, 
&c. 14 Species. 

1210. Boletus. 

14 Species. 

1211. Hydnum. 

5 Spedes. 
1212.' Phallus. 

S Species. 
1213. Clathrus. 

4 Species. 


1214. Helvclla. 

3 Species. 

1215. Peziza. 

g Species. 

1316. Clavaria. 

8 Species. ' 

1217. Ljcoperdon. 

Tni/le, P!#-«4 &c. 
11 Species. 

1218. Mucor. Mould. 

13 Species. 



" ^ i ^" 




Palm^g. Palms. Spathaceous, and consisting of three petals. 
Gen. 1219. Chamaerops. Gen. 1284. Elais. 

1 species. 
1220. Borassus. f an-pa/m. 
1 Species. 

1221. Corypha. 

) Species. 

1222. Cycas, Sago. 

1 Species. 

1223. Cocos. Cocoa. 

3 Speciefl, 

1224. Phoenix. 

1 Species. 

I Species, 

1225. Areca. 
. 3 Species. 

1226. Elate. 

1 Species. 
1227- Zamia. 

1 Species. 
1228. Caryota. 

t speciefl. 


Panicura cutvatum. Passerina ericoides. 

Festuca Bpadicea. Arenaria fasciculata. 

Rubia lucida. Astragalus Stella. 

Scandix htfesta.- Cotula stricta. 

Carum Bunias. 
The Genera are established upon the assemblage of all the parts 
of fructific-ation compared together, according to their number, 
figure, proportion, and situation, as we iiave mentioned before, 
(see p. 57.) Besides the Natural Characters of these geuera, our 
author invented, for brevity's sake, two other kinds of charac- 
ters, which he calls Factitious and Essential. The Factitious 
serve -to distinguish each genus from other genera of the 
• satttfe d order, and greatly facilitate the labour of the 

youpg t. The Essential characters, could they . be ren- 

dered I are designed to distinguish the genera from each 

other ii latural orders ; but they are not as yet complete, 

1 except 



except in a few instiuices, and possibly they .exist but in ji smalt 
number; nevertheless they ai-e attempted throughout the system, 
to save the trouble of turning over the natural characters at large, 
which in this volume were not thought necessary to be introduced*, 
the author having already given them in his last edition of the 
Genera Plantarum (1764), and the number prefixed to each 
-genus refers to them as they stand in that work. The factitious 
characters are placed at the bead of each <:las5, and Uie essential 
at the head of each genus. With regard to the sfiecics^ as they 
had been described in detail in his Species Plantauum, of 
1762* the characteristic differences only are inserted in the Sy- 
sTEMA, but the reader is referred to the pc^ge of the other wor|c 
for the description at large. 

In forming the specific characters, Linnaeus has done more 
than ail the writers who preceded him, having taken the. utmost 
pains to fix them up<m distinctions as ^permanent and invari- 
able as possible. This indeed is the ultinwite object of all 
method. He gave new definitions to all the plants that came 
to his knowledge, — definitions not taken (as bad been cus- 
tomary before) from the name of the discoverer, tlie like- 
ness of the plant to other species, place of growth, time of 
flowering, the size, the colour of the flower or of the plant, the 
smell, taste, virtues in medicine, or any such vague, indefinite, or 
mutable circumstance ; but from some remarkable difierence in 
the root, trunk, stalk, leaf, or other obvious part. 

In ail his works, after the first edition of the Species 
Plantarum, Linnaeus bas applied what he calls a Trivial 

• They may be found, however, in a Tolnme published at Edinburgh, under the 
title of Genera Pkmttrum ex tditume lima Sr/itaaatis Natwte lUustrissimi CaroUd 
Litm£* (8ro> pp> 88.) 

2 Q 2 Name 

Digitized by 



Name to each plant, consisting of a single adjunct to the gene- 
ric name, expressive, if possible, of some essential distinction 
of tlie species, as for instance, integrifolia, ladniafa, erecta, re- 
pens^ aquatica, viontana^ &c.; sometimes ofithe name of the per- 
son by whom the plant was discovered, as (Salvia) Forskahieiy 
(Ilieracium) Kalmii, Sec. ; sometimes of the country to which 
it appears to be peculiar; and where, from the laws of his Fuii- 
damenta Botanica, he was obliged to change the generic 
name of a plant well known before, and especially if it was an 
officinal one, he frequently retains the old generic name as the 
trivial epithet : thus, as the Penny -royal, or Pukgium, really 
belongs to the Mentha genus (according to his characters), he 
calls it Mentha Pulegium: the Horse-radish, known by the old 
name of Armorada, from its agreeing with the Cochlearia genus, 
he calls Cochlearia Armoracia. 

The Varietiei (which, for want of true specific characters, 
had intreased the number of plants to almost double what 
Linnaeus thought it really to be) are excluded from this work, 
as well as from the Species Plantarum. In the opinion of 
several contemporary botanists, Linneeus carried this matter too 
far, disallowing the name of species to many plants which were 
supposed to have sufficient permanent distinctions. 

The time that had elapsed after the publication of the Genera 
and Species Plantarum, together with the vast quantity of 
new materials acquired from all parts of the world, etjabled 
our author to enlarge this last edition of the Systema; to 
amend very many genciic and specific characters ; and to make 
many removes tending considerably to the advancement and 
perfection of his work. It is proper to remark that the appear- 
ance of the Vegetable part of the Systema was immediaU^ly pre- 
ceded by Mantissa Plantarum Generum, editimis 6t(e et 

Specter um 

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Specierum editionis Qnda, (Holui. 1767- 3vo, pp. 142) in whidi are 
described, as in the Genera Plantar uh, the natural characters 
at large of 44 genera, newly constructed. These are followed by 
upwards of 430 new species, witli their synonyms, &c., as in his 
SpEciiis PtANTARUM. The last-mentioned work (as we have be- 
fore noted) contains nearly 7300 plants. In the 12th edition of the 
Si/stema, wliich includes all that had been described by Linnaeus 
in Ilia various works before, tlie number is augmented to above 

Linnaeus made' still further additions to the vegetable king- 
dom in his Mantissa altera, (a work of which we shall take 
more particular notice in the proper place,) and lie continued to 
collect materials for a supplement to the SystemUy until within a 
very short time before his death. These materials, however, 
verc not published by himself. He committed them- to the 
hands of Professor Mo ti ray, of Gpttingeii, who had been a 
iavourite pupiK and who undertook, fco be his- editor*. ITie 
manuscript additions communicated on this occasion by our 
author, togetlier with those compiled from the several addenda 
and from the Mtmtissa, enabled Pix>fessor Murray to extend the 
Systema Vegbtabilium to above 100 pages more than are 
included in Linnceus's own vtjume of tlie year IJdJ. 

To this edition of the vegetable part of the system published 
by Murray in 1774, considerable additions were made by Lin- 
naeus the son, under the title of Supplementom Plantarum 
Systemaiii Vegetabilium edUtonislS et Specierum Plantarum. editionis 

• CARaLiAhiiiv^,&c. Sj/slema Fegefabilium, AJo. Ahdr. Mvrrayj M.Di Vc 
Gottingieet Gothse 1 7 74. Svo. pp. 844 .. 

Digitized by 



2nc/« edUum h Carolo d LinnS Jilio. (Brunsvigse 1781. 8vo. 
pp. 467*-) The volume of which we are speaking contains a 
great number of Surinam plants, descriptions of which had beefi 
prepared by Linnaeus the father; but there are, besides these, 
some new species, discovered by the editor himself, in the course 
of his travels through different parts of Europe. 

Other botanical travcHers, indeed, had now augmented the 
number of species to an amazing extent. Such was the ardor 
with which the science began to be pursued, that distinguished 
men, of various countries, undertook to explore the most savage 
and inhospitable, and even unknown^ parts of the globe, ia 
quest of their vegetable productions. There cannot be a more 
striking instance, perhaps, of exalted enthusiasm in the pur- 
suit of this branch of science, than that exhibited by a country- 
man of our own, who did not hesitate to relinquish all the plea- 
sures of polished life, and all the enjoyments which a most am- 
ple fdrtuae held out to him at home, for the sake of investigating 
nature in the remotest parts of the earth. To the rich harvests 
collected on this perilous circumnavigation, we may add the dis- 
coveries of Aubletin Guiana and the Isle of France; of Sonnerat 
in New Guinea and the East Indies; of Sparrman in Africa; 
of Thunberg in Ceylon, Java, and Japan ; and of Pallas and 
others in the remote parts of the Russian empire: so that, within 
ten years after the publication of the Systema Vegetabilium of 
1774, thanumber of known plants was increased to full 10,000. 
With these materials Reichard formed his Syatema Plantarum^ in 

* The 1 3th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium^ having the above work incorporued 
wiUt it, has been translated into English by a botanical society at Litchfield. (litchfieU 
1783. 3 V0I38VO. pp. 425. with 11 plates.) 


Digitized by 



1779* and Murray his fourteenth edition, (containing 143 pages 
more than the thirteenth) in 1784*. 

Gmelin's edition of the Systema Natures comprehends nearly 
2100 genera (upwards of 800 more than are contained in the 
12th edition, and about 330 more than are enumerated by 
Schreber-f-), and at least 17000 species. 'ITiese editors have, of 
course, availed themselves, throughout their works, of the vari- 
quB discoveries and improvements which the progress of botani- 
cal knowledge and of physiological research has daily made 
known, more especially in the class CRYPTOGAMIA, in 
which however the fructification of some tribes of plants is 
still very far from being sufficiently elucidated, and the de- 
finitions cannot he considered as finally fixed. But since the 
times of JVIicheli and DiUenivs, on whose authority cjiiefly 
Linnseus relied in his- description of the Musci and Alo.x» 
the distiibutiqu of those orders b^ undergone cousi lerable 
alteration, in consequence of the important labpurs ^nd in- 
vestigations of Hedwig, to whose curious and interesting work? 
we have alluded before:^, and whose arrangement is more or less 

* There is a more recent edition, of the ^sterna Fegelabilium, by Dr. Persoon. 
(Gotting. 1797. Svo. pp. 10S6.) 
t See p. ig. Genera Plantabum. 
t P. 107. ^ 

The principal works of tliis eminent physiologist are: 

1. Fundam/tBlvm Hktm<e Naturalis MtiscQTum Frondasonott. Lips. 178*. 4to. 
cum tabb. sn. SO. 

8. Theoria G^veraiionii et Frucllficatiorui Planiarum Cryptogamlcarum tAnntei. 
^rop. 1764. 4to. cum tabb. vn. 37. 

Setractata et aucta. Ljps. 1798. 4to. cum tabb. een. 4fi. o«l, 

3. Mkratko^ick-Jnahftische Bescloreibimgcn und AlbMungfn neaer und Zwei- 
Jtlkafier Laulf'i^pp^e. ;^ipz. 1797- fol. uff. 40. 

4. Species JVfuJoonim tVondosomm, Opus Postkumum, edilum d' Scku/tBgrkhen. 
Lijn. ISpl. 4to. cumtabb. len. 77. col. - - 


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closely followed by most botanical writers of the present period. 
This author dc6n('s the Mlsci, as Vegetables in xchich the female 
parts of fnictificatiun nre furnished with a veil-like petal (Calyptra) 
hearing a shaft ; and he divides them into 2 orders : viz, 

1. Fronihsi. Capsule (in very few entire) opening transversely. 

2. llepatici. Caps\ile with-4 valves opening lengthways. 
Tliese definitions exclude the genera of Lycopoditim and Po- 

rella, which are now contained, with those of Equisetwiit Salvima, 
Marsilea, PHularia, and Isoetes (from the Filices) in a new 
order, called Miscellaneje; which order is intended to com- 
prehend such plants of this class as belong to anomalous genera, 
and differ, in their mode of fructification, from those of the otlier 
orders. The following is the arrangement adopted in the Ge- 
nera Plantarum of Schreber. With respect to the editor of 
the SysTEMA Naturae, he has preferred retaining the original 
Linnean distribution, endeavouring to reconcile it with the prin- 
ciples of Hedwig'« system, by altering the definitions only, and 
reducing the new genera into mere subdivisions of the old. 

Order 1. uiscellanej:. 

3. uusci. 

Genus 1. Phascum. 

2. Sphagnum. 

3. Gymnostomum. 

4. Tetraphis. 

5. Octoblepharis. 

6. Splacbnum, 

7. Grimmia. 

8. Encalypta. 

9. Dicranum, 

Genus 10. Trichostomum. 

11. Didymodon. 

12. Tortula. 

13. Weissia. 

14. Pohlia. 
1$. Funaria. 

16. Bryum. 

17. Timmia. 

18. Meesia. 

Genus 19. 




Genus IQ. Barthratnia. Genus 23. Neckera. 

20. Fontinalis. '24. Buxbaumia. 

21. Hypnum. 25. Polytrichum. 
32. Leskia. ' 

Order 4. iiepatice. 

1. Marchantia. 5. Blasia. 

2. Jungermannia. 6. Riccla. 

3. Targionia. 7- Sphaerocarpua, 

4. Anthoceros. 

By the aboTe arrangement, it will be seen that half the ori- 
ginal genera of the At.GS-are now removed into the new order of 
Hepatic^, their jructification bdng found to exhibit a different 
character from that of the Lichen^ Tremellay Ulva, Fucusy Con- 
fervoy and Jitfssits. The physiology of these last-mentioned 
genera, notwithstanding the researches of various able botanists, 
is stilt involved in great obscurity. Much as the genus Fucus 
has been augmented since the time of Gmelin, the foundatioa 
laid by that author in bis Hisioria Fucorum, and..which was for 
the most part adopted by Linnaeus, has not been materially im- 
proved upon, nor are we yet fully acquainted with the organiza- 
tion and oeconomy of that numerous and intricate tribe. More 
success, however, has attended the investigation of the Fungi. 
Assisted by the valuable works- of Schaffer, Bolton, Tode, Bul- 
liard, and others, the later editors of Linnaeus have been enabled 
ta improve the distribution of that order very considerably; in 
the 13th edition of the S^stema no fewer than 35 genera are 
added to the original 11 of our author. An entirely new ar- 
rangeanent has nicently been attempted, by Dr. Persoon*. 

* Teniamen dispositionis metkodica Fungorum. Lips. 1797. Svo. 

2 R Tlius 

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Thns far the alterations introduced in the ^ystema Vegetabi- 
Hum ought to be considered perhaps as legitimate and necessary 
reformations, because tbey are founded on physiological investi- 
gation and progressive discovery; and for that system to bo 
susceptible of such reformations, without undergoing any dimi- 
nution of simplicity, or Losing any of the original characters, in its 
grand and fundamental outlines, is one of the most unequivocal 
proofs of the firm and philosopliical principles on which it rests. 
But whether other alterations lately proposed, which affect Lin- 
naeus's general classification of plants, be equally justifiable, we 
shall not presume to determine: it is certain, however, tJhat the 
alterations alluded to, though supported by the authority of a 
successor in the botanic chair of Upssda*, and of a professed 
editor of the Sifstemaft are far from being generally followed. 
The reduction of the number of classes was begun (but carried 
no further than to the exclusion of POLYGAMJA) by Linnaeus 
the son, and soon afterwards two more of them (MON<T.CIA 
and DICECIA) were done away by Dr. Casimir MedicusJ, 
under the persuasion that the contained species admitted of 
being distributed among the remaining twenty-one classes, not 
only without inconvenience, but so as to bring back to their 
natural families many plants which the iules of the original 
classification had transferred to distant parts of the system. 
Professor Thunberg has proscribed the class GYNANDRIA 
also; and he endeavours to justify the alterations, by remark- 
ing that the position of the stamina in the last of these classes, 

• See "Hiunberg's Flora Japontca, 

■f Sec Caboli a' Linw^ Systema Katttra, d Jok. Frid. Omelm, M.D. Wc. Tom.<. 
] See Beitrage xur schonen Gcrlmkunsl} and Boteniscke Beolachlttrgen dor Mtnty 
1782. p. 62. 


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and the sexes in the other tlircc first mentioned, are so ex- 
tremely variable as to be unfit notes of distinction, except in 
the minor divisions of a botanical arrangement. Withering, (in 
the 3d edition of his British Piiwfs), Sibthorp, (in Ills Flora 0x0* 
niensis), and other distinguished botanists of our own country, 
professing to render investigation more easy, and to reconcile, as 
far as possible, the laws of a natural with tliose of an artificial 
method, have, in like manner, rediiced the number of the Lin- 
nean classes of plants to twenty, and thus abolished the four 
immediately preceding the CllYFrOGAMIA. How far Dr. 
AVilldenow, in his edition of the Species Plantarum, intends to 
adhere to the original system does not yet appear, his work not 
being, at this time, advanced beyond the class SYNGENESIA ; 
but from that class he excludes the order of Monogawia, the 
genera of which are (as in the Gmelinian edition of the Sffstema) 
now distributed in the Monogynous order of PENTANDRIA. 
AVe refer such of our readers as are disposed to enter fully into 
ail investigation of the merits of these innovations, to a disserta- 
tion published in Uster's Annalen der Botanick*, by Dr. Stephen 
John van Geuns. 


AVe are now to accompany our author into the Mineral King- 
dom, which, though he very early gave a specimen of his meth^ 
of classing, he did not Tally exemplify, as in vegetables, until the 
year 1 768, when he published the 3d tome of his 12th edition of 

• " hnmulaiionam quas recentiores Sotanici in Systema Linnaanum tenlaverunt 
moiesta i^u^catio." (Driuea Stuck. 1 79S> p. SO.) 

. 2r2 the 

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the Systema. This volume makes 222 pages, exclusively of a 
-short appendix of some unnoticed, or not well described, animals 
and vegetables. It contains also, besides indicet connected only 
with its immediate subjects, an universal index of tUe Linnean 
generic names (amounting to 1820 in number), in which tlios« 
appertaining to the animal kingdom are distinguished from the 
others by a difference of type. 

In arranging minerals, various methods have been pursued, all 
of which have had, for different purposes, their respective advati- 
tages. Some authore have founded their system on the _^gure^ 
colour^ structure^ and other external and visible characters; yet, 
scarcely ever trusting solely to tliese, they have called in the aid 
of chemistry, su far at least as the mineral acids couldassist 
them. Others (as the professed chemists and metaUurgists) have 
established their arrangement chiefly on chemical principlet^ 
which, it must be acknowledged, would be the best basis for a 
system, were we happy enough to have sufficient light for the 
purpose, and were the operations of chemistry sufficiently simple 
and expeditious, in most cases, to admit of that ready investiga- 
tion of substances which is the object of all kinds of classifica- 
tion. It is not perhaps an inaccurate analogy to consider che- 
mistry as being, with respect to mineralogy, what anatomy is to 
zoology. Every person convet-sant with natural history will 
contend for the last-mentioned science, or the arrangement of 
animals, being founded on obvious external characters, and cer- 
tainly the same arguments may be urged in favour of minera- 
logy resting on sinuJar principles : yet these principles cannot be 
pursued safely without Umkation ; for the coirespondence, in 
external and mechanical characters, of substances which are 
essentially different in their iatimatc and real coiQpositioxi, it m 
1 many 



many inafances so close, that it is absolutely necessary to caJl in 
the assistance of analysis, otherwise nature and science would be 
strangely at variance with each other. Linnieus professes to 
take a middle way between the mere chemists and those who 
would ciiaracterize minerals fi'oni external appearance only. 

He begins the volume with his own theory of the origin of 
mineral bodies in general, and of their several combinations into 
those forms in which we meet with them in the body of the 
earth- The methodical and abbreviated manner in which our 
author gives his philosophy of minerals renders it incapable of an 
abstract He then proceeds to give a s^nop«s, or classical view 
of the several systems of arranging those bodies, as they stand 
exhibited in the best authors that preceded him, beginning with 
Bromelius, who published in 1730 (Bergartery Holm. 8vo.) and 
proceeding to his own system of 1736 — 1748, Wallerius's {Miiiera- 
iogia, Stockh. 1747- 8vo.), Woltersdorf's {Systema Mineralium, 
Berol. 1748. 4to.), Cartheuser's (MmeraUgiay Fra.ncf. 1755. 8vo.), 
Justi's {Mineralreichy Goetting. 1757- 8vo.), Anonymous (Cron- 
stedt's Miaeralogie, Stockb. 1758. 8vo.) and Vogel's (Minerai 
Si/stem^ Lips. 1762. Svo.) To each of these he subjoins short 
remarks relating to their methods and thewies of minerals, and 
concludes this introductory part with an explanation of the 
epithets used in his own work. Our author, with his usual 
precision, has defined a set of termini artis equaHy new and 
curious, which are principally adapted to, and used in, the 
ultimate and iBO«t difficult part of the system — the specific cha- 
racters. They are happily framed to express all differences in 
the ^gur« of minerals; in their crwaf ; their s«r/bce ; their com^o-. 
nent particles ; their texture^ hardness, and colour ; and the altem- 
lions they undergo by solution, whether by acids, or by fire. 


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It has been doubted by some of the most respectable miner 
ralogists, whether we ought to descend below what are called 
generic distinctions in the mineral kingdom, so infinitely do 
the subjects vary, and so imperceptible, commonly, is that 
gradation by which they run into each otlier, in the various 
compound forms wherein they are found. Linnaeus and Wal- 
lerius were among the first who attempted the arduous task of 
fixing the ipecijic characters. 

The Kegnum Lapideum is divided by our author into 3 classes, 
under the names of PETU^E. MINERS, and EOSSILIA, 
each being subdivided iuto several orders, the whole compre- 
hending 54 genera. We shall give a view of these in the same 
manner as was adopted before, when we were treating of the 
animal kingdom. 

Class 1. PETR.^. 
Unproductive stones, originating from an earthy substance by 

Simple, as being destitute of saline, inflammable, or metallli: 

impregnation : 
Fixedy as not being entirely soluble in any menstruum : 
Similar, the component parts being homogeneous. 

Order I. iiumos.e. Formed from vegetable earth. 
Combustiblej burning to ashes. 
Giving a branny kind of powder, the latter being. ^gross and light. 

Order 2. calcarex. Formed from animal earth. 
Penetrable by fire, and rendered more porous. 
Giving a farinaceous pouder, when burnt falling into impal* 
pable particles. 

Order 3. 

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Order 3. aroillagejk. Fonned from a viscid gediment of the 

IJardening in Uie fire. 
Giving an unctuous powder, before combustion. * 

Order 4. arenat^e. Formed by precipitation from rain 

Giving sparki when struck with steel; very hard. 
Giving a rough powder^ angulated like particles of glass. 

Order 5. AOCEEOATiii. Originating from a mixture of the fore- 
Participating therefore of the constituent particles of the other 

Giving difereni kinds of powder, according to the nature of the 
* constituents. 

Generic Characters. 
Order 1. humosx. 
Genus 1. Schistus. Slate. Base vegetable mould. Fragments 
fissile, horizontal, plane, opake, yielding to the 
knife, and combustible. 
tVkel-sloru, Touch-stDtu, and different kind< of Shale. 13 Speciei. 

Orders, calcareje. 
3. Mannor. Marble. Base animal .earth. Fragments 
indeterminate, amorphous, yielding in some de- 
gree to the knife. 

1 5 Species. 

"3. Gypsum. Calcareous earth, saturated with acid. 
Fragments indeterminate, amorphous, yielding 
in some degree to the knife; component particles 
impalpable. Fixed ; neither efi*ervescing with, 
nor soluble in, acids. 
jtiabaster, kc. 3 Species. Genus 4. 

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Genus 4. Stirium. A gypseous stone. Fragments consisting of 
parallel threads, approximated, and yielding to 
the knife. 

5. Spatum. Spar. A calcareous stone that has been in 

a fluid state. Fragments rhombic, plane, shining. 
19 Species. 

Order 3. argillaceje. 

6. Talcum. Talc. Stone formed from indurated clay. 

Particles impalpable, yielding to the knife, and 
smooth, or unctuous to the touch. 

ZJlhomarga, Ruddle, S<K^-st(me, Pot'Stone, Serpentine, Jude, 
Horn-stone, 2cc. IS Species. 

7* Amianthus. An argillaceous stone. Fragments fili* 

Asbestos, Mountain-cork, Mountain-leather, &c. loSpeaes. 

8. Mica, dimmer. Formed from clay in a state of so- 

10 species. 

Order 4. arenat^. 

9. Cos. Conglutinated sand. Fragments amorphous, 

subopake, striking fire with steel. Particles 
granular, separable by contusion. 

Common Sand-stone, fVhet-sltme, Filteriag-slone, Grrnding-stojat 
Sec. 16 Species. 
la Quartzum. Quartz. Stone formed from water. Frag- 
ments of an indeterminately ai^ularform, sharp. 
I'articks compact, pellucid. 

8 Species. 

11. Sile.v. Flint. Calcareous eiu:th conglutinated into 
an uniform substance. Fragments indetermi- 
nate : 

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nate : convex on one side, concave on tde 
otlier. Particles coalescent. 

Egyptian PMle, Of>al, Onyx, CItalcedony, Cornelian, Agale, 
Jasper, &c. IfiSpecies*. 

Order 5. agorecat^. 
Genus 12. Saxum. Rock. Heterogeneous stone, consisting of 
various kinds of earth, either mixed together, or 
intimately compounded. 

Porphyry, Trap, Granites of various kinds, Puddiug-stone, &c. 
39 Species. 

Qassg. MINERS. 
Productive stones, originating from a saline principle, by cry- 
Compound, as consisting of saline, inflammable, or metallic 

Soluble completely in their appropriate menstrua. 

Order 1. Salia. Salts. Distinguishable by their effects on the 
organ of taste. 
Sapid and soluble in water. 
Under this order are arranged, to the great offence of most 
mineralogists, all the gems, or precious stones, (notwithstanding 
their texture and insolubility,) as also many other lapidose cry- 
stallized bodies. To tliis, our author tells us, he was led, by 
considering that all regular polyedrous figures of bodies in the 
mineral kingdom are the result of crystallization, which can 
only take place under requisite and certain degrees of fluidity ; 

• In describing the S. cretaceus, or common Flint, our author mentioos the fol- 
lowing fact, which does not seem to have been noticed by any other mineralogist: 
*' Vulgatissimus in cretaceis rimis, tn altiorilnu, a mart remotioriliut minor rariorme." 
He considers this singular substance as bung formed from chalk. 

Ss and 

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and therefore, vhether they be saline or lapidose crystals, they 
must owe their figure to the same uniform principle operating 
on them, whilst they are in tlie fluid state. Hence, from the 
similarity of its figure with the crystals of nitre. Mountain- 
crystal has a place in th^ same genus ; the Topaz with Borax ; 
the Diamond and Ruby with Alum. His arguments are given at 
large in a paper (published in the first volume of the Ametnitates 
Academical and which we shall remark upon in another place), 
" de Cryttallorum Generatione." At the opening of his system 
of minerals, however, he seems to admit that there may be an 
impropriety in such an arrangement, and proposes the substitu- 
tion of the word Caystalli for Salia, if mineralogists should 
prefer the former*. Still this alteration does not' obviate the 
total incongruity of the characters of the lapidose species, and 
indeed of most of the genera^ with those of the order defined 
above, as the reader will remark presently. Had Linnaeus con- 
fined himself to the shape of the crystal, and avoided all refe- 
rence to sapidity and other qualities of salts strictly so called, 
except in his specific distinctions, we might have hailed him as 
the author of the first specimen of an arrangement which pro- 
mises at the present day to supersede all others, and which the 
distinctive characters adopted in the Linnean order of Saz.ia 
may be fairly said to glance at-f . 

Order 2. SutpnuKA. Inflammables. Distinguishable by tbeir 
effects on the organ of smell. 
Odorous, and flaming in the fire. 
Soluble in oiL 

* Crtstallos ^od suhjecerim SaUlms, iu juemque offendai^ mttet voctm Saus 
in CfjfitaUi, si magisplaceat; m verbis erimusfacUes." p. 10. 

t The arrangement alluded to is that of which CrystaUograph/ has been made the 
foundation, and which hai lately been exemplified in a very ingenious manner 1^ 
"l/i. Haiiy. {Trtait de Mneralogia, 4 tomes. 1 SOI. Paris.) 

1 Order 3. 

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Orders. Metalla. Metals. Distinguishable by their appearance. 
Shining, fusible in the fire, and very heavy. 
Soluble in appropriate acid menstrua. 

Class 2. MINERiE. 
Order 1. salia. 
Genus 13. Nitrum. Salt aethereal, pungent, a peculiar acid. 
Crystal a bexaedral prism, with liexaedral py- 
ramids. Taste cold and pungent. In the fire 
fusible and detouating. 

* Naked. Satt-petre. 

** Quartzose. Mountian'crystalf Fluor, Sec. 
••• Calcareous. Basattes, fire. 
Total 9 Specie*. 

14. Natrum. Salt calcareous, subalkaline. Crystal pe- 

culiar : a tetraedral^riitm with pentagonal planes, 
2 broad and 2 narrow, alternately vertical ; 
pyramid at each extremity, consisting of 2 
plain parallelograms. 

* Naked. Mmartd jfUtaU, Soda, or Natron, Aphromtre, and 

Epsom Salt. 
** Lapidose. Selenite, Sec. 
Tout 14 Species. 

15. Borax, Salt alkaline, {natural?) Crystal prismatic, 

octaedral ; pyramid at each end truncated, 
(sometimes different). Taste mild. In the fire 
swelling, vitrescent. 

* Naked. Cntde Borax. 

•• Lapidoae. Topax, Chrysolite, Beryl, Emerald, (which are con- 
sidered as vom/iW only of precious stone), Schoerl, Tourma- 
line, Garnet, and Margades, or oriental Garnet. 
Total 6 Species. 

2 s 2 Genus 16. 

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Genus 16. Muria. Salt marine, neutral- Crystal hexaetTraT, cnr 
cubic. Taste pungent. In the 6re crackling. 

* Naked. Sea-salt, Rtxk-salt, tec. 

** L.apidose. Bimonian Stone, Cry staUhu Fluor, Su:. 
Total 9 Species, 

17* Alumen. Saltearthy, acid, (without metal). Crystal 
octaedraJ^ consisting of trigonal p]aiics. Taste 
austere. In the fire frothing. 

* Naked. Naiive Alum. 

->• ** Solubk. Ahtminous Slate and Sime Alum. 

*** Lapidose. Fhlse Emerald tad Amethyst, Diamimdy^and Sapphire^ 
Tout 6 Species. 

18. Vitriolum. Vitriol Salt metallic, acid, earthy. Crys- 

tal a polyedrous, rhombic tessera; subject toe 
TariatioD. Taste styptic. In the fire calcinable- 

* Simple. Green, blu», aiid while yitriol. 
** Compound. Filrtoh of eompoimd metalst. 

•t* Lapidose. Tetraedral Vitriol. 
Total 9 Species. 

Orders, sdlphura 

19. Ambra. Ambergris. Sulphur inert. Fumes of are 

ambrosial smell. Colour cinereous. 
S Species. 

20. Succinum. Amber. Sulphur inert. Fumesof a sweet 

smell. Colour brown. 

1 Species. 

21. Bitumen. Sulphur inert. Fumes of an unpleasant 

smell. Colour black. 

Ni^htha, Petrol, Maltha, Mumia, Asphalttim, Peat, Stone-coal, 
Jet, Lapis SuiUus, and Hepatic Stone, 10 Species. 

Genus 22. 

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Genus 22. Pyrites. Sulphur charged with vitriol. Fumes of a 
pungent acid smell, and yellowisU colour. ]n 
taste salt, flame blue. Soluble iu oil. 

OTpimeni, Native, and various other kinds of Pyrites. 7 Species. 

23. Arsenicum. Arsenic. Sulphur metallic, rumcs of 

an alliaceous smell, and a white colour. Taste 
sweet. Soluble in warm water and other liquore. 
8 Species. 

Order 3. metalla. 

24. Hydrargyrum. Quicksilver, or Memtry. Metal fluid, 

dry, white. In the fire volatilizing before incan- 
descence. Soluble in aquafortis, whitish. 
A Species. 

25.. Molybdaena. Metal infusible ? cinereous, colouring 
the fingers. In Ihe fire not fusible. Glass of a 
somewhat ferruginous colour. 

Plumbago, Manganese, and IVolfram. 

26. Stibium. Antimony. Metal friable, white, fibrous. 

In the fire volatilizing before ignition. Solution, 
in aquafortis, white. Glass yellowish red. 

4 Species. 

27. Zincum. Zinc. Metal somewhat malleable, but easily 

breaking, bluish white, givkig a dull sound. In 
the fire before ignition melting, and burning 
with a yellowish green flame into a white light 
calx. Solution, in aquafortis, white. 
8 Species. 
38. Vismutum. Bismuth. Metal somewhat malleable, 
but very fragile, laminose, of a yellowish white 
colour. In the fire ^sible at the moment of ig- 


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nition. So\utioa, in aqua fortisy water-coloured; 
in aqua regia, yellow. Glass tortoise-shell co- 

4 Species. 

Genus 29- Cobaltum. Cobalt. Metal brittle, of a light gray co- 
lour. Solution in aqua fortis and aqua regia red. 
Glass blue. 
4 Species. 
30. Stannum. Tin. Metal easily malleable, white, crack- 
ling on flexure, not sonorous. In the fire fusible 
before ignition. Solution in aqua regia yellow ; 
in aqua fortis it is precipitated into a white 
powder. Glass opaline (but it scarcely admits 
of complete vitrification). 

4 Speciei. 
SI. Plumbum. Lead. Metal easily malleable, bluish- 
white, not sonorous. In the fire fusible before 
ignition. Solution in aqua fortis opaline. Preci- 
pitate white. Glass yellow. 

10 Speciea. 
32. Ferrum. Iron. Metal very hard, and difficultly mal- 
leable, of a dull bluish-gray colour, sonorous. 
In the fire not fusible until after ignition ; throw- 
ing off sparks in a stronger fire. Solution in 
aqua fortis brown. Glass brown, with a slight 
greenish tinge, 

Smiris, Hamatitef Loadstone, and f 4 other Species. 

S3. Cuprum. Copper, Metal hard, malleable, red, sono- 
rous. In the fire fusing after ignition with a green 
fl^me. Solution in etqua fortis blue ; in aqua re- 

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8T8TBMA NATUKf. 319 

gia, or the vegetable acids, green. Glass, unmixed, 
of a fernigiaous colour; otherwise of a bright 
Fahlerx, Lapis LaxuUf Lapis Armerms, MatackUe, Nickel, and 
11 other Spectet. 
Genus 34. Argentum. Siher. Metal very malleable, bright 
white, sonorous, durable. In the fire fusing after 
ignition. Solution in aqua fortis white. Glass 

9 Species, 

35. Aurum. Gold. Metal very malleable, yellow, not 

sonorous, durable. In the fire fusing after igni- 
tion with a bluish hue. Solution in aqua regia 
yellow. Glass purple. 

S Specie*. 

Class 3. FOSSILIA, 

Ambiguons stones originating from different' combinations of 

the subjects comprehended in the foregoing classes. 

Order 1. Petrifacta. Petrifactions. Figuied like some natural 

Order 3. Concreta. Concreftoru. Promiseuous conglutinationt 
of different kinds of earths. 

Order 3. Terra. Earths. Pvlveruient substances, not conglu- 


Order 1. rsTSiFACTA. Petrifaction*. 

36. Zoolithus. Petrified parts of aii»na/». 

TWfiiotMv &c. 4Sotata. 

37. OmithoUthus. Of birds, 


Genus 38, 

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320 SYSTEM A natdrj:. 

Geous 38. Amphibiolithus. Petiifactions of amphibia. 

GlossopelrtB, ice. 6 Species. 

59. Ichthyolitlius. Oi^shes. 
Btffonilts, &c. S Specie!. 

40. Entomolithus. Of insects. 

3 Species. 

41. Helmintholithus. Of worms, &c. 

Ammonite, L(q>is Jiidwus, Eckmite^ Slar-slotu, Brain-stoiw, 
Enlrochtis, Encrinus, Belemnite, Sec. SI Species. 

42. Phytolithus. Of vegetables. 

7 Species. 

43. Graptolitlius. Vetrifactions resembling pictures. 

Thrmtiyu-marlle, Dendrite, &c. 8 Species. 

Order 2. conceeta. ComretUms. 

44. Calculus, Concrete anima/ juice. 

Vrmary, Satioary, and Pulmonary Calculi, Bexoar, Hair-ball, 
GaU'Stone, Pearl, Crab'S'eyes, 8 Species. 

45. Tartarus. Concrete re^e/afife juice. 

S Species. 

46. Aetites. Concretions within cavities of stones. 

Geodes, Eagle'Stones, &c. i Species. 

47.. Pumex. Concretions formed by the effects of fire. 

Pumkef Jrop-tlag, Cci(^-sti^t Soot, Volcaaie ashes. Scoria, -Sce^ 
8 Species. 

48. Stalactites. Concretions formed by the air. 

ZeoUte, and II other Species. 

49. Tophus. Concretions in wateii 

.Oolithus, Qsteocolla, Bog iron-ore, &c. S3 Spocies, 

Order 3. t£RRJE. Earths. 
>5Q. Ochra. Ochre, or metallic earth. Particles coloured, 

%b Sp«^ef, 

G«nus 51. 

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Genus 51. ^Viona. Sand. Formed by means of wiilcr. Particles 
distinct, granular, dry, hard, rough; not pene- 
trable, ov capable of being conglutinatcd, by 
moisture, {insulnbh in acUh). 
14 Species. 

52. ArgiJIa. Clatf. Earth formed from viscid sedi- 

ment of the sea. Particles amorphous, impal- 
pable, soft, tenacious, smooth. Moisture softens 
and renders it unctuous and plastic. Fire hard- 
ens it. 

Pipe-chy, Porcelain Earthy Uihomarga, Fuller's, Lemnian, and 
Tripoli Earths, Bole, Mart, Umber, See. 21 Species. 

53. Calx. JAme. Earth of animal extraction. Particles dry, 

farinaceous, friable, soiling the fingers ; soluble 
(especially when burnt) and effervescing in 
acids ; tinging water. 

9 Species. 

54. Humus. Vegetable Mould. Particles pulverulent, 

dissipable by heat. Swelling in water; burning 
into ashes in the fire. 

Turf, Mud, Sec. 14 Species. 

Three very instructive tables are subjoined, exhibiting diiferent 
views of the several saline and other crystallized bodies, and ac- 
companied by copious and methodical descriptions of the figures, 
with references to them, as they occur in the work itself. 

The mineralogical part of the Si/stema contains considerably 
more than 500 species ; the particulars from which the charac- 
ters are taken vary almost as much as the species themselves. 

Tlie Omelinian edition has changed the whole face of this 

part of Linnanis's works, modifying and modernizing it so much 

that it ought now to be called the system of Werner rather than of 

2 T Linnaeus. 

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322 STSTEUA NATunx. 

Linnaeus. It is verj probable that our author might hare 
adopted something like the Weruerian mode of arrangement, 
had he lived to witness, the great changes and improvements 
effected in mineralogy by the aid of the sister science of che- 
mistry, — a science which is every day rendering alterations ne- 
cessary ill the classification of unorganized bodies ; yet it may 
be questioned whether Professor Gmelin has not, in this respect, 
deviated a little too far from the acknowledged privileges of an 
editor. M'e readily subscribe, however, to the superiority of the 
last edition of the Si/stema Natura (with regard to the mineral 
kingdom) above the I2th, the Sd tome of which, from the highly 
improved state of mineralogical knowledge at the present day, 
has ceased to be of any utility, except so far as it shows the use 
made by Linnaus of the materials to which he was limited, and 
as it illustrates the progress of system. 

In the 13th edition of the Systema Naturie, outlines of the 
classification adopted by Veltheim {Grundriss einer Mineralogie, 
Braunschw. 1781. fol.), Bergman {Sciagraphia Regiti MineraliSf 
Lips, et Dresd. 1782. 8vo.), Kirwan {Elements of Mineralogy, 
Lond. 1784. 8vo.), and Werner {Mineralsi/stem*)^ are added to 
those of preceding systems exhibited in the 12th, and the 
Termini Artis are no other than the Weruerian external charac- 
ters. Minerals are here divided into the 4 obvious general 
divisions, or classes, of EARTHS, SALTS. INFLAMMABLES, 
and METALS. There is also a class called LARVATA, (placed 
rather as an appendix than as a part of the system,) which com- 
prehends the old Linnean order of Petrifacta, belonging to 
the class FOSSILIA. The Concreta of the 12th edition are 

• Copied from Bergmaennisches Journal. Freyberg 1 789. 8vo. Ann. 11. Vol. 1 . p. 369. 


■III I niiMi^i—i d 


not admitted in the 13tli, except one or two genera, whicli, with 
those of the order Terbje, arc dispersed in their appropriate 
places, in the Gmeliniaa class of that name. — The new arrange- 
ment is as follows : viz^ 

Class]. TERR.T. 
Order 1. Talcosje. Magnesian Earths. Fur the most part 
soft, and the, softest contain chiefly white magnesiii— never any 
vestiges of organized bodies ; found in primary mountains, still 
more frequently in secondary ; some of them constituting whole 
strata and the chief parts of mountains ; othere rather parasitical ; 
not to be calcined in the fire, nor, except Hornblende, Aciinotus, 
and ferriferous Asbestus, readily to be fused, but becoming in- 

Orders. Ponderos^. Ponderous Earths. Possessed of greater 
specific gravity than the others ; more readily fusible ; never 
found otherwise than parasitical, nor containing any organic 
exitvuB; both the soft and hard kinds composed cliiefly of their 
peculiar substance called terra ponderosa. 

Order 3. Cai.careje. Calcareous Eatihs. Some fomted from 
testaceous and coralline substances, others primitive ; some 
forming entire rocks, others parasitical and not unfrequently 
replete with animal relics; most of tiieni of a very soft texture; 
the soft and hardish rendered more porous by fire ; all the purer 
kinds effervescing and almost whotly soluble in aquafortis. 

Order 4. Argillacejb. Argillaceous Earths. Some extremely 

soft, and ductile ; adhering to the tongue; emitting a peculiar smell 

-when moistened ; hardening in the fire ; some of the harder 

kinds, when cloven asunder, exhibiting impressicms of animal 

2 T 2 and 

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and vegetable bodies ; others of a softer texture, fusible ratbcr 
than susceptible of induration in the fire ; some of the rocky aud 
harder kinds, (though few,) also undergoing the same change. 

Order 5. Silice^. Siliceous Earths. The harder kinds resisting 
in part the action of all acids, except the fluoric ; some consti- 
tuting entire rocks, others parasitical ; and not unfreiiuentlj ex- 
hibiting remains of organized bodies. 

Order 6. Adam avstinje.. Adamantine Earths. Extremely hard, 
parasitical, and peculiar to the spar bearing this name, being 
found in no other mineral. 

Order 7. Aggregate. Aggregate Earths. Composed of the 
five foregoing, and exhibiting the characters of the predomi- 
nating ingredient. 

Class 2. SALIA. Salts. 

Distinguished by their sapidity, and solubility in water, from 

all other substances. 

Class 3. PHLOGISTA. Inftammabhs. 
Distinguished by their solubility in oil, and their flame or smoke,, 
which is either agreeable or otherwise, harmless or deleterious, 
and variable as to colour and tincture. 

Class 4. METALLA. Metah. 

Distinguishable by their splendor, great weight, peculiar kind of 

fusibility in the fire, and solubility in acids. 

Class 5. LARVATA. Figured Fossils. 
Not consisting of any mineral substance different from what is 
comprehended in the foregoing classes, but exhibiting the 
forms of various organized bodies. 



srSTEMA NATUR.E. 3'ij 

The following arc the genera m the Gmeliaian system, viz. 
Class 1. TERR^. 
Order 1. talcos^. 
Genus 1. Talcum. Talc. Greasy to the touch. 

1 1 Species, 4 of them described by Linnieus. 

2. ScrpentinuB. Serpentine. Meagre, admitting of a 

polish, inconspicuous. 
4 Species, 2 of them described by Linnsus. 

3. Asbestiis. Asbestos. Meagre, fibrous, inconspicuous. 

10 Species, 8 described before. 

4. Actinotus. Meagre, shining. 

3 Species, 1 of them only described by Linnseus,. viz. the Common 

5. Hornbleiida. Hornblende. Meagre, lamellar, black. 

3 Species, 1 described by Linnsus as a Talcum. 

Orders. poNDERosis. 

6. Barytes. Soluble in boiling sulphuric acid. 

e Species, 3 of them only described in the I8th edition, one as a 
Muria, and the other as a Natnim. 
1. Crossopetra. Cross Stone. Not wholly soluble in 
sulphuric acid. 
2 Species. 

Oi'der 3. calcare^. 

8. Creta. Chalk. Colouring the fingers. 

7 Species, 3 called by Linneus Calces. 

9. Tophus. Tufa. Porous, precipitated from water. 

7 Species, 3 described by Linneus (3 as Slalactites) . 

10. Spatum, Spar. Lamellar, breaking into rhombic 

S4 Species, 14 of them contained under various genera of the ISth 

1 Genus II. 

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326 6Y6TEMA NATUH£. 

Genus 11. Schistospatiim. Schiefer-spar. Of an undulated 
slaty texture. 

1 Species, described bv Linncus as n Spatvm. 

12. Inolithus. Fibrous, wholly soluble, with effervescence, 

in aqua fortis. 
4 Spedes, 3 of them new. 

13. Stalactites. Stalactite. Precipitated in the air from 


4 Species, S of tbem described by LiiuiKus. 

14. Pisolithus. Pea-stone, Consisting of globuH. 

1 Species, an Ootilkits of Unnsms, 

15. Marmor. Marble. Compact or granulated. 

13 Species, Q of them described by Limueus in his istb edition. 

16. Suillus. Stinking when rubbed. 

4 Species, all described before, but under difierent genera. 

17. Tremolites, TremoUte, Radiated, soluble (in part) in 

I Speues. 

18. Stellaris. Stellated-fibrous, readily fusible in the fire. 

I Species. 

19. Humus. Mould. Friable, becoming pale in drying. 

10 Species, 7 of them described by Linnaeus before under this 
genus, and l as an Argilta. 

30 Marga. Marl. Becoming hard in the fire, A'itrifying 
in a furnace. 

7 Species, jdl, except J, described under different ^«nera of the ISth 

21. Magnesiata. Beconyng black in the fire. 

3 Species. 

2'i. Gypsum. Hardening in the air, after being calcined 
and mixed with water. 

18 Species, 1 1 of them new. 

Genus 23. 



Genus 23. Ilcpaticus. Emitting a sulphurous smell after being 
rubbed or ignited. 

3 Species, 1 of them a Bitumen in the preceding edition. 

24. Lazurus. Hardish, opake, and its blue colour not 

alterable by acids. 

1 Species, the Cuprum Lazuli of the 1 sth edition. 

25. Fluor. Emitting an acid gas, Avhicb corrocles glass, 

when immersed in hot sulphuric acid- 

5 Species, 3 of them described l>v lino^us. 

26. Apatites. Apatite. When thrown on burning coals 

emitting a beautiful green light; not readily 
fusible in the fire. 

6 Species, all new. 

27. Boracites. Boracite. Cubic and hard; 

I Species.. 

Order 4. AKGitLACEiE. 

28. Aluminaris. Native Aluminous Earth. Meagre, almost 

wholly soluble in aquafortis. 
1 S|)ecie9. 

29. Argilla. Clay. Creasy to the touch, plastic,- hard- 

ening in the fire. 
39 Species, (B of them described by LJnnfftus, but not alias ^rgilks. 

30. Puteolana. Puzzolana. Friable ; mixed with water 

and clay hardens in the air. 

4 Species, 1 of theno: the Piimex cinerarius of Unnxus. 

31. Csementum- Cement. Solid,- when pounded with 

water and clay liardening in the air. 
3 Species. 

32. Cariosus. Rotten-stone, Bough, falling into powder 

in water. 
1 Species. 

Genus 33. 

Digitized by 




Genus 33. Ardesia. Slate. Fissile; when moistened emits an 
argillaceous smell. 
1 1 Species, 8 described by Lintueus as Schiili. 

34. Basaltes. Ineonspicuous, opake, compact, of a dull 

colour, easily cracking, vitrifying in the fire into 
a black slag. 
6 Species, 1 of them described by LJnnseus as a Saxum. 

35. Lava. Formed in volcanos. 

6 Species, S of them Pumices of the Itth edition. 

36. Mica. Glimmef. Squamose, or scaly. 

S Species, 6 described by Linnsus. 

37. Opalus. Opal. Amorphous, compact, scarcely fusible 

in the fire. 

7 Species, 4 of them new, vix. the Pi/cA-Jfone, Holx Opal, Wax- 

stow, and Spotted Opal. 

38. Zeolithus. Zeolite. Liquefiable in the fire with ebul- 

lition, and giving out light as it passes into the 
fluid state. 

30 Species, I only known to Linnsus, and that described as a 

39- Scorlus. Schorl. Melting in the fire, but emitting 
no light. 

5 Species, S described before as species of Borax. 

Order 5. siliceje. 

40. Gemma. Precious Stone. .Crystalline, extremely hard 

in genera!, shining in the dark. 

15 Species, 8 of them described before, 

41. Olivinus. Olivine. Readily cracks, fusible with dif- 

ficulty in the fire. 

4 Species. 

42. Feldspatum. Feldspar. Lamellar, melting in the fire 

into a pellucid glass, readily cracking. 

5 Species, 2jof them described by IJnnieus. 

Genus 43. 

Digitized by 




Genus 43. PyromacftiiUS. I'lint. Nettfaer ciacking, nor. fusible 
in the fire ; ^^gments convex. 

5 Species, 3 of them contuned in Uniueus's genus Silex. 

44. Petrosilex. Fusible In the fire ; breaking into inde- 

terminate fragments. 

3 Species, 1, only, unnoticed by linaxus. 

45. Jaspis, Jasper. Opake, changing its colour in the 

fire, but riot fusible ; fragments convex. 

4 Species, 3 of them described in the Liimean genus SUex. 

46. Smiris. Emery. Amorphous, readily fusible, very 


1 Species, described before as a Ferrum, 

47. Circonius. Jargon. Ponderous, lamellar ; lamella 


1 species. 

48. Amarus. Tenacious, green ; fragments of an inde- 

terminate shape. 

1 Species. 

49. Lydius. Fissile, opake, of a dull colour. 

's Species, 1 new. 

50. Chlorogranatusl Green, crystalline, readily fusible 

in the fire. 

8 Species. 

51. Arena. Sand. Grannies dry, hard, and rough. 

5 Species, all described by limiseus. 

52. Quartzum. Qtiartz. Not fusible in tlie fire, resisting 

all acids except the fluoric;- fragments angu- 
84 Species, 11 of them describe4 in the 1 3th edition, but in diSereut 

53. Cbalcedoaius. Chalcedony. Not fusible in the fire, 

resisting the action of acids ; fragments more 
J 7 Species, 3 of tbem, only, noticed by Iduueus. 

' 2 u , Genus 54. 




Genus 54. Adamtis. Diamond, Very hard, volatilked by fire. 
1 Speeiea> described by Lbuueiu. 

Order 6. adahavtin^. 

55. Adamantinus. Corundum, Not fusible in the fire, 

fixed, hard, lamellar. 
1 Species. 

Order 7. acgregat*. 

56. Granites. Granite. Continuous. 

59 Species, 3 of which are detcrU>ed by linitKus as Saxa. 
57- Gneissum. Gneiss. Fissile. 

31 Species, 4 of them comprehended by Linnteus uader the g^us 
Scxum, and 1 under Talcum. 
58. Porphyrius. Porphyry. Crystalline particles im- 
bedded in a stony paste. 
06 Species. 
59- Amygdalites. Amygdalite. Rounded, almond-like 
bodies imbedded in a stony paste. 

a Species, 

60. Breccia. Pudding-stone. Fragments of stones ce- 

mented together either by a stony or metalline 
M Species, 3 of tbem placed by linncus amcMig the Saxa. 

61. Arenarius. Sand-stotie. Siliceous granules congluti- 

nated by a stony or metalline cement. 

SA Species, SI of them distributed by IJniwus under his gtnera of 
CosmA Saxum. 

Class 2. SALIA. 

62. Natrum. Natron. Tasting like lye, 

4 species, 9 of them described in the old editions. 

63. Borax. Frothing in the fire, which when increased 

in strength reduces it to a kind of slag. 

5 Species, l of tbem new. 

■^ " Genus 64. 


.9TSTEUA HATVaX^. 331 

Cenvs {>4. Muria. Conveiting aqua fwiis'mio, aqua r<giti» 

5 SpecieSj 9 of them dctcribed in the old edidoiif. 
Co. NUruni. Salt-petre. Semting forth : reddish fumes, 
whuQ very strong vitrioUc acid is poured upon it. 

4 Species, 3 of them new. 

66. Mirabile. Showiog signs of sulphur when exposed 

to a strong heat with powdered charcoal ; aque- 
' ous solution not affected by natron. 

4 Species, 1 of thein> only, described by Liomeua. 

67. Amarum. Of a bitter taste ; aqueous solution ren- 

' dered turbid by natron. 
t Specie*, 1 of tbefc, only, described by Liniueus. 

68. Alumen. Alum. Of an austere taste ; aqueous solu- 

tion not affected by Pmssian alkali. 
lO^Kcicf, 3 deacribcd by Linueui. 
€9. Vitriolum. Vitriol. Of an austere taste; solution 
Tend««d turbid by Prussian alkali. 
g Specie*, 4 of diem contained io the former edition. 

Class 3. PHLOGISTA. 

70. Turfa. Peat, Composed of vegetable fibres impreg* 

nated with bitumen. 

5 Species. 

71. Bitumen. Emitting a strong smell when exposed to 

the fire. 

JO Species, all, exeept ft, contuned in the former cditi<Mu. 

72. Mellttes. Mellite. Remarkable for the form of its 

crystal {o double tetrdedral pyramid), 

1 Species. 

73. Succinum. Amber. Emitting a pleasant smell when 

exposed to the fire; not very readily lique- 
I Specifii. 

2 u ? Genus 74. 

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r i iWh^U, ! ., .Aiism 

333 flrVBTEVA NATVRf. 

Genus 74. AmhtA. Ambergris, knitting a pleasaot sadT wh^n 
exposed to the fire ; readily liquefiable. 

75. Graphite*. Graphite. Scarcely inflammable by itself. 

3 Species, l the Mefybdtematv Phal/ago of UnnKus. ^ 

76. Sulphur. Brimstone. Burning with a blue ftame and 

an acid vapour. 
6 Species, 4 of than contaoed in the genos PtfrUes of LJnngeua. 

Class 4. METALLA. 

77. Uranium. Calx yellow, Cdtvertit^ into a brown 

glass with bbrax, and into a green with phos- 
phoric acid. 

8 Species, first described bjr Elapmfaj inUie Aim. de Ckimie, 1 78g. 

78. Wolframuni. fVolfraM. CaJx yelloir, convertible by 

borax and phosphoric acid into a red glass. 

• Spnaei, 1 ef them die Moij/idamm S/nma Lupi of Lintifeui. 
79* Magnesia. Manganete. Calx black, convertible with 
borax and phosphoric acid into a red glass. 

9 Species, of which S are described by Linnseui, thou^ under dif- 

ferent genera. 

80. Stibium. , Antimony. Calx cinereous, convertible into 

a hyacinthine glass. 
B Species, 4 of them described by XinnKua, but not al> under this 

81. Zincum. Zinc. Calx white, fusible with borax and 

phosphoric acid in the fire, but scarcely tinging 
' 9 Species ; 5 of them described by lionsus, 1 of which, according 
to his system, is an Ockra. 

82. Holybdsena. Calx white, convertible by borax into 

a violaceous, and by phosphoric acid into a 
green glass. 

] species, M, Flumhago. r>' of I^muetn. 

1 ' Genus 83. 

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flX8T£UA NATURA. 333 

Genus 83. StanMun. 3^. C^x white, convertible by borax and 
phosphoric acid into a milk-white glass. 
9 Specii>s> i of them contsiaed- in tka former edition. 

84. Cobaltum. Cobalt. Calx black, changed by borax 

and phosphoric actd into a blue glass. 
9 Species, 6 of tfaem descrdbcd befiore, but tws of these as species 
of Och-a. 

85. Ferram. Iron. Calx red, convertible by borax into 

a greenish broTrn glass. 
S3 Species, 1 7 of them described by lannsus, but under several 
different genera, 

86. Aroenicwa. Ar»Mic. Calx white, in the fire emitting 

a smell like that of garlic. 
7 Species* none of tbooi new. 

87. Cuprum. Calx of a light red coloiu-, convertible by 

. borax into a green glass. 

30 Specie*, 1 1 of ^em described by Linnzus, partly under ttw 
same genus, and partly under that of Ochra. 

88. Niccolum. Nickti. Ott\\ green, changeable with 

borax and phosphoric acid into a hyacinthine 

3 Species, S of them contained in tbe former edition, bat not under 

the sane genus. 

89. "Wismuthum. Bitmuth. Calx becoming reddish ; 

readily convertible by the fire alone into a yel- 
lowish brown glass. 

4 Species, maee of than new. 

90. Argentum. Silver. Not convertible by the heat of 

. the fire alone into calx; soluble in sulphur. 

14 Species, 6 described before by limiceus. 

91. Plumbum. Lead. Calx becoming red, and con- 

vertible by the fire alone into a yellowish glass. 

SA Species, 6 of whicti are described by Limueus under the same 
geauB, and 1 as an Ochra, 

' Genus pS. 

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Genus 93. Hydrargyrum. Quicksilver. Calx red and volalilizable. 
1 1 Speck*, 4 of tbem noticed by IJnaiu. 

93. Auruni. Goid. Not cunvertibLe into caU by tlie fire 

alone, or soluble in sulphur, unlesn the latter be 
1 1 ^>cciea, S of them, only, detcribed in the 1 Sth edition. 

94. Platina. Not convertible into calx by the fire alone, 

nor soluble in sulphur, whether pure or hepatized. 
I Species. 

Class 5. LARVATA. 

In this class no new genera are formed, bat there are 48 species 
not enumerated in the 12th edition. 

Among the Addenda, the editor has placed 9 new species uf 
earths, so that the number of mhierals described by him amounts 
to about 9^t whereas Linnceus himself has not enumerated more 
than 530. 

In 1771* Linnaeus published a continuation of the Mantissa, 
carrying it on to 558 pages, under the title of Mantissa Plan- 
TARUH altera Gcncrum editionis 6ta. Spectetum edittonis inda. 
(liolm. Svo.) Nearly one btdf of this work comprehends ad- 
ditional new genera and species, (a large number of which had 
been communicated by Dr. Mutis from the continent of South 
America:,) — and the remaining part a variety of emendations, 
with some considerable augmentation of the animal kingdom. 

We have no volume published by Linnceus later than this 
Mantissa altera, which may be looked upon as his botanical 
testament; and, having now brought our view of his separate 
works, in chronological order, to a conclusion, we shall proceed 
to take some notice of his nutQcrous papers, published in the 


Digitized by 



transactions of rarious learned societies ; dnd also of tlie disserta- 
tions contained in the Amoenitates Academicay the principiil ma- 
terials of which (as we have remarked before) were furnished by 
himself, notwithstanding they bear the names of the R'spondents. 

Acta Litehahia et Scientiakum SjUECI/e. 

The collection bearing this title was begun by Olaus Celsius, In 
17^20, and includes the Florula Lapponica and Ammaiia per Sueciant 
o&«ervaf a, which have been already adverted to,(the former in p. 39* 
and the latterin p.86.) In the year 1740, a new series was begun; 
and the work, being now carried on more immediately by the 
Royal Society of Upsala, assumed the title of 

Acta Societatis Regime Scientiaeum Upsaliensis. 

Linnfeus was chosen Secretary of this Society in 1744, in the 
room of Professor Andreas Celsius ; but he resigned the oiKce 
about sixteen yeare afterwards, feeling hurt (as he mentions in 
a letter to his friend Archbishop Mennander) at being forsaken 
at the labouring oar — no member coming forward at that time 
with any communications, but himself. In this work are pub- 
liehed the following papers, viz. 

C. L. SpecieB Orcltidum tt affimum Plantartim. {1740. p. I — 37.) 

This catalogue is accompanied by a copious collection of 
synonyms under each species. 

Lobelia descripta, (1741. p. 23—26.) 

A description of Lobelia itifiata^ accompanied by figures. 

Decern Vlantarum Genera, (Ibid. p. 76—84.) 

Scientific descriptions of 10 new genera of plants. 

Oestru$ rangiferinus. (Ibid. p. 102 — 115.) 

A remarkably interesting description of the fly that infests the 
rein-deer, and of which Linnaeus had given some account in his 
Flora Lapponica. 

Sida detcripta. (1743. p. 137—140.) This 

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This is a dcscr)[>tion of Malachra capilata, a plant the j^j^f* 
of which our author felt some difficulty in determining. 

Scabiosa descripta. (1744. p. 11 — 12.) 

The species denominated Taiarica^ seeds of which had been 
sent, along with others, from Siberia, and presented to Linnieus 
by M. Dcmidoft'. 

Penihorum descriptum. (Ibid. p. 12 — 14.) 

This is P. sedoideB, a plant '\vhich had been described only ia 
Gronovius's Flora Virginioa, and therein from a dried and im.~ 
perfect specimen ; but, Kalm having sent home se^ds from Ame- 
rica which were afterwards raised in the Upsala garden, our 
author had an opportunity of describing and figuring it satisfac- 
torily from its living state. 

Ct/pritius pinnts ani radiit x\. pmnis albentibuSf VauQ. Suec. 325, 
Stfem 5»ccM, dcscriptm d-C. L. (Ibid. p. 35 — 36.) 

The C. Grislagitie of the Sj/$t. Nat. (i Gm, p. 1425.) a speci- 
men of which had been received from Finland by Secretary 
IVargentin. It is here figured. 

The Transactions of the Upsala Society were discontinued 
several years, but revived in 1773, under the name of 

KovA Acta Bbgijb Societatis Scientiabum 


In the first volume of this second series (p. 39—43), Ijnneeus 

described one of the Testaoia, which until about this time he 

bad never seen in a recent state, and in fact the animal of the 

genus was unknown to him ; this was the 

of whkh two species are here noticed and figured, viz. Cc^ut 
Serpentia and paiellaformia. Of the former, specimens* with 
the animal complete, had been sent to him (as we have 



* ^ g g 


before remarked) firom Bergen, in Norway, by his pupil 

Ellisia Njjctelea. (Ibid. p. 97). 

Linnaeus figured this plant from a drawing sent to the Academy 
from London, by, the celebrated Ehret. It had not been accu- 
fetely engraved before. 

KoNCL.SviiNsKA Vetenskaps Acadf.miens IIandlingar. 

'Hie Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm 
have been continued, in an octavo form, from the cstablislnnent 
of that society in .1739. It is to be lamented that they are not 
written in the Latin language, as those of the Upsala" Academy, 
the Swedish being so partially understood in the western parts 
of Europe.' There is a work, however, which in a great mea- 
sure remedies this inconvenience, viz. a Latin epitome of the 
more important papers, under the title of Analecta Transalpina, 
(Venet. 1762. 8vo. cum tabb. an.) and several of them are 
copied from this Latin collection into Gilibcrt's Futidamenta Ho- 
tanica (Tom. 2). 

Linnajus's earliest paper in the Kortgl. Svemk. Vefensk. Handl. 
is entitled : 

Ron om v'dxters plantering, grundat p'a.natitren. (1739. p. 1 — 24. 
Anal. Tram. Tom. 1. p. 1—24.) 

This is an attempt to reduce the art of gardening to scientific 
principles, to which the author was led, lie says, by a conviction 
of the insufficiency of the works hitherto published to accom- 
plish that desirable end. He takes some notice of the Gar- 
dener's Dictionary of our countryman IMiller, which he had re- 
cently perused, and on ivhich be bestows proper commendation, 
but accompanied by ei^pressioas of regret at that meritorious 
horticulturist not having been sufi^ciently full and scientific in 
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the instructioDs be had given. This subject was taken up agam 
afterwards in the Amrevitates Academical in two dissertatiofos ; 
one entitled HorticuUura Academicoy and the other Hortus CuH- 
narist each of which we shall notice in the proper places. 

Om Renarnas Br'Omskulor i Lapland. (Ibid. p. II9 — 130). 

Observations on the tumors caused in the skin of the Retn-deer 
by (Estrus Tarandi. ITiis insect is one of the greatest scourges 
of the Laplanders (as is pointed out in a peculiarly interesting 
manner in the Flora Lapponica, n. 517)* and by breeding on the 
backs of the fawns frequently occasions the death of a third 
part of them. Linnseus gives figures of the tumora, and of tbe| 
XDode in which the insects insert tlieraselves. 
■ Anmdrkning qfver Laptka Limet. (Ibid. p. 213 — 214. An. Tr. 
Tom. 1. p. 34—35.) 

Remarks on the glue used by the Laplanders in making tfaeir 
bows for hunting. The process of manufacturing it from the 
skin of the perch is here described. 

Betkrifning pa en rt^ Fogel Picus pedibns tridactylis. (1740. 
p. 214-^16. Anal. Trans. Tom. 1. p. 35-^36.) 

Description of the three-toed Woodpecker, before that time 
unnoticed, since figured by Edwards (tab. 114), and named in 
the System Ficus tridactylus. It is found in America, as well 
as in Europe. (See Phil. Trans. Vol 62. p. 388.) 

Anm'drkning ijfver de djuren, som siigas komma neder utur sky- 
ama i Norige. (1740. p. 320—325. Anal. Tranaalp. 'J'om. 1. 
p. 68—73.) 

Remarks on animals reported in Norway to have fallen from 
the clouds, — with figures of Mas Lemmusj the well known pest 
ef the north. The writer points out the origin of the vulgar 
opinion respecting the Norway rat, and gives an account of the 
descent of this animal from the mountains of Lapland. Hog^ 
Strom: ^rfote afterwards oa the same subject in these Transactions) 


Digitized by 


^It ^^^^r^ " 


{1749. p- 14 — ^23.) making many additional and curiouft remarks 
on the migrations of those rats. 

Beskrifniiig pa Sm-Sparfven. (Ibid. p. 30H— 374. An. Trans. 
Tom. 1. p. 73—79.) 

Description of the Snow-Bunting, or Emberiza nivalis, vbich 
is here figured for the first time ; in fact, no writer had de- 
scribed it before. Linnaeus rccei\ed specimens of these birds 
from Lapland, and kept three of tliem alive in tiis own house 
for some time. 

Beskriftiing om Gtddjisken och Silver fiaken. (Ibid. p. 396 — ^404. 
Anal. Tram. Tom. 1. p. 83—89.) 

Description of the Gold and Silver fish {Cypriniis auratus, of 
the Sifst. Nat.\ with figures. — ^This species, is here scientificallj 
described for the first time, from speciinens sent bj Falmsti- 
erna, the Swedish Envoy, from Copenhagen. 

Ttmkar om Grunden tH (Economie genom Naturkutmogketen och 
Pkysiquen. (Ibid. p. 405-423. Anal. Tr. Tom 1. p. 89—99.) 

On laying the foundation of oeconomics on natural history and 
physics. — ^This was always a favourite subject with our author, 
who has proved in various parts of his writings, and in a very 
striking manner, the close connection subsisting between the sci- 
ence oi' natural history and rural cecononiy of every description. 

^nmdrknirtg over JVisen kos Myrome, (1741. p. 36 — 48. An. Tr. 
Tom. 1. p. 110—118.) 

Remarks on female ants. — This paper contains a history and 
description of 5 species of Formica found in Sweden, and throws 
much light on the oeconomy of those insects. 

Upsats pa de medicinal vHxter^ som i apotkequen bevarasy och koa 
OSS i fhdeme-landet viura. (1741. p. Bl— 96. An. Tr. Tom. 1. 
p. 129—140.) 

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In this paper our autlior informs liis countrymen of several 
articles of the Materia Medica indigenous in Sweden, and which 
tliey had unnecessarily imported. The catalogue was published 
by order of the Academy; and it is contained in GilibcTt's 
edition of the Fuudamenta Bofanica. Tom. 2. p. 529 — 542. 

Satnli/ig af 100 wdxter upfwidne p°a Gothland, (Hand^ och Sma- 
land. (Ibid. p. 179—210. An. Trans. Tom. 1. p. 14(i— 166.) 

This is a catalogue of 100 plants first discovered to be natives 
of Sweden during our author's tour in Gothland, Oland, and 
Smaland, in the summer of 1741. We have alluded to this cata- 
logue before {see p. 84). 

Forteknwg af defdrgegras som brukas pa Gothland och Oland. 
(1742. p. 20—28. AnaL Transalp. Tom. 1. p. 194^199.) 

An account of plants used in dying, which was one of Lin- 
nseus's objects projessediy when he visited the islands above 
mentioned. The subject was afterwards taken up more at large 
in a dissertation entitled Plantte Tinctoria. 

Anmdrkningar oj'ver Amaryllis der sk'dna. (Ibid. p. Q3 — 102. 
An. Tr. Tom. 1. p. 206—211.) 

Remarks on Amarnllis formosissinia, accompanied by a figure 
of that plant, which flowered for the first time in Sweden in 
April 1742. Linnaeus gives a very pleasing history of this 
elegant species, noticing all the authors by whom it had been 
described, and the places where it had first been cultivated. 

Beskrifning pa Sdltings-graset, (Ibid. p. 146 — 151. Anal. Trans. 
Tom. 1. p. 211—214.) 

Description of TrigUtchin maritlmnm, called in Oland Saliingy 
or salt-grass. — ^"I'lie writer recommends to farmers to cultivate 
this plant with attention, having remarked on his trav^s how 
much it was relished by cattle and horses, and how salutary and 




medicinal it proA'ed to those animals. lie exhibits a figure of it 
and of T. palustre^ considering the hitter species also as worthy 
of c(dtivatiun. 

Svetiskt h'6fr6. (Ibid. p. 19I— 198. 4nal Tram. Tom. 1. p. 

A recommendation of the culture of Medicago falcata, or 
Yellow Medic, as a substitute for Lucern, in iSweden. Besides a 
very full and popular description of this plant, Linnaeus makes 
many useful observations on others of this kind, and on the 
practices of the peasantry, with respect to the feeding of cattle, 
in remote districts of the kingdom. 

Beakrifning pa et slag Ostindiska drier. (Ibid. p. 202 — 206. 
Anal. Tram. Tom. l'. p. 226—229.) 

Description of an East Indian bean, viz. Phaseolus radiatus, 
which had recently been raised in the Upsata garden from seeds 
brought to Linnaeus by Admiral Ankarkrona, from China. This 
plant seems to require a high temperature to rear it ; only one was 
brought to perfection out of many seeds sown by three or, four 
different people. The people of Canton, we are informed, em- 
ploy a decoction of these beans, with great success, in nephritic 
complaints, and especially for the expulsion of gravel. It is 
drunk ad libitum. This species of Phaseolus had been described 
and figured by Dillenius, in his Hortus Eltkamensis (p. 213— 235i 
fig. 304), but very unsatisfactorily. Linnaeus gives a figure of 
his own, to accompany the new description. 

jRim, om orsaken til Fallaude goien i Shane oci Wemsharad. 
(Ibid. p. 279— 284.) 

Observations mi the cause of the epilepsy [M^vailing at Wems- 
harad, in the province of Skane. Our author conceived it to 
be owing to the custom, followed at that place, of washing the 


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scald heads of children with cold water, wliich, acting as a re- 
pellent, may be supposed to have occasioned congestion in the 

Anmarkningofcer Jackashapuck. (1743. p. 293 — 295. Anal. Tr. 
Tom. 1. p. 266—268.) 

Remarks on Bear-berries, which having been recently intro- 
duced into England from America under the above name, 
and used by the common people mixed with tobacco, Lin- 
naeus applied to Mr. Peter Collinson for specimens, in order 
to ascertain the species of the plant. He had no sooner received 
them from his correspondent than he recognized the American 
Jackashapuck to be the Uva Urdy which was very common in 
Sweden, and therefore not considered in that country as an 
article of luxury. lanmeus informs us that these berries had 
been strongly recommended to him by the physicians of M<Hit- 
pellier as a sort of lithonthiiptic, and Uiat the proper mode of 
unng it is to take half a drachm of the powder in chickea broth, 
every morning, for ten or fourteen days. This remedy was after- 
wards noticed by Dr. Murray, of Gottingen {Ccmmentarium 
de Arbuio Uva Urai. Gotting. 1765. 4to, pp. 65.), and highly 
commended by Dc de Haen, of Vienna. £>r. Heberden men- 
tions, in his Commentaria, that it iinparted to the urine, in one 
instance which he witnessed, a green colour. 

Siberiskt Bokbvete, (1744. p. 117—122. Anal. Trow. Tom. 1. 
p. 293—296.) 

Siberian Budc-wheat, or Polygonum Tataricum, described and 
figured. The author gives an interesting account of the pro- 
perties of this plant, which is ^uHivated, and supplies the 
•waM of other grain for bread, m several parts of Siberia and 




Pctivcria, en Americamk viist. (Ibid. p. 287 — 292. AnaL Trans: 
Tom. 1. p. 346—349) 

An AmericaB plaot {Petiveria aUiacea) described, and its parts 
of fructification accurately figured. In the Hortus CliffoTt'mHU$ 
Linn'deus had described it from a dried specimen only ; but as it 
flowered tliis year in the hot-houses of the Upsala garden, he had 
an opportunity of giving a more accurate account aad figure of 
it than had hitherto appeared. But, besides an elegant demon- 
stration of Petiveria alliacea, this paper contains many curious 
remarks on the flavour, odour, and medicinal properties com- 
municated to the flesh and fluids of animals by particular vcge* 
table substances : as, for example, the intolerable taste com- 
municated to hares that have eaten rape-seed ; the wormwoiod 
flavour which the flesh of sheep acquires after that plant has 
been eaten by those animals ; the cathartic properties imparted 
to thrushes after they have swallowed buckthorn, and to goats' 
milk after the latter hare eaten scammony ; the disposition to 
convulsions created by eating partridges that have fed on helle- 
bore ; and, lastly, the insuflierable alliaceous taste and smell im- 
parted to beef when the animal has chanced to eat tlie plant 
which forms the more immediate subject of this paper, and 
which has hence acquired the trivial name of al/iacea. llie 
Jamaica people employ the root for curing tooth-ach, putting it 
into the diseased cavity. It is a very acrid and even caustic 
plant. From the fraidness which guinea-hens manifest for it, in 
the West Indies, it is ^nilgarly called Gttineit-hen ueed. 

Storm-Naders fogekn beskrifven. (1745. p. 93 — 96- Anal. Trans. 
Tom. 1. p. 376—378.) 

The storm-fmch {Procellaria pelagica) described and figured. 

This is the Peti-eU of Dtunpier's Voyage^ a name which the bird 

1 seems 

Diaitized b> 




seems to have acquired from its appearing to walk on the sea 
like St. Peter. It is the Little Peterel, of Edwards, tab. 90. 

Vomer antz nied et innesluiit foster. (Ibid. p. 281 — 285. An.Tr. 
Tom. 1. p. 414—416.) 

One orange growing within another, exhibited to the Academy 
by Count Tessin, and here figured. The account of this curiolis 
Imus natura is prefaced by an interesting little history of the 
cultivation of oranges, and of the works which treat on that 

Lijclcfe-matken fran China. (1746. p. 60 — 66. An. Tr. Tom. 1. 
p. 475—479.) 

A phosphorescent Grasshopper from China (i^w/gora Candelaria) 
described, with a few remarks and 6gures, by De Geer. Tlie 
description of tliis remarkable insect is preceded by observations 
on phosphorescent bodies in general, and by an enumeration of 
several species. 

EnsallsainVhvy^anesLbeskrifven. (1747. p. 176 — 178. An.Tr. 
Tom. 1. p. 483—484.) 

Description and figure of Fanorpa Coa, an insect of the Ncu- 
ropterous class, usually found in the islands of the Archipelago, 
but in this instance discovered (by Carlson, a Swede,) in the 
Maldives, where it is extremely rare. 

Beshrifning pa ett Americamkt djur, (1747. p. 277—278. Anal. 
Trans. Tom. 2. p. 35—42.) 

Description of an American quadruped, viz. Ursus Lotor; or 
the Raccoon, of Pennant. This description is very full, and ac- 
companied by a plate. 

I^inmia heskrifven. (1746. p. 130^134. An. Trans. Tom. 1. 
p. 42—45.) 

Claytonia SihirUa described and figured. This species was 


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before unknown to botanists. It was discovered by Steller in 
the most eastern parts oi' Siberia, and in the islands which lie 
scattered between that part of Asia, and America. It flowered 
in the Upsala greenhouses, in May, 1746. 

Axpiiig beskrlfuen. (1749. p. 246—251. Anal. Tr. Tom. 2. 
p. 197-201.) 

Coluber Ckersea (called by the Smalanders Asping) described. 
This is a venomous small snake, found in osieries and other low 
situations; its bite is much dreaded and frequently fatal, 
particularly in Smaland. It had never before been described. 
Linneeus received four specimens, from which he has given 
figures to accompany the paper. 

Sommar-Gulhig. . (1750. p. 127—132. Anal. Trans. Tom. 2; 
p. 277—280.) 

A description of the Golden Thrush {Oi-iolus Galbula), singular 
in being a native both of northern Europe and of Bengal. The 
ori*»inal name given to this species was Ampelis Jlava. It is here 
fio-ured, with its nest, &c. and Sparrman afterwards wrote some 
remarks on it in the volume for 1786, p. 70 — 73. 

Ron om Sl6~korn. (Ibid. p. 179—185, Anal. Trans.' Tom. 2. 
p. 294— 297.) . 

An insect destructive to barley, and afterwards described in 
the Systema under the name of Musca Frit. — Our author thinks 
that every tenth grain of barley in Sweden is destroyed by this 
pernicious little creature, and that the damage it occasions can- 
not amount to less than 100,000 ducats annually. 

En Indiansk xparf beskrifvcn. (Ibid. p. 278 — ^280. Anal. Trans, 
Tom. 2. p. 311.) 

A description and figure of Emberiza Ciris, which being intro- 
duced from America into Spain, fqund its way thence to 

2 T Anma: 

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Anmiirknitis: ont Orntamas skiljemarkeit. (1752. p. 206 — 207". 
Anal Trans. Tom. 2. p. .471.) 

Remarks on the characters of Serpents. — It has beea observed 
before, that Linnaeus first attempted to fix these clmractci's from 
the number of the icuia and sqvama of the abdomen and tail. lie 
here remarks that this character is not sufficiently permanent, 
but that what is wanting to complete the number ia oae will 
usually be found iii the other. 

Tva mja Species Tobak. (175S. p. 37— i3.> 

Two new species of Tobacco, viz. Nicotiana panienlata, and 
N, glutinosQf described and well figured. 

Tankar om nyttiga vaa'ters planterande pa de Lappaka Fjalkn^ 
(1754. p. 182—189.) 

This was the paper that obtained the premium left by th& 
will of Count Sparre, as mentioned before (p. I13)> 

Markattan Diana, (Ibid. p. 210—217.) 

Description and plate of Simta Diana, 

Mirabilis longiflora 6caJfcri/ven, (1755. p. 176 — i79-)- 

A Mexican plant now not uncommon in our English gardens^ 
where it is known by the name ©f the Sweet-scented Marvel of 
Peru. This paper is accompanied by a figure. 

Spansk krasse beskrifven. (Ibid. p,273— 275. AnaLTv. Tom. 2'. 
p. 460—461.) 

A Spanish species of Dittander {Lepidium Capdamiitea), de- 
scribed and figured for the first time. Seeds of this plant had 
been sent to our author by Lolling. 

Ayenia, en sallsom blomma, beskrifven och ingrifven. (1756. 
p. 23— 26.) 

Ayenia pusUla, an elegant plant, sent to our author by Miller, 
ifl here described and figured. Miller had received seeds from 
Dr. Monier, Intendant of the Due de NoaiUes's fine garden at St. 


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Germaine en Laye, and raised them annually. It was in honour 
of that nobleman (whose family name was D'Ayen) that Liu- 
na?us named the plant Ayenia, of which there are now 4 speoies» 
all natives of South America. 

Gaura en v'dxt fram Norra America beskrifoen. (1756. p. 222 — 
225. Anal. Trans. Tom. 2. p. 452 — 434^) 

Gaura Uenuis^ from North America, described. Seeds of this 
plant had been received from Collinson ; and Linnaeus here gives 
the first figure of it. 

rvj'nne <»•/«■ LoeflingiaocAMimiartiaff/'C.i. (1758. p. 15 — 18.) 

In this paper Loejiingia Hispanica and 3 species of Minuartia 
are described. These plants had been sent from Spain by Lbf- 
ling, of whose travels and discoveries some notice is here taken. 

Fetrificatet Entomolithus paradoxus. (1759- p. 19 — 24.) 

Description of a curious tossil (from Count Tessin's Museum), 
which Linnaeus supposes in his Systema to have been a species of 
Monoculus, but which his editor, Professor Gmelin, pronounces to 
be the type of an Oniscus. The description is illustrated by 

Anm'drkningar om den sa kallade Pttfogelstenen. (Ibid. p. 24— S6.) 

Remarks on the Peacock- stone, or Penna Pavo7m (of the Miueum 
Tessinianum)y which our author thinks is formed from the hinge of 
the Pearl -muscle {Mytilus margaritiferus), and which he has 
called in tlie System Hehnintholithus Androdamas. 

Svensk Coccionell. (1759. p. 26—30.) 

Account of the Swedish Cochineal-insect, or Coccus Uva Ursi. 
This species is very like the Polish kind, found at the roots of the 
Knawel, but is double the size, and yields a very fine red colour. 

Akerb'drs flanteriug. (1762. p. 192 — 197-) 

Hubus Arcticus, much valued for the sake of the berries, is 

cultivated in the southern parts of Sweden with difficulty. This 

paper contains the result of some trials made to inure it to a 

2 T 2 climate 



climate warmer than is natural to it ; they are too operose, how- 
ever, to prove of general use. 

Anmlirknhigar om 01. (1763. p. 51 — 59.) 

Remarks on Beer. This paper is copied into the Berlin. Samm- 
iung (6 Band. 177 — 178.), under the title of Anmerkungen iiber 
das Bier. 

Aguti beskrifcen. (I768. p. 26-30.) 

Description of the Aguti, or long-nosed Cavy of Pennant» 
from one which had been sent to Upsala from the Swedish Con- 
sul at Lisbon, and which had been brought to the latter city 
from the Brazils. This animal is a Mtts of the original Systemoy 
but a Cavia {Aguti) of Gnielin's edition. 

Djiiret Narica beskrifvit. (I768. p. 140—145.) 

Viverra Narica, the Coati-briin of Buffon, described and figured. 

TvHnne anm'drkningar i natural historien. (1768. p. 146 — 147.) 

Remarks relative to the natural history of two animals : viz. 
Simia (Edipus (the red-tailed Ape of Pennant), and Gordim Me- 
dinenm (the Guinea-worm). A Guinea-worm, half an ell long, 
was discovered in a living state at Gottcnburg, and communi- 
cated to our author by the King of Sweden. 

Calceolaria pinnata beskrifcen. (1770. p. 286 — 292.) 

This description of Calceolaria pinnata is accompanied by a 

Swedish Almanacks. 
Linnaeus wrote in the Swedish almanacks observations, of a 
[>opular nature, on the following subjects, viz. (in Hjorters) 
For the year 1742. On domestic medicines for the Ague. 
1743. 1744. On indigenous Plants; 

1746. On Tea. 

1747. On Coffee. 

1748. On Brandy. (/» 

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(/» Cehius's) 

1744. 1745. On the application of the sexes of plants, in agri- 
culture aii4 horticulture. 

All these observations contain information highly useful and 
important, more especially to the less enlightened orders of the 
community. They were, most of them, afterwards put into a 
more diffuse and scientific form, serving for the substance of dis- 
sertations in the Amoenitates Academka. 


ALis Petropolitan*;. 

The only paper of our author's contained in this collection 
appears in Vol. 7- (p. 315—320) for the years 1758—1759, and 
is entitled 

Nitraria planta obscura explicata. 

It is a description and history of Nitraria Sckobcri, a native of 
Siberia, from which country specimens of it had been sent by 
Gmeliu to Amman, who described it, but not the parts of 
fructification, in his Stirpes rariores Rutbcnici. Lioneeus could 
not fully describe it in his Species Ptantarum, and was obliged 
to try a great variety of soil and temperature before he could 
even raise the plant; at length, however, being led by its 
habit to suspect, that a soil impregnated with sea-salt might 
agree Avith it, he succeeded in bringing it to perfection : 
hence he was enabled to figure it in this work entire, and to 
assign to it a proper place in his arrangement, viz. Dodecan- 
dria Moiutgynia. He named it N^ Sc/ioOeri, from Schober, one 
of the travellers who accompanied Gmelin into Siberia. 


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350 am(enitate9 acadghic£. 

Inkikes Tidnincar, 
or Home Gazette of Sweden. I766. 
Linnaeus drcAv up, for this publication, an account of Imecta 
destructive to books, a German translation of which is given in 
the Berlin. Mag. (4 Band. p. 411—414.) 

Memoires de. l'Academie Royale des Sciences de Pa- 
ris. (1775. p. 515—519.) 

In compliment to the French Academy, for the honour done, 
him when he was placed on the list of Foreign Members, Lin- 
nxus laid before that body an interesting- description of Cyca* 
drcinaiis, the character of which had not been given before, as 
no opportunity had occurred to him until now of examining the 
inflorescence. The paper is prefaced by observations on bis ar- 
rangement of Pa/m(f, and concluded with remarks on the pollen 
of the Cycas and other plants, especially Filices, or the Ferns, to 
which tribe, in fact, he removed the Cycas, considering it as 
having naked pollen without any antherte. Jacquin has since 
declared it to be perfectly dioecious, and has figured the parts of 
fructification*, from which, after all (as Professor Martyn re- 
marks in his edition of Miller's Dictionary), it appears to be a 
Palm. To this division it was brought back in Schreber's edition 
of the Genera Vlaniarum. 

Au(£NiTATE8 AcADEMiC£, scu Dissertationcs voria Vkysica, 
itedica, BotaniciE, antehac seorsim edita^ nunc collecta et aucta. 
The collection known under this title consists of 10 volumes in 

♦ See Act. Helvet. 8. p. 59. t. 8. 




8vo, of which, howei'er, only 7 were published by Linnceus him- 
self, the hist 3 having been, committed' to the press,, since' his 
deafb, by Schreber, of ErJangen, wlio has included the disser- 
tations sustained under the presideiKy of the younger Linnseus. 
Sonictliing has been said relating to this collection in a preceding 
part of our work (p. 102)"; to which we have only to add, that the 
i<>llowing pages arc to be regarded as little more than an enlarged 
table of contents ; and that it is impossible, by means of any 
abridgment, to give an adequate idea of the merit of this mis- 
cellany, or of its utility as exhibiting dilated explanations of our 
atuthoi's philosophical and medical pruicipleSi 

Most of these dissertations have been published, enlarged, and 
commented on,, by various persons and in vaxious languages^ 
The principal sctections are the following ; viz. 

Miscellantous Tracts relating to Natural History, Husbandr^^ 
and Fhysict translated from the Latin ^ with notes, by Benjajuik 
Stilukgpt.eet, (London 1759. 8vo.. pp. 230,. and- agaii^ in 
1762. pp.. 391. pi. 11.)- 

Selectee ex . Amcenitatibits Academids Caroli Linnai Dissent 
tationes ad universam natvralem historiam pertinentes^ quas edidit 
»t additamentis auxit L. B. e S. J. {Gacecii 4to. 1764. pp. 3l6i 
tabb.sen. 2. 1766. pp. 297. tab-1. I769. pp. 277. tabb. 4.) 

Select Dissertations from the Amoenitates Academical, a tup^ 
plement to Mr, Stillin^eet's tracts, ^-c; translated by the Rev.- 
F. J. Bkand. (London 178L 8vo. Vol. 1^ pp. 480.) 

Caroli Linnai Fundamentorum Botanicorum Pan Ima, ex- 
hibens omnes Dtssertationes Academicas qua varios Aphorismos Phi~ 
hsophia Botanicte illtisirare possunt, edita d Gilibert. {CoLAIIot- 
Aro^. 17.86. SvcTora. 2.) 


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Vol. 1. 

Ilolni. ct J.ij)s. 1749. 8vo. pp. o63. tabb. I7. 

Liigd. JJat. (C«w//Jf/) pp. OlO. tabb. 15*. 

Kriang. {Schrehcr) 17fi7- pp- oC.'J. praeterexpl. tabb. 17. 

1. Jiclula K'aua. Resp. L- M. Klase. 1743. 

Ju this dissertation is cxliibitcd a complete history, accom- 
panied by a figure, of Ikttila nana, or the Dwarf Birch, which 
clothes the r,ai>land Alps in great quantities, and is of signal use 
in the a'conomy of the inhabitants of that arctic region. The ' 
bi-anches furnish tbcui with their chief fuel, and the seeds are 
tlie food of tlie Ptarmigan; or While Partridge {Tetrao Lagopus). 
Those birds, being much esteemed, make a considerable part of 
the sustenance of the inhabitants; great quantities are caught 
in the winter season, and sent to different provinces. Before 
Linnceus made his Lapland expedition, this Birch had been con- 
sidered as a varitty only of the common tree of that name, but 
it now stands as a distinct species. Our own country yields it, 
but only in the more northern parts, as the Hi^lands of Scot- 

This dissertation, which may be considered as a perfect model 
for botanical Monographic, has been translated into the French 
language by M. de Grandinaison, in his Revue Geiierale, Sec. 
Tom. 2. p. 299— 3'>6'. 

2. Historia nafuralis et atedica Ficus. Resp. C. Hegardt. 1744. 

IVom the earliest times, the cultivation of the Fig-tree has 
been an important object in all the oriental countries. In this 
dissertation wg are presented with a history of the genus, of 
which the writer has enumerated 22 species. LinuaEus greatly 
reduced the number, in his Species Plantarum, conceiving many 
varieties to be etfected by culture; but in a dissertation defended 

* Sec an account of tliis edition in a preceding page (1 13). 

1 under 

Digitized by 



under the presidency of the Chevalier Thunberg*, 27 species are 
enumerated* and later discoveries have made us acquainted 
with more than 50. That part of the history of the Ficus^ which 
for many ages was so enigmatical, and which nothing but the 
doctrines of the Linnean school have completely cleared up, viz, 
the husbandry or capriftcation (as it is called), is more particularif 
worthy of attention, not only as a singular pheenomenon in itself, 
but as it has furnished one of the most convincing proofs of the 
reality of the sexes of plants. Our limits will not allow us to 
detail this subject ; but in brief it is as follows : — -It is now 
known that the flowers of the fig-tree are situated within a pulpy 
receptacle, which we call the^^, or fruit of the tree; of these re- 
ceptacles, in the wild fig-tree» some have male flowers only, 
and others have male and femfile, both distinct, though placed 
in the same receptacle. The garden pr cultivated fig con- 
tains only female flowers, and these are fecundated by means 
of a kind of gnat [Cymps Psenes) bred in the fruit of the 
wild fig-tree, which pierces that of the cultivated, in order to 
deposit its eggs in the inside ; at the same time diifusing within 
the receptacle the farina of the male flowers. Without this 
operation, the fruit may ripen, but no effective seeds are pro- 
duced. Ilencc, in those countries where the wild fig is unknown, 
the garden fig can only be propagated by layers and cuttings. 
The process of ripening the fruit, in the oriental countries, 
is not left to nature, but is managed with great art, and ditterent 
degrees of dexterity, so as to reward the skilful husbandman 
with a much larger increase of fruit than would otherwise be 
produced. A tree of the same size, which in Provence (where 
caprification is not practised) may produce about '25 pounds of 

* Se« Diaeriatimiet Acwiemctt l^>salue halitte. ( f'ot. l.) Retp, El. Gcdaei. I'SS. 

2 z ' fruit, 

Digitized by 



fruit, will by that art, in the Grecian islands* bring ten times the 

3. Disseriatio de Peloria. Resp. D. HuDnEnc. 1744. 

A description, with the figure, of a very extraordinary variety 
of the coranion yellow Toad-flax {Antirrhinum Linaria), which 
was found ra several parts of Sweden, and engaged the attentioif 
of botanists very much at that time.— Indeed its variation 19 ex- 
tremely singular. The flower, instead of the ringent^ tetr^ndrouft 
character of the LinariUy with ft single, corniculated nef(*iriu«,. 
exhibits a regular* mcmopetalous, pentandrous tube, from the 
base of which proceed five nectaria. Strange as this was, Jjiti- 
paeus discovered it to be no other than a monster,-.^a fact proved 
by ita agreeing in habit and sensible qualities with the ^bove^ 
mentioned species; by its never producing seeik; an^ by flQw^r$ 
of both kinds having been found on the same plant. SoQie pf 
its congeners have recently been observed to 9ssun^ the $am9 
tendency, especialfy A, Cymbalariay Eiatme, and spvriua. The 
monstrosity has been noticed in Germany, by Leers; in Eag" 
land, by Hudson ; and in other countries, by various persons. 

4. Corallia Baltica. Besp. H. Fougt. 1745. 

In this dissertation the author, after havmg traced the history 
of corals from the remotest period of natural history, and con- 
sidered the several theories that have at different times prevailed 
suspecting the production of these bodies, acquiesces in the mo- 
dern one, which ascribes their formation to animalcula, and whichi 
Ellis and several other writers co^finued and itiustrated. 
He then gives a copious description of 20 species, all generated in 
the Baltic, in some parts of which immense masses are found; pa 
the coast of Gothland, strata of corals extend several miles. Excel- 
lent figures of the species described in this paper are subjoined. 

5. Amphibia Gyllenborgiana. Resp. B. R. Hast. 1745. 

A detailed description of 24 specie of animals (all (^ the 
2 class 

Digitized by 



da«s Amphibia), presented by Count Gyllenborg* to the Univer- 
sity of Upsala, of which he was at that time Chancellor, and td 
which he had been a munificent patron, having interested him- 
self in procuring to be built and furnished an astronomical ob- 
servatory ; in restoring to a state- of usefiihiess the botanic gar- 
den, which had been in ruins for many years ; in causing stoves 
and a house for the demonstrator to be there erected ; and, last- 
ly* in having presented to the university his own museum, form- 
ed at a great expense, and consisting of rare Amphibia, Insects, 
Cotals, Minerals, and also many elegant works of art. 

in this dissertation is exhibited the first specimen of LinnEeus's 
method of zoological description at large, as also the first at- 
tempt to form the specific characters of Serpentes from the dif- 
ferent number of the scuta and squama of the body and tail 
taken conjointly. Former authors, in distinguishing these ani- 
mals, generally had recouweto colour alone, which was found, at 
length, to be too unstable ; but it had given rise to a most enor- 
mous multiplication of the species. Linnaeus's mode of distinc- 
tion has been since adopted by others, and is retained, as we 
have before remarked, in the Sjfstema Natura. 

€L Planta Martino Burseriana. Resp. R. Martin. 174.5. 

Joachim Burser, a most diligent disciple and friend of Caspar 
Eauhin, and afterwards Professor of Medicine at Sora, in the 
kingdom of Naples, had collected, on his travels over sever^_ 
parts of Europe, a Hortus siccus, contained in 25 volumes, 
which, after various fetes, were given by M. Coijet to the Uni- 
venity of Upsala. The object of tliis dissertation is to illustrate 

• This nobleman wa» andiaBsador to the Court of St. James's, in the reign of 
George I. His residence here was Uteniled with some reaiarkable circumstances, 
which are detailed by Stoever (aec his Life of Linnaus, translattd by Trapp, p. iftij^ 
u are also other paniculars of his politick life, and his offices in Sn-edca. 

2 2 2 the 

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the tnost i^e plants contained in the collection (particularly 
8ueh as were obscurely known to the collector), and to add to 
these the specific names, according to the principles of the Liu- 
neaix method. With this view, 340 species are enumerated. 
, 7. Hortus Upsalienm. Resp. S. Nauclerc. 1745. 

Botanic gardens began to be founded in Europe so early as 
the middle of the sixteenth century. The first was that of 
Padua, in 1540. That of Upsala was founded (as we have 
mentioned before) in 1657, by Charles Gustavus, under the 
direction of the elder Rudbeck. How much the latter owed 
to Linneeus Itas already been seen, in our account of tlie cata- 
logue of its plants published by himself in 1748. Nauclere's 
history of the antient and modem state of this garden contains 
a, variety of curious matter on the subject, and im illustrated 
with a ground-plan and view of the spot ; lists of the succulent 
plants and others; and (what is particularly acceptable) the 
livesyof the Rudbecks» father and son, whose fame is founded 
oof on botany alone, but on anatomy and the knowledge of 

Linnsus was the means of improving the establishment, sub- 
sequently to the date of this dissertation, having prevailed on 
the University to appoint additional gardeners, and to allow 100 
cart-loads of fire-wood every year. 

But soon after the Chevalier Thunberg succeeded to the 
professorship,, the original spot was wholly relinquished, the 
King, III^ having been pleased to present to the Uni- 
versity a more eligible piece of ground, (which was crown-land,) 
and to issue directions for building a new house for the Professor, 
as also hot-houses, a museum> &c. &c. In the year 1787, 
His. Majesty went to the University, and laid the foundation- 
stone of the new edifices himself depositing within it one 
of the medals whidi he had caused to be struck in Jionouc 




of Lmneeus, and a copper-plate on which was engraved the 
following inscription, viz. 


Ut bonis artibus et prasextim scieniia in gentia laudem H Garolo 
LiNNXQ ad fastigium evecta simutque memoria conaeararet auspicia 
quibus Jilius 


Academiam Upsaliensern. tuetur, has ades extrucre voluit, primis-sua 

manu Ucatis fundamentis die XVII Aug. MDCCLXXXVII. 

This monarch's high, estimation of the merits of Linnaeus was 
forcibly expressed also in his letter of donation to the Univer- 
sity ; and in giving orders for the erection of a museum of 
natural history and lecture-room adjoining*, he directed that ^ 
noble marble statue of Linnaeus should be placed in the latter, 
as if to signify whose doctrines and principles were to be th« 
guidance of future professorsi and to testify the obligations 
jof the science of botany to its immortal reformer. 

8. Passijlora. Resp. J. G. Hall'uan. 1745. 

A very methodical history of that beautiful and much admired 
genusof plants, whichthc; Catholics, (wlio.first saw it, in America,); 
from the fancied resemblance of the cross in the flower, called 
the Pasaion-^owei:, and which soon acquired a distinguished.rank 
in the European gardens. M^ Hallman, after a chronological list 
of the writers who have described the several species, from 
Peter Ciltza and. Monardes down to Dilleuius, enumerates 22 
species, and gives their synonyms, adding afterwards a. list, of 
many which, were dubious. He subjpins the uses which: the 
natives make of these plants, principally borrowed, from Piso.. 
The whole is ornamented, and. rendered much more useful, by a 

* There is a description of these, illustrated by a plan and clevatioa^ in . the. .(f/^*- 
meiae lAteratw-Zvitung. Jan. Feb. Mar. 180}< 


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plate, on Tvhich are engraved different views of the flower, abd 
a figure of the leaf of each species. 

The Passifiora belongs to the Gynandrous plants with five 
stamina ; and the number of species, as tbcy stand in Beich^d's 
edition of the Sifstema Plantarum, is augmented to 36. All of 
these arc natives of the wanner parts of America only. 

9. Anandria. Resp, E. Z. Tursen. 1745. 

This is a history of a singular Siberian plant, which, during 
the time of flowering, was found not to open the calyx, and 
which was called Anandria by Professor Sicgesbeck, of Pe- 
tersburg, who had fancied that it waa destitute o( stamina, and, 
having declared himself (as has been before observed) a strenuous 
opposer of the sexual system, thought, by the instance of thi» 
plant, ht: should overturn the whole doctrine of Linneeus. He 
had written a treatise, in which he asserted that the $tamna did 
not constitute the essential parts of the plant, and that the seed 
would become fertile without the influence of the pollen of th*. 
atithera. The Anandria is Syngenesious, and stands in the system 
under the name of Taasilago Anandria. Later observations have 
proved, that in a warmer situation than its native one, the calyx 
will open, and show a radiated flower. 

10. Acrostichum. Resp. J. B. Heiligtag. 1745. 

Abotanical dissertation on a genns of plants belonging to an ex- 
tensive natural order (placed in the class Cryptogamia), which 
we call Ferns, and which were known to former botanists by the 
name of Epiphylhspemtous plants, on account of tbeir producing 
the parts of fructification chiefly on the back of the leaf, or 
frons. After some general observations on the plants constituting 
this order, and showing the place they hold, and their characters, 
in the several systems of Ray, Morison, Toumefort, and Lin- 
DiettSr the writer proceeds to an ample description of the species 




of Acrostichunit of which he enumerates t7» with their synonyms. 
This genus is distioguished by having the fructi&cation spread 
&U over the under surface of the leaf, and the number of species 
in the Systema Phnttirum of Heichard amounts to 2p. They arc 
mostly of American produce, 6 only being European. A plate 
accompanies this dissertatiou» on which & of the uucommon 
species are delineated. 

11. Museum Adolpho-Fridericiauum. Resp. L. Balk. 1746. 
The subject of this paper is strictly soological.. It contains a 

particular description of 65 of the rarer animals wliich were pre- 
sented to the Museum of the University by King Adolphus, at 
that time Hereditary Prince. Tliese descriptions being drawn 
up with sufficient accuracy, and regard to the rules of the Linnean 
system, and being referred to in the subsequent zoology of Liu- 
naens, still retain their value. Av^hibia and Fishes, form the 
greater part of the collection ; among the former ought to be 
noticed an excellent description of the Chameleon {Lacerta 
Chameleojiy'l of Ainphisbema fuSgiaitsa:, and of the Rattle-Snake 
{Crotalus horridm); among the latter, of the Torpedo^ which has. 
io much excited the attention of etectricians, and also o£ that 
remarkable £sh called Soldigo by the Fortugueae {Silurua Cat-- 
Uchtkys\t which. Margrave and Fiso say, will travel in dry seasona 
across ihe land ftom rivulet ta rivulet in quest of water. Twa 
copper-plates accompany this dissertation. 

12. Spoaaaiia Piaatarum^ Resp. J. G. 1746. 
Those who vouLd see all the arguments^ and the result of 

the experiments, on which the doctrine of the sexes of planta 
is founded, are le&rred to this dissertation^ as containing by far 
the most clear, comprehensive, acdcopiousviewof that subject. 
It is professedly a commentary on the 5th chapter of Liumeus's 
Futtdamenia, or Pkilosophta Botanica, from section 133 to 150 in- 
clusive, aod contains 49 pages.. It is out of our plan to detail 


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all the arguments ; suffice it to say, that although, from the 
writings of Theophrastus and Pliny, we learn that the antients 
had some idea of an analogy, as to sex, between the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms (drawn principally, perhaps, from the 
artificial manner of fecundating the date-tree), yet, so crude and 
erroneous were their ideas, that in many instances those plants 
which they pronounced male or female, modem observations 
have taught us are eaiactly the reverse. Indeed it does not ap- 
pear that any very precise ideas on this subject were established 
till late in the 17th century. Were it a matter of importance to 
determine to whom applause is due for the discovery, the English 
perhaps might with justice claim the honour, and bestow that 
applause on Sir lliomas MUlington, Savilian Professor of 
Geometry in the University of Oxford, who appears to have 
been the 6at that gave the hint to Dr. Grew ; since whose time 
the doctrine has received «o much light, that, we presume, few 
persons can now doubt the t'oWovfing position^ which briefly con- 
tains the whole of what is at present understood by this analogy : 
namely, " Tliat the influence of the far'ma from the anthera of 
flowers upon the stigma is essentially necessary to give fertility to 
the seed." ]f a,By of our readers wish to see what arguments 
nay be adduced against this doctrine, they are referred to the 
Anthologia of Pontcdcra, and to Alston's Dissertation on Botany, 

13. Nova Plaiitarum Genera. Resp. C- M. Dassow. 1747- 

In this paper are described and established the natural 
characters of 43 new genera, all of which were afterwards taken 
into Linnajus's Genera Piantantm of 1754. 

14. Vires Plantarum. Uesp. 1\ Hasselqvist. 1747. 
Practical physicians have wished, and some have formed the 

idea that it is possible, to deduce the virtues of plants from 
their botanical afiinities. Petiver was among the first who 
hazarded sunif reflections on this subject (see Fhil. Trans. Vol. 2 1 . 

p. 289— 



p, 289 — 294) ; and HoiFman has a professed dissertation on it in 
the 5th volume of his works (p. 58). It was the object of the 
present paper, .written by this ingenious but unfortunate disciple 
of Linnoeus, to extend and illustrate the same idea, by a com- 
mentary on the 12th chapter of the Pkilasophia BotanicOy which 
contains the geneiul doctrine, and an enumeration of those na^wruii 
or artificial orders in botany that are supposed to confirm the 
probability of attaining this desirable end. To mention a few 
instances of the agreement in character and qualities, alluded 
, to: the Stellated class, of Ray's system, are mostly diuretics; the 
Asperifolia are chiefly demulcents ; the Umbellifene that grow in 
dry places are aromatics, particularly the roots and seeds, but if 
growing in wet places usually partake more or less of a deleterious 
quality ; the Icosandrous plants, of Linnaeus, abound with pulpy 
and esculent fruits ; the Poli/androus are, many of them, poison- 
ous ; the Syngenesiousy in frequent instances, intense bitters : and 
so on. There are many persons, however, who consider both the 
natural method in botany, and the deduction of the virtues of 
plants from these congruities, as the philosopher's stone of tin: 
science. Notwithstanding this, there is no attempt towards im- 
proving botany, or applying it to the purposes of medicine, that 
ought move strenuously and unicmittingly tobe pursued, than that 
of bringing to all possible perfection the object of this disserta- 

15. Cri/stallorum Generation Resp. M. Kjehleb. IT^T- 
In this paper is discussed at large the opinion, which Linnsews 
eariy imbibed, that the regular polycdrous figure of all those 
bodies called crystals is to be ascribed to the operation of one 
and the same cause acting upon them during their suspension in 
an aqueous menstruum, and that this is equally the case whether 
these bodies be what we usually call saline, or whether tlicy be 
3 A lapidme. 

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lapidosey oc, finally, whether they- be such as sre termed metallic- 
ialts. Hence arose his arr^ngemenl of figuned sparst quartz^ &c., 
together -with all the gemsy under that genus of salts to which 
their agreement in figure entitled them to a place* 

This part of the Linnean method (as we have r-emarked be-- 
fore, when analyzing the third great dirision of the System<^. 
Natura) has ;httherto givem gjreat offence to most mineralogists ; . 
yet it is not improbable Ihat, so far as its foundation rests on.. 
GTystallography, it wUl staiul the test of philosophical scrutiny, 
when other modes of arrangenient are forgotten. At all events, . 
Linnaeus must be considered as the earliest author who paid 
proper attention to that interesting br^ch of mineralogical *. 
science, and, injustice to him,- we may quc^ethe merited com-- 
pliment bestowed upoa him by the ingenious M. Haiiy, who- 
pronouQces him " Ic Fondatetm de Crystallogmpkie" The num- 
ber of crystals described by our author amounts to about 46 ^ 
(which are exhibited in the 3 platea annexed to the last volymeof. 
the Systema) ; 'but Rom6 de Hsle, who took up the subject with , 
great ardor, increased tlus number, in tiie first edition of his ■ 
Mssai de Cristaltographie (Paris< 1772.. 8vo.), to 110, and does . 
equal justice to his great predecessor in tliis curious branch of/ 
research, with his countryman above mentioned. M. Haiiy 
shows the number of crystalline figures assumed by minerals- 
to be prodigious, at the same time endeavouring to prove how . 
subservient they may be rendered, from their permanency and-! 
visible character^ to mineralogical arrangement in general. (See 
Traits de Mineralogies .Vaih, Tom..4». 1801., quoted before in, 
p.. 314.) With respect to the origittr however, of the vacioQs . 
forms of crystallization, vt must be confessed that the great- 
est difficiUties still attend its investigation, ..our knowledge of.^ 
the elements of mineral bodies being as yet much too .limited. , 
%. l6. Surinamensh^i 

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16. Surinamensia Grilliana. Resp. E. Sunpius. 1748. 

A description, at large, of 25 subjects of the animal kiagdbni, 
•KAiieHy Serpentesy collected at Surinam by M. Gerret, famous for 
being among the firet who introduced, and successfully cul- 
tivated, coffee in America, and who sent these curiosities to 
M. Grill, an opulent citizen <^ Stockholm; by which means they 
came finally into the museum of Upsala. We here meet with excellent account of the Rattle-snake ; a description and 
figure of that gigantic sei]>^it. Boa Comtrictor, of which there 
are such copious and astonishing accounts in Adanson, Piso, 
Kaempfer, and others; also of Cacilia tenfaculatOt Coluber Am~ 
Miodyt€$, and the Egyptian Locust {Gryllus criatatm), which are 
an figured in a plate annexed to Chis dissertation. 

17* Plora fEcomoimca. Resp. £. Aspelin. 1748. 

There is scarcely any paper in the collection more worthy of 
notice, or that has a more useful tendency than this, which is 
intended to point out in a general manner, the uses of the indi- 
^nous plants of Sweden, in Agriculture, Rural <£conomy in 
generaU the Arts, and Culinary concerns. It does not profess 
to deliver their medicinal qualities, that not being a part of the 
^lan. The plants are enumerated in the order wherein they are 
found in the Flora Suecica; but no botanical distinctions or 
disquisitions -are introduced. 

The only performance of this kind as yet published in *our 
-own country is the J7ora JR««/icc*, of Professor Martyn, of 
which valuable work, however, the plan has not been fouj^leted ; 
but it contains no fewer than 40 species -of Grasses, and J 4 of 
that, useful genus the TrifoUum. All of them are -accucately 
^gured, and in - addition to ihe aM^onomieal observations, t^e 

* 'iVoIf. 6V0. LoDdoii 17as*-L79i. 

3 -i S Pjoiessor 

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Professor has given a very full botanical description, in English, 
«f every plant. 

Jt has been already remarked, that M. Aspclin's dissertation is 
confined to the iiative plants of S\veden, of which (as an' in- 
stance of tlie variety of species that are here mentioned as ob- 
jects of oeconomy in various ways) tlicre arc not fewer than 300 
in his catalogue. 

18. Ctiriosifas NatitralU. Resp. O. S.edehbeuo. 1748. 
This concluding paper of the first volume is intended as an 
incitement to the study of natural history, by a train of welUconi- 
nected argunients and observations, drawn both from that admi- 
rable display of wisdom and goodness which is manifest through^ 
out all nature, and from its dignity and importance, as being so 
immediately connected with utility to mankind ; from all which 
considerations the writer thinks this science entitled to one of 
tlie most distinguished ranks among the subjects of human in- 
quiry ; and that, so far fi-om its being a frivolous pursuit, it is in 
every view one of tlie worthiest employments of the humaa 

Vol. 2. 
Holm. 1751. pp. 478, tabb. 4. 
(Amst. 1752,) 

Holm. 1762. pp. 444. tabb. 4. (augmented.) 
Erlang. (Sckrebep) 1787- pp. 472. tabb. 4. 
19. (Economia Natura. Resp. J. J. Bibehg. 1749- 
It is impossible, in an abstract, to do justice to this excellent 
production.thedesignofwhich is entirely physico- theological, and 
consequently its scope various and extensive. The writer first 
considers the structure of the earth (in general), its seas, moun- 
tains, &c.; the effects of the change of seasons onall parts of its 
surface,andon the elements; and thedispositionof theM/NjEJR^-L. 


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KINGDOM, with the various origin of its several substances, 
their gradual transmutation, and decay. It is worthy of remark, 
however, that though we are here presented with some of Lin- 
naius's general geological ideas, no speculation is indulged with 
respect to the antiquity of the globe, or to tliose vestiges of 
convulsion which present themselves on its surface ; neither has 
he entered upon that subject in any othec o£ his works.. This 
circunistance is to be accounted for only by supposing him to 
have been apprehensive of incurring censure from the divines ; 
for that he had employed his extraordinary powers, of mind on'well as on every other subject of natural history, is evi- 
dentfrom some curious remarks subjoined to his Uiary, which we 
shall here transcribe. " He would willingly have believed the earth 
to be older than what tJte Chinese assert, had the scriptures allowed 
him i he had never seen rudera diluvii universalis, but successiva 
temporis ; Ae had never been able to get through rudera, aevi. to ten-a 
primogenita-" . 

In the VEGETABLE X/NG DOM, the writer notices the varir 
OU3 means, by which the dissemination of seeds is effected; the 
wonderful contrivances ia the general oeconomy and structure of 
plants; the progress of vegetation- in- places originally destitute 
of verdure ; and the mode of its gradual- and stated- decay. 

litthe ANIMAL KINGDOM, he remarJts upon the extraordi- 
nary increase of some species and the paucity of others ; their 
means of preservation ; their hybernation, emigration, and asso- 
ciations ; and their use, even in their destruction, to the general 
purposes of nature. All the positions are illustrated and con- 
firmed by apt examples ; and finally this conclusion is drawn, — 
that all nature is harmcMiiously arranged, and adapted to pro- 
duce, upon the whole, reciprocal good. " This subject," snys 
the writer, " which I have only touched upon, is of so much. 


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' itwportance, and of such an extent, that if the a4>lest men were 
to attempt to treat it thoroughly, an age would pass away before 
they could reveal completely the admirable oeconomy, habits, 
and structure even of the most imperceptible insect. There is 
not a single species whatever, that does not, of itself, deserve an 

This excellent paper is among those translated into English 
by SUllingfleet, and it has also been put into the French lan- 
guage, by M. Grandmaison, in tlie 2d volume of his edition of 
the present work (p. 217 — 297). 

20. De Tania. Resp. G. Dubois. 1748. 

At the time when this treatise waswritten, the subject had more 
than usually engaged the attention of naturalists and physicians 
in Sweden, particulariy of Linneeus, and of his colleague Pro- 
fessor Rosen, who has made many curious and valuable observa- 
tions on the nature and treatmlsnt of wonns in his woi^c on the 
Diseases of Children .(see the I^glish translation by Sparrman, 
p. 225— 26S). 

The writer of the present dissCTtaticui hts here described 
and figured 4 species of Temia, all of which are found in the 
intestines of animals, chiefly in those of carnivorous quadni- 
peds ; and unhappily two of tltem (but more particularly T. So- 
lium) too frequently infest the hiiman bddy. The specific dif- 
^ferences of the Tanise arise from the number afld situation of 
•the mouths, or suckers, in each Imk of these compound animals, 
the history of which has employed the pens of many ingenious 
■men, and is, notwithstanding, still invdved in great obscurity. 

The species most commonly infesting the human body are 
those described in the Si/siema Natvra, under the names of 
T. Solium and T. loulgaris, both of which arp not unfrequently 
'^biind extended from the duodenum, or upper part, almost through 


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Sie wholie couree of the intestinal tube. There has been much 
controversy in determining whether these creatures have any 
part analogous to the brain, or head of other animals. Our au- 
thor affirms the contrary, considering them as each consisting, 
of a chain, as it were, every hnk of which is a perfect animal 
of its kind, furnished with a mouth and all its proper organs, 
and capable, when separated from its original compages, of 
propagating its species, as if by a vegetative power, and inde- 
pendent of any apparent oviparous or viviparoua- process. In 
this idea he is opposed by Tyson, wh& has 6guEed what be con-r 
aiders as the head of 'T. SoliutUt in the Phiioeophtcal Transactions 
(Vol. 13. n. 146.); and by. some otlier authors. The Verme* 
cucurMtinit or Gourd-worms of. former writers,, are now however, 
allowed to be the descenjding, or posterior, links- of' T.i$ofe'u«i> 
and these (according, ta, Linnaeus) are. again, cs^ble of ex- 
tending themselves, ' and , producing another chain. Accord- 
ing to Pallas • and., others, the joints are pregnant with ova. 
In^ the reason ia at once seen why these Aoxious 
creatures are expelled irom the human body with so much diffi- 
(uilty. But Lionseus does not deny that they are capable of 
p/opag^ti Bg. by ova too,^ and says that they are found, though 
much smaller, in muddy springs i which Pallas scarcely admits. 
Linnaeus'S' opioion, however, is confirmed by subsequent ob- 
servations ; and indeed we cannot but observe that, without 
allowing, wonus to exist elsewhere than in the intestines of ani- 
mals, it is exceedingly difficult to account for the. locality of the 
disease which they generate. 

We cannot, con»stentIy with our plan, enlarge on this treatise. 
It must suffice therefpre to remark, that the dissertation here 
noticed, besides bqipjf^aitself highly satisfactory, may be con- 


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sidcred as an i/jrfej also to those writers who are most worthy of 
being consulted on the subject. 

21. Lignum Colnbrinutn. Resp. J. A. DARFtics. 1749. 

This is a critical inquiry, to determine the species of that drug, 
which it is said that the Indian Weasel, Ichneumon, or Mungos 
(Viverra Ichn'eumQn)^ first pointed out to those people. Ulie Zey- 
lanese use this wood as an antidote to the poison of the Hooded 
Serpent, or Nuia {Coluber Naia), called also Cobra di Capello, of 
which Kiiempfer has given so extensive a history, as the most 
poisonous of all serpents. Darelius prefixes to his inquiry the 
history both of the Idmeumon and of the Serpent, of which too 
many marvellous things have been related. He then examines 
the pretensions of the substance which had usually been sold, in 
Europe, under tlie name of Lignum Colubrinum, and which is 
obtained from Strychnos Colubrina ; but he rejects its claim, in- 
clining at length to consider what is described by Kaempfer un- 
der the name of Radix Mungo as the genuine drug, which be- 
longs to the species called by Linnteus Ophinrrkiza Mvngos, and 
is figured in "his Materia Medico. This root is exhibited in India 
and Ceylon, not only as an antidote to the venom of the serpent, 
"but also to the bite of a mad dog, and as a remedy in putrid 
fevers. Grimmius, who lived some time as a physician at Co- 
lombo, professes to have made great use of it. Our author sub- 
joins several preparations of this medicine, and presents us (from 
Lochner) with the formula of the famous Lapis de Goa, in which 
S the Mungos root stands as the first ingredient. He concludes 

with an inquiry into the effects of the spurious Lignum Colubrinum, 
the result of which sufficiently agrees with what is related of tlie 
}^u.r Vomica, belonging to the same genus. ■ ' 

22. Radix Senega, llesp. J, KiEANAii&tV^' 1749- 

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As the teffor of the Naia is dispelled in Asia by the Opki&r- 
rhiza, BO is that of the Rattle-Snake^ in Araerjf a, by the Senega. 
After premising the history ofCrotalus korridus^ borrowed chiefly 
from Catesby,- the writer of this paper gives a full botanical and 
medical account of the famous plant, which for so long a time 
the Indians had concealed from the Europeans. He then enu- 
merates ten different species, of which the Europeans, during 
their endeavours to come at the true Rattlesnake rooty tried the 
effects against that subtle venom. Some of these plants are said 
to have been not quite unavailing ; but at length the secret was 
itiscovered by Dr. Tennant, who found the plant in question t» 
be a species of Polffgah, or MUk-wort. The description of 
Pofygala Senega is accomp^iied by a figure of it. The root, 
which is the only part used in medicine, gives an acrimonipuk 
sensation to the palate, unexampled perhaps in the whole 
Materia Medico. We have here its analym', its ^fect as a - 
sialagogue, diureticy and expectorant; its Various preparations* 
and their uses in dropsy, :gout, rheumatism, and a disease which 
is mentioned as endemic in Virginia, under the name of Mara*- 
'miis Virginicus ; and finally it is dwdt upon aa the gfreat specific 
to the venom t)f the Rattlesnake, to which end the IndiafM 
instantly drew iti swallow the jaice, and apply the masticated 
root to the puncture. Hie root of Polygala vulgaris, ^vhich 
grows so plentifully in England, appears from eKpenments U> 
possess the qualities of the Senega, but in a far weaker degree, 
23. Genesis CalcuH, Resp. J. O, Haostrom. 1749' 
Before the writer comes to the immediate consideration 
of the origin of the urinary calmhts, he premises some ob- 
servations on calcareous substances in general, and enumei- 
rates the several kinds of concretions, and their situations, 
in tJic animal body : sttcfi are the Calculus Saliva, PuU- 
3 B momtm 

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monum, Gastncus, Felleus, and Podagra. He then considers the 
component parts gf Urine, and the changes to which it is Hable 
in smell, taste, and colour, from tlie diflFerence of the ingesta. 
Under this article he mentions a singular fact of a gentleman, 
who, after having laboured under an inveterate acidity in the 
stomach, for which he had taken large quantities of chalk, 
found his urine altered so as to have entirely a milky appearance. 
In considering the immediate' formation of calculus, he adopts 
the Boerhaavian theory, and ascribes it to crystallization. Tliis 
leads him to consider all those circumstances which favour and 
accelerate such a mode of concretion, and to seek for somewhat 
analogous to it in the human body, as a predisposing cause of 
.that malady ; which he imagines may be found in Atonia, and . 
the use of acid and fermented liquors. He concludes hi$ theory 
with some curious and apt reflections on the connection between 
cakultts and gout. 

In the therapeutio part, notwithstanding all that had been 
written relative to the power of alkaline medicines, in promoting 
the decoqiposition of urinary calcuU^ the author of this disserta- 
tion does not allow them so much merit as has been attributed 
to them by other physicians. He is inclined to impute more 
efficacy to bitters* particularly as prophylactics^ from Uie idea of 
their striking more immediately at the atony ; and he adduces, 
two cases (communicated to him by Linna;us) of the use of the 
essence of wormwood in this dreadful disease. The disquisition 
concludes with an observation on milk-diet in the stone and 
gout, the efficacy of which he confirms by two well adapted 
instances: these however, agreeably to foregoing remarks, prove 
the necessity of adhering to such a regimen throughout life. Ctae 
of them affords a melancholy lesson of the danger of deserting 
it, in the case of a frencb geuerali who, after SOyears' freedom. 


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from the disease, at the age of 70, died in consequence of a fit 
brought on by one plentiful meal of animal food. 

24. Gemma Arlxtrum. Resp. P. Lofling. 1749* 

This unfortunate young naturalist has here given us a curious 
and elaborate disquisition on the buds of trees, which, till thii 
time, had been less attentively examined than most other parts 
of vegetables. 

Gems, or buds, are small, rounded processes, made up of 
scales, differently arranged, situated commonly on the stems or 
branches, and containing the rudiments of either the future 
flower singly, or of both flower and leaves. Analogous to the 
flower, or leaf-bearing, gem (which latter is the most common), is 
a bulb, placed at the root of many plants; each of these 
contains" an embryo plant, requiring only the genial effect of 
warmth for developement. Gems and bulbs are called by Lin- 
naeus hybemacula (as inclosing the embryo during the >vinter), 
and the former are almost confined to trees of the colder coun- 
tnes. After having treated of the subject in general, the . 
writer exhibits a classification 108 of trees and shrubs> found- 
ed on the different structure and situation of the hybema- 
■cula. In consequence of this arrangement, the species of any 
of these trees and shrubs is supposed to be discoverable, in the 
winter season, and in the state of defoliation, by the buds alone. 

25. Pan Suecus. Resp. N. L. Hbsselgren. 1749. 

The originality and excellent plan of this paper induced Dr. 
PuUency, several years ago, to throw it into a form more imme- 
diately adapted to an English reader, by referring to English 
authors; and it was then laid before the public in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1758 (see p. 4.), accompanied by notes and general 
observations. It was annexed, in a still more enlarged form, to 
the original edition of this work. 

3 B 2 There 


vo thousand experioients, 
id what are rejected, bj 
id bogs. Linoasus con- 
speriments, when he was 
lot until several years af- 
uted, and we may readily 
must have attended the 
takes, as far as circum* 

should all be gathered 
tred to the animals, wheq 
or glutted with variety ; 

of them greedily devour 
,^-sometimes such as are 
hey will not touch. The 
red to several individual? 
Uade only with the iadi* 
fourths of which are the 
ult, it appears that the 
'ere off^ed to them only 

tbe^oo^f, (^449kjnds, 
141; the Wws, of 362, 
>ffi^ed to swintt 72 wer^ 

vegetables, with which 
niished the earth, those - 

form the principal food 
atural classes of plaits, 
lelphous, or Legumtnotu 
1 cultivated in ^oglaod) 
lie-fodder, so generally 
:attle, &c. will, in (heir 

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turn, eat with equal pleasure, and some with more avidity, a 
great variety of other vegetables. Numerous instances occur of 
one species of animals feeding greedily upon what another will 
refuse and almost famish rather than touch. Some plants are 
highly noxious, and even poisonous, to certain animals^ whilst 
they are eaten by others without the least subsequent ill effect ; 
for instance, the long-leaved Water Hemlock (Cicuta virosa)^ the 
most virulent plant that grows spontaneously in England, though 
fortunately not common, is fatal to cows, when, through scarci- 
ty of food, they are obliged to eat it; yet sheep and horees feed. 
on it with impunity, and goats even greedily devour it. 

' Videre licet pittguescere stBpe Cicuta 

** Barh^eroi pecudes, hamini quee est a 


Facta of this kind must, in some measure, have been obvious 
to the most incurious of mankind, even in the earliest ages.. 
The first race of shepherds had daily instances, among their 
flecks, of the selection and refusal of particular herbs, and sub- 
sequent observations must have multiplied and confirmed them- 
It is weU known that Flag-Jlowers, Hoututs-tongue, Henbane, 
Mulleiny Night-thadCt Hemlocky several Docks, Agrimony, Celan- 
dine, several Crowfoots, Marsk'tnarigold, Horehound, Figwort, 
many Thistles^ Fern, and other plants, ate commonly neglected 
by our horses, and homed cattle, and stand untouched, even in 
pastures where it might be expected that necessity would con- 
strain '\bose animals to eat any thing. These are but few out of 
many instances ; there are more than .we commonly imagine ; 
and it was desirable, in consequence of these observations, that 
a course of experiments should be instituted, to elucidate this 
instinct, especially in that part of the brute creation which is- 
so immediately subservient to mankind. The utility of such ex- 

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periments must be evident, as they necessarily lay the foundation 
of further improvements in the oeconomy of cattle. The intelli- 
gent husbandman would, by such means, have it in his power to 
rid bis pastures of noxious and useless plants, and give room for 
the salubrious ones, 

Trom these remarks, it will be seen that physicians are not the 
only persons who may study botany to advantage. The farmer 
and the grazier, by becoming well versed in the knowledge of 
indigenous plants, would be enabled to confer incalculable 
benefit on their respective branches of pursuit, and on oeconomics 
in general. To eradicate from pastures poisonous and useless 
weeds would be but one (although indeed no mean one) among 
many other advantages. The huBbandman would be more com- 
petent to suit his several sorts of cattle to the different pasture 
in his possession ; the advantage accruing to the animals must 
ultimately turn to his own. Even in marshy grounds, where it 
is a difficult undertaking to mend the soil, the growth of many 
plants might be encouraged, and the seeds of others sown, which 
are highly acceptable to different kinds of cattle. By degrees 
too we should undoubtedly be led to the cultivation of other 
vegetables besides clover, as fodder; and the foregoing obsen'a- 
tions imply, that this might be done in soils and situations where 
clover would not thrive. Our hay would in consequence be 
much improved ; for, although cattle will eat among hay those 
herbs which they reject while green and growing*, yet it does 
not follow that all are in their dried state equally nutritive and 
wholesome. In short, the benefits which would arise from a 
diligent attention to the study of plants are no less various 

• A remarkable instance of this is recorded by Dr. Pulteaey, m the Sth volume of 
the Traniaclions of the Linnean Society. 


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than extensive, and would be many more, in all probability, 
within a course of years, than can at present be thought of. 

26. Splachnwn. Hesp. L. Montin. 1750- 

Dr. Montin having, at the instance of Linnseus, made an 
expedition into Lapland (of which notice was taken in page 
133), brought back, among other natural productions, a 
curious and uncommon moss ; and in the present paper he gives 
a botanical history of its genus, called Spldchnum. The first 
species, S. lubrum, singular from the elegant form of its fruc- 
tification, was discovered in Norway by an Englishman, and 
communicated to Petiver. The second (here described) bears 
the trivial name oi hiteum; and our author notices a third, called 
ampullaceum. Since his time, the genus has been augmented by 
additional discoveries. 

On this journey. Dr. Montin had an opportunity of confiiming 
Linneeus's opinion, relative to the cause of a most excruciating 
colic to which the Laplanders are s,ub^ect, and which is described 
very particularly in the Fbra Lapponica, under the head of 
Angelica, a plant used, among other articles, as a remedy. The 
Doctor thought it clear that this disease arises from swallowing in 
their waters the worm called by Linnaeus Gordius aquaticus, and 
well known to Gesner and the older naturaUsts by the name of 
Vitulm aquaticus, and Seta aquatica, as being no bigger than % 

27. Semina Muscorum. Resp. P. J. Bergius., 1750., 

Dr. Bergius (afterwards Professor of Natural History and 
Pharmacy at Stockholm) has, in this dissertation,, thrown con- 
siderable light on the fructification of the second order of plants 
in the class Cryptogamia. Much more, howevej:, ha^ been done 
since the time at which he wrote, especially by Hedwig: se& 
FundaftKntum Ilhtoria Naiuralui Muscorum frondosorum^ It is, 

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now believed that the tribe of Mosses have, with very few excep- 
tions, separate male and female flowers, either ^n the same or Oh 
distinct plants.and that what Linnaeus called antkera are really 
seed-vessels; in fact, Withering informs us (Bot. Arr. of British 
Plants, 1792. Vol. 3. p. 21.) that by sowing the particles which 
these appendages contain, lie repeatedly procured a crop of 
young mosses in all respects similar to their parents. 

28. Matei-ia Medtca e Regno Animali. Resp. J. Sidren. 1750. 
This enumeration contains 67 subjects, and is executed exactly 

on the plan of Linnaeus's Materia Medica e Plaittis, of which we 
have before spoken : see page 94. 

29. PlantiS Camschatcenses Rariores^ Resp. J. P. Halenius. 

A description at large of 26 new Siberian plants, sent to Lin- 
naeus by Gnielin, who had pEtssed almost 10 years, by the com- 
mand and at the expense of the Bmpress of Russia, in invrati- 
gating the natural history of that country. Among liiese plants 
is noticed Cimicifuga fcetida, so offensive and poisonous to the 
insect from which it takes its name. A decoction of this drastic 
herb is used in Siberia (as Gmelin informs us in his Ftora Stb. iv. 
p. 183.) with great success, in dropsiest 

It is a curious remark made by our author, that if journeying 
eastward in Kamtschatka, the botanist sees his nearer approach 
to North America, by the habit of many of the plants ; and 
hence arose a presumptive proof of the vicinity of the tfro con- 
tinents, before real discoveries had confinrt^d the truth of it. 
The author has given a list of several plants, which are actually 
,of the same species as are found in North America. 

30. Sapor Medicamentorum. Resp. J. RuDBStiG. 1751. 
After having premised some general observations on ail the 

.ancient sects of physicians ; felicitated the present age on the 


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rejection of all hypotheses and opinions not supported by experi- 
ments ; and considered the general physiology of the human 
body, Dr. Rudberg proceeds to his subject, which may be re- 
garded as a very instructive comment on the 363d Aphorism of 
the Phihsopkia Botanica, " Sapida infimda ct solida agunt." Under 
this head, all vegetable simples are arranged in 1 1 classes, founded 
CD distinctions arising from their sensible qualities, principally 
as they affect the taste ; as follows, viz. 

1. Sicca. 7- Dulcia. 

2. Aquosa. . 8. Pinguia. 

3. Viscosa. 9- Amara. 

4. Salsa. 10. Acria. 

5. Acida. 11. Nauseosa. 

6. Styptica., 

To these tlie comment is subjoined, expiring the mode of 
their action and effects both on the soHds and fluids, and fre- 
quently specifying the particular diseases in which they are 
respectively employed. A set of apt corollaries are added. 
Upon the whole, this little tract is by no means unworthy of the 
attention of medical students, especially of those who wish to 
comprehend the Linnean theory of medicine. 

To this volume of the Amcenitates are subjoined the three 
orations of Linnaeus, which, as they make part of his own 
proper works, have been spoken of in foregoing pages of our 

Vol. 3. 

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Vol. 3. 

Holm 1756. pp. 464. tabb. 4. 

(Amst.) 1756. • ' — 

Erlang. {Sckreber) 1787. 

31. Nova Piantarttm Genera. Resp. L. J. Chenon. 1751. 

A description, chiefly, of new genera and species of plants, 
broxight from North America by Kalm. By way of preface, we 
have a brief account of authors who had treated of the plants 
of North America prior to that traveller : as Cornutus in 
1625; Banister (in Ray's Kw^or^), inl680; Flukenet, in I69I : 
IJobart, in 1699; Ray (in his Supplement), in 1704; Catesby, 
in 1731 ; Gronovius, or rather Claytpn, in 1739; Mitchell, in 
1748; Governor Colden, in 1743. By the industry of these 
writers, botany had been augmented with 77 new genera, to 
which Kalm added 8. As Kalm's plants have been long re- 
ceived into the Species Pientarum, any further account of this 
paper would be superfluous.— A plate is added> on which are 
engraved 7 of the rarer species. 

33. Plantx Hybridee. Resp. J. HaaHtMan. 1751. 

'Hie subject of this paper is very interesting to botanic science, 
and, being somewhat problematical, has exercised the pens of 
several ingenious men, but none perhaps more successfully 
than that of Gmelin, in his Sermo Academicus de novorum vegeta- 
bilium ortu. (Tubing. 1749-) The present writer acknowledges 
the possibility of this origin, or new creation of vegetables, derived 
from the influence of the farina of one species upon the pistil of 
another, either of the same or of a different genus ; whence 
a hybrid plant is produced. Instances of this admixture, and 
production of monsters, in the vegetable kingdom, have been 
frequent ; but (as in the dnimal kingdom) they have not usually 
been found to perpetuate themselves by producing fertile 
seed. The general effect of culture, and the immense number 


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am(ENiTAtes"academ:icje. -379 

t>f species, with which the African genera in particular, such hs 
Geranium, Erica, Mesemhryanthemum, &c. abound, very much 
favour this hypothesis. A catalogue is given pf 34 species of 
well known plants, supposed to have thus originated ;. noting also 
those from which they are suspected to have sprung; and to 
show the probabihty of such an origin, a comparison is made 
between the several parts and the habit of the supposed parents 
with those of the corresponding hybrid ofi&priug. Another 
list of many other plants follows, in which the traces are not so 
strongly marked. Among theCnglish plants thought to be (^hy- 
brid extraction, we mention Veronica kyhrida, which is believed 
to have arisen from V. officinalis and V. spicata; and Sibthorpia Eu- 
ropaa, from Chrytosplenium alternifolium and Hydrocotyle vulgaris. 

33. Obstacula Mediana. Resp. J. G. Bbyebsteit. 17^2. 

An inquiry into, and coBcise discussion of, the causes that have 
hitherto impeded the progress of medical science. Among other 
obstacles, die writer mentions the force of custom in directing 
prescriptions ; theories founded on assumptions ; neglect of no- 
sology J too little attention to reputed poisons ; timid prescribing ; 
too small dos^ ; ignorance of apothecaries in botany and materia 
medica ; use of compound medicines ; ignorance of the natural 
classes of plants; &c. — all which positions are confirmed bj 
suitable examples and reflections. The laudable, ingenious, 
and well conducted plan which this paper exhibits, every 
friend to the science would desire to see still further illus- 
trated by some auth<»: able to command attention, and to give 
the subject that importance which it deserves. 

34. Planta Esctdentte Pairia. Resp. J. Hiorth. 1752. 

A list of such native plants of Sweden as have been, or in some 

way or otly;r may be, made subjects of culinajy use, principally 

as aliments ; to these are added condiments, and succedanea to 

3 c 2 several 

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several of those articles of exotic luxury, which the opulent 
nations of Europe import from distant parts of the world. It is 
happily not an object of importance, much less of necessity, to 
consult such a catalogue in this country ; but it would be a 
matter of surprise and pleasure to many, to see the great number 
of vegetables, which, in a country from its situation by nomean» 
fertile, may supply the want of bread. The subjects of this dis- 
sertation amount to 127, many of which would demand a place 
in an oeconomical herbal adapted to a much milder climate. 

35. Euphorbia. Resp. J. Wiuan. 1752. 

A complete botanical history of one of the most e&tensive 
genera of plants ; several of which have a place in the Materia 
Medica. 'Jliis genus stands in the Linnean class Dodecandria, 
and furnishes greater instances of anomalies in the habits of the 
species than are elsewhere, perhaps, to be met with ; as it contains 
not only the Euphoi-bium, Esula, and Cataputia of the shops, but 
also all the Tithymali, or Spurges, of authors. Fifty-three spe-' 
cies are described, and their synonyms given, in this disserta- 
tion, together with a general account of their uses In medicine. 
In the Systema Flantarum of Reichard, the number of Euphor- 
bia is augmented to 64. At the present day, they are but 
little used, their extreme acrimony and dr^tic powers being 
too unmanageable. 

36. Materia Medica e Regno Lapideo. Resp. J. Lindhult. 1752. 
Under 72 heads are here comprised all the articles oftheMateria 

Medica irotn the mineral kingdom, digested exactly in the 
method which Linnaeus has observed in his separate publication 
of the Materia Mediea c Regno Vegetabili. 

37. Morbi ex Hyeme. Resp. S. Brodd. 1752. 

Preceding the history of the diseases that arise from winter 

in Sweden, a general account is given of the effects of in- 

* tense 

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tense cold on the animals of that country, in changing their 
colour, a^d diminishing the size of the breed in various species; 
in Lapland, the writer thinks they are instanced in the human 
race itself. We are presented also with remarks on the state of the 
atmosphere; on the production of meteors ; differences obser- 
vable in the particles of the snow ; effects of various and addi- 
tional degrees of cold on the ice of lakes, &c. ; extraordinary 
appearances of the aurora borealis ; prognostics of severe win- 
ters ; signs of the approaching remissions of cold ; and other 
curious particulars. 

The diseases of the winter season in Sweden are more particu- 
larly such as follow. TernioneSy or chilblains, unusually pain- 
ful and untractable. For the cure, among otlier applications 
mentioned, is the diluted muriatic acid, recommended by Lin- 
naeus himself, who had found it useful among the sailors when 
he was physician to the navy ; but it cannot be employed when 
the complaint-is advanced to its ulcerated state. — Paronychia, or 
whitlow, of various kinds, not seldom attended with dangerous 
consequences. — Congestio hyemalis, a species of catarrh ex- 
tremely common, and the source of worse diseases; usually 
caused by sudden transitions from heat to cold, and incautious 
exposure to the latter. Observations on this disorder are ex- 
tmcted from Linneeus's Wastgotd Resa.—Coughsy universal; some- 
times to the disturbance of all public assemblies. — Pleurisies, 
especially among those country people who indulge themselves in 
drinking strong liquors. — Pei-ipneumonies, considered as particu- 
larly endemic among inhabitants of the vicinity of copper- 

The dissertation concludes with a compendious view of the 
effects of cold, and the phanomena of winter; mention being 


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also made of the hard winters in Europe, in 1586, 1665, 
1684, 1709, 1740, and 1752. In the last of these years, tlie 
lowest point of Celsius's thermometer, at Upsala, was 31* (about 
24* below of Fahrenheit's). 

38. Odores Medicamentorum. Resp. A. Wahlin. 1752. 

An ingenious illustration of the doctrine, that those different 
sensations excited in the organs of smell by different odours will 
lead to an explanation of tlie qualities inherent in the bodies 
from which such odours proceed ; their general effects on the 
human frame being also deducible. After a train of general 
explanatory and physiological observations, the author inti'oduces 
Bacon's contrast between youth and old age, in order more 
clearly to illustrate (which he does in a familiar but striking 
manner) the effects of wine and spirituous liquors, in their various 
and progressive operation, on the nervous system, trom their first 
exhilarating effect when taken in a moderate quantity, to their 
intoxicating and fatal issue. Tliis he makes, in some measure, 
the basis of his reasoning on the effect of. other odorous sub- 
stances, which be at length arranges in 7 classes: viz. 

1. Aromatici. Cinnamon; Cardamoms; &c. 

2. Fragrantes. Saffron; Jasmine flowers ; 6i.c. 

3. Ambrosiaci. Musk; Mu^.V. Geranium ; &:c. 

4. AUiaceu Garlic; Assafcetida; &c. 

5. Hircini. Herb Robert ; Stinking Orach ; &c. 

6. Tetri. Opium ; Henbane ; &c. 

7. Nauseost. White and black Hellebore ; Tobacco ; &c. 

The specific effects of each of these clagses are then concisely ex- 
plained, and their reputed mode of operation. This paper may be 
considered as a comment on section 36'2 of the P/nVosopAia, and pro- 
perly accompanies the Sapor Medicamentorum^ mentioned before. 

1 39. Noctiiuca 

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39. Noctiluca marina, Resp. C. F. Adler. 1752. 

M. Adler (who vent as surgeon ia a'Swedish East-India ship 
to China, in 1748) gives an account of those authors who- 
have treated of the luminous appearance of the sea in storms, 
and in the current occasioned by the course of ships. He then 
proceeds to inform us, that it was not until the year 1749 that 
this phenomenon was certainly discovered to "ue owing (in many 
parts of the ocean at least) to an inconceivable number of minute 
insects. One of these insects is the more immediate subject of 
the paper, and is completely described, with a figure of it annexed, 
as augmented by the microscope. It is of the class Vermes, 
and of the order AfoZ/i/sca, and stands in the Stfsfema under the 
name of Nereis noctiluca, being the first of 11 species there de- 
scribed. Its real length does not exceed the sixth part of an 

40. Rkabarbarum. Resp. J. Ziervooel. 1752- 

A botanical and medical histcn-y of Jtheum vnthilatum^ de- 
scribed here under the idea of its being the true Rhubarb, having 
been sent from Russia as such by Professor Gerber to Sprekel- 
Ben, nt Hamburgh, and by him introduced into many gardens.. 
This histOTy however must be transferred to Hhewn palmatuniy 
which is now generally believed to be the officinal sort, and 
of which a description and figure may be seen in the Phi- 
losophical •Transactions (Vol. 55. p. 290.) communicated by Dr, 
Hope, Professor of Botany at Edinburgh, who raised it from 
seeds sent him from Russia by Dr. Mounsey, in 1763. About 
the same time Professor Martyn succeeded in raising this species 
in the botanic garden at Cambridge. It has of late been culti- 
vated in many parts of Great Britain with so much success, that, if 
particular interests did not militate against it, the importation 
of this rootmight soon become unnecessary.— It is not wonderful 


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iWiiTtiJIIj ! 


that Rheum undtdalum should have been taken for the true rhu- 
barb, as both species grcrvr in China, and near tlie famous wall. 
41. CuiBonof Resp. C. Gedner. 1752. 
To what purpose are all the researches of the naturalist ? A 
question which can be dictated onlj by incuriosity or ignorance. 
We will not pay our readers so ill a compliment, as to suppose 
they need the conviction here referred to. Nevertheless, if any 
persons should wish to see wliat reasons may be alleged by the 
naturalist against those who object the frivolousness and inutility 
of his researches, they will most probably receive some satisfac- 
tion from an attentive consideration of this paper, which is in- 
capable of abridgment, and may be properly read with the 18th 
{Curiositas Nsturalis) and the 20th {(Economia Natura). The writer 
has introduced a pleasant and instructive allegory, which Lin- 
naeus himself used on these occasions. 
42. Nutrix Noverca. Resp. F. Lindbbbg. 1752. 
This dissertation is much to be recommended, as containing 
every material argument that has been urged to prove the pro- 
priety and advantage of mothers nursing their infants at their 
own breasts. Several observations on the diseases of children 
are interspersed, and some local observations, which however 
lose their force in this country. 

As the subject has been so ably discussed by several masterly 
pens amongst us, we shall only observe respecting the present 
paper, that Dr. Lindberg allows more force than some of our 
own writers, to those arguments which maintain diseases and 
temperaments to be transmissible from nurses to their foster- 
43. Hospita Insectorum Flora. Resp. J. G. Forskahl. 1752. 
The author of this paper begins by giving a general history of 
all the principal writers on insects, and the method in which they 
7 have 

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have treated the subject, whether in relation to the metamorpkoses 
and oeconomy principally, in the manner of Swammerdam and 
others ; or by giving aba a detail of the species at large, as Ray, 
Reaumur, and De Gear. He then pays merited compliments 
to the Queen of Sweden, on account of the magnificent museum 
which Her Majesty had formed at the palace of Drotningholm, 
a museum very superb in insects, as well as shells, corals, &c. He 
next exhibits his plan : it consists in arranging such insects as are 
natives of Sweden, each under the name of the plant on which 
it is found, or on which it feeds, the references being made to 
Linnaeus's Fauna and Flora Suedca. It would be highly gratify- 
ing to those who cultivate entomology, to see this arrangement 
augmented by the numerous discoveries that have been made 
since the time of Linnteus ; it is a part of the history of 
insects meriting greater attention than has hitherto been paid 
to it ; and nothing could lead more effectually to the means of 
destroying the noxious species. 

There is a publication of a similar nature to this, in England, 
but it relates only to the three genera of PapUio, Phalana, and 
Sphinx; we allude to Martin's Aurelian's Vade Mecum (Exeter 
1785. Svo.), which contains ao English alphabetical, and a Lin- 
nean systematic, catalogue of the plants, with the names of the 
inhabiting insects mentioned under each, and also some miscel- 
laneous additions relative to other substances. 

44. Miracula Insectorum. Resp. G. E. Avelin. 1752. 

This dissertation is intended to awaken curiosity, and excite 
attention to the study of insects, by pointing out the extraordi- 
nary instincts and properties with which particular kinds are 
endued, many of their operations being inexplicable, and fre- 
quently attributed to different causes. 

Nothing exemplifies this truth more than the history of a 
3 D minute 

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BiiDute insect, or rather worm, of which we have, in this paper,, 
the first proper intellfgence ; it is very curious and worthy of 
notice. In Finland, Bothnia, and the northern provinces of 
Sweden, people were not unfrequently seiaed with a pungent 
pain, confined to a point in the hand, or other exposed part of 
the body, which presently increased to a most excruciating de- 
gree, and was sometimes suddenly fatal. This disorder waa 
more particularly observed in Finland, especially about marshy 
places, and always in autumn. At length it was discovered that 
this pain instantly succeeded somewhat that dropped out of tb« 
air, and in a moment penetrated, and buried itself in the flesb> 
The Finlanders had tried a variety of applications to no purpose, 
until at length a cataplasm of curds, or cheese, was found the 
most effectual for easing the pain : and the event proved, that 
the worm was allured hy this application to l^ve the flesh ; ibr> 
on its removal, this animalcule, no longer thfm one-sixth of an 
inch, was discovered in it, and the cause of the disease thereby 
ascertained. Linnaeus himself once suffered from this animal, as 
he informs us in his Diary ; but we owe the complete history of 
it to* Dr. Solander, who described it in the Nova Acta Upsets 
iiauiay Vol. 1. n. 6. It stands in the interna under the name of 
■Fitria infemalis.. By what means the creature is raised into the 
air is as yet unknown. 

45. Noxa Xn$ectonmi, Resp. M. A. Bjbcknek. 175S. 

A curious and usefid paper, specifying all those insects that 

are more immediately hurtful to animals and vegetaUes. They 

are classed, in 1 1 divisions, according to the several subjects oa 

which they prey, or to which they carry devastation^ 

1. Such as are particularly offensive to man, (Under this head,. 

the author seems inclined to favour the opinion, of St^ 

Andr6,aud some other French physicians and philosophers^^ 




who ascribe to insects tbe cause of many cutaneous atul 
contagious diseases^) 

S.. Such as are destructive within doors, to fumituj-e, clothes, 
grain, &c. (Among these is particularly mentioned the 
Seed-Beetle, Bruchm Ptsi, the cause of great destruction 
to peas in Pennsylvania, and which has found its way into 
souliiem Europe. See Kalm's Travels, English edition. 
Vol. 1. p. 17&) 

3. Such as are destructive to fruit-bearing trees, and culinary 

A. To trees, woods, stove and green-house plants, &c. 

5. To corn-fields, pastures, &c. 

6. To horses, honied cattle, and other animals. 

The subjects of this paper and the two preceding, are of great 
importance in rural oeconomy, and might be introduced with 
propriety into an (Economical Herbal^ that should specify, in 
treating of each plant, the species of insect inhabiting or feeding 
on it. 

46. Vemalio Arbomm. Resp. H. Barck. 1753. 

A curious essay (perhaps the first on the subject) relative to , 
the leafing of trees in Sweden, being the result of a variety of 
observations made, at the request of Linaseus himself, in almost 
all the provinces of that kingdom, and intended to lead, as if 
by the dictates of nature, to the true time of committing the 
grain to the earth. A table is exhibited, showing at one view the 
days on which 19 species of trees, ail natives of Sweden, put 
forth their leaves in 3 successive years. The same table shows 
also the day on which barley was sown, and reaped, in all the 
same provinces. From another table it appears, that, at Pithea, 
:(which is situated in about 63 N. L.) on an average of 12 years, 
there intervene 85 days between the sowing of barley and its 
.'3 D 2 harvest ; 

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harrest ; and at Upsala (in 60«) the average of 6 years turned out 
to be 105 days. It is concluded, upon the whole, that in Up- 
land, the leafing of the birch-tree should direct the time for 
sowing bailey ; but that diflFerent trees will best indicate the time 
in different places. — Another curious observation follows from 
this paper, viz. That, notwithstanding the difference in the 
number of days between the ripening of barley in Lapland and 
in Upland, the greater length of days in -the former country 
gives a balance of sun equal to the greater number of days in 
the latter. 

A series of observations, made with a view similar to the above, 
may be found in the' Philosophical Tramacttoniy for 1789. They 
relate to various indications of spring, registered at Stratton in 
Norfolk, from the year 1736 to 1788, and arranged in tables. 

47. Incrementa Botanices. Resp. J. Biuur. 1753. 

A concise history of the rise, fate, and progress of botanic 
science, from the first traces of it to the present time. It is 
divided into 4 periods, or epochs. 

Theirs/ period includes only the ancients, by whom are un- 
derstood Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Pliny. These 
being chiefly compilers, did little more than to deliver the tra- 
ditions of the times, and many of their plants, after the com- 
mentaries of more than a century, are not to be recognized by 
their descriptions to this day, so little had they extended their 
ideas to specific distinctions ; yet we must venerate their writings, 
as the only remains of the science transmitted to our times. 

The second period commences with the restoration of letters, 
after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. It begins with 
Brunsfelsius, and ends with the Bauhins. 

The third, which is called the period of the Sifsfematics, is 

continued to the time of Linnaeus, who effected that great 

7 ■ reformation 

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reformation in the whole science, by which it is fixed as on a 
new basis. 

The conclusion of the paper contains some information relating 
to the introduction of figures cut in wood for the old herbals ; 
whence it appears, that Plantin, the famous printer at Antwerp, 
monopolized almost all the figures of this kind during his time, 
and became the principal printer for botanical books. By such 
means, Norton, the printer of Gerard's Herbal, procured from 
Frankfort all the figures we see in his book, which had before, 
served for an edition of Tabemamontanus's Herbal in 1588. 
48. Demonstrationes Tlaniarum. Resp. J. G. Hojer. 1753. 
Intended chiefly for the nee of those pupils who attended thd 
botanical lectures in the Upsala garden. The paper contains 
a list of the exotics therein cultivated (as they stood in 
this year) amounting to nearly 1450 distinct species, which in 
590 — 5x' N. L. is no inconsiderable number; all double flowers 
and varieties being excluded . Since the invention of trivial names, 
this list is the first specimen of their use in forming compendious 
catalogues.— An observation occurs which may appear rather- 
paradoxical to some readers : several of the plants that are 
natives of southern Europe produced seeds this year, without 
showing any corolla. It may seem strange too, that Lapland and 
Alpine plants should perish, though in the same situation, through 
cold ; but it is true, and the fact is, that, in their native situations, 
they are, at the change of the season, instantly covered with 
snow, and thus defended from injury. 

49- Jierbationes Vpsalienses. Resp. A. N. Fornander. 1753. 
As the foregoing catalogue comprehends those of the garden, 
this exhibits the indigenous plants of the neighbourhood, of Up- 
sala, found on the botanical surveys which the Professor made 
with the students, and which were usually about eight in num- 

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ber, every year. The writer notices the custom with other Pro- 
fessors, (as Bemhard de Jussieu at Paris, HaUer at Gbttingen, 
and Strumph at Halle,) to accompany their pupils on similar ex- 
cursions ; the utility of which is obvious, as they afford students 
opportunities of seeing plants in their native places of growth, 
and also of making additions to the indigenous species already 

This laudable custom was commenced, at an early period in 
our own country, by Johnson (the editor of Gerard's Herbal), 
who was accompanied by some of the London Society of Apo- 
thecaries on annual botanicai excursions, in different counties, 
and whose Jt£r in Agrum Cantianum (1629), Ericeitan Ham~ 
stedianum (1632), and Mercurius Botanicus (1634), were the records 
of his observations, and in fact, the earliest local catalogues 
published in England. After the endowment of the Chelsea 
Garden, the associations were put under regulations, and the 
periods of their herborixations fixed. Besides six circuitsmade by 
the demonstrator for the instruction of the young apprentices of 
the Society, once in every year there is a general berborization, 
when the Court of Assistants and other gentlemen attached to 
botanical pursuits accompany the students to a considerable 
distance from London, collect the scarce plants, and dine to- 
gether in the country, the demonstrator, before their return, 
calling upon his pupils to report on the discoveries of the day. 

The herborizations instituted by Linniaeus at Upsala seem to 
have been conducted under circumstances peculiarly advanta- 
geous to those who attended him, and there was even a con- 
siderable degree (rf Sclat attached to them. We are informed 
in his Diary, that the party used to collect both plants 
and insects,, to shoot birds, &c. keeping minutes of their 
proceedings, and receiving instructions in all these branches 
2 from 

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from the Profesaor, wlio was generally accompanied by 200 
students, besides foreigners and persons of distinction attending 
from curiosity. The excursions commenced at 7 o'clock in the 
morning, and continued until 9 in the evening, when the party 
returned through the streets of Upsala in a kind of festive pro- 
cession, with flowers in their hats, the music of drums and 
trumpets (which were used on their rambles for calling the 
students togther), and loads of natural productions collected on 
the day's excursion. 

It is much to be wished that a reofeation in all respects so 
rational were established 'm other similar places of education, as 
U would at least diminish th^ number of votaries to other amuse- 
ments, which involve intemperance and prodigality. 

50. Itiitructio Mmei Rerum Naturalium. Hesp. D. Hultuan. 

The method of forming a museum for the purposes of natural 
history in all its brar*ches, with directions for collecting, pre- 
serving, and disposing the subjects. — We are presented also with 
an enumeration of the best repositories of this kind in Sweden : 
as the Queen's museum, rich in shells, insects, and corals ; the 
King's, in amphibia, fishes, vermesy and the birds of Sweden ; 
Count Tessin's, abounding in fossils, gems, shells, &c. ; Chancellor 
Gyllenborg's ; the museum belonging to the Boyal Academy ; 
Stobseus's at Lund ; and Ziervogel's at Stockholm. The method 
of drying and preserving plants for a Hortus siccus is given, fol- 
lowed by an account of the more celebrated collections of this 
kind ; also, the mode (perhaps more curious than useful) of cast- 
ing an artificial plant, which consists in forming a mould with 
plaster over a real plant placed in a vessel, then burning the 
inclosed one to ashes (which are to be shaken out), and. filling 
the cavity with melted silver. 


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This little tract has been published in Holland, for the use of 
merchants dealing in subjects of natural history. 

Vol, 4. 
Holm. 1759. pp. 600. tabb. 4. 
(Lugd. Bat. 176O.) 
Eriang. (Schreber) I788. 

51. Planta officinales. Resp. N. Gahn. 1753. 

The scope of this paper is entirely pharmaceutical, and, 
though it may be superseded now, it must have been very useful 
at the time of its publication, having been drawn up for the 
benefit of the apothecaries in Sweden, in consequence of some 
new regulations meditated by the College of Physicians under the 
presidency of Dr. Back ; and it was highly acceptable also to 
others, as being probably the first list of the medicinal plants to 
which the Linnean synonyms had been accommodated. This 
paper contains, 

1. A catalogue of the vegetables of the Materia Medico (nearly 
580 in number), specifying the payts of each used in medicine, 
to which are opposed the Linnean generic and trivial names from 
the Species Plantarum ; marking also, by a diflerent character, 
all such as the author thought might be expunged. Then follow 
directions for gathering and preserving the several plants, or such 
parts of each as were in use. 

9. A catalogue of such plants as grow spontaneously in Swe- 
den ; many of which had been needlessly imported. 

3. Catalogues of such as might be advantageously cultivated 
for medicinal purposes; of such as are imported from distant 
quarters of the globe; &c- 

52. Ce7tsura 



52. -Cemara Simpticium. R«p. G. J. Caklboiim. 17o3. 
A very instructive paper, consisting principally, after some 
pertinent observations, of two lists of plants : 

1. Such as the writer thinks might be expunged from the Ma- 
teria Medica, without inconvenience. 

2. Such as might be advantageously received into that cata- 
logue, their virtues having been sufficiently ascertained to Justity 
such an introduction. — To this latter is subjoined, under every 
article, the quality of the plant, and also the writer's autliority 
for allowing each its designed rank. 

A paper of this tendency is well worthy of attention, since it is 
only by such inquiries that the Materia Medica can be enriched 
and improved. 

55. Canis familiaris* Resp. E. M. Lindecrantz. 1753, 
This natural history of the Dog was one of the earliest com- 
{Jete exemplifications of zoological description according to the 
principles of the Linnean school, as laid down in the Met/iodu$ 
Demomtrandi. The writer considers the whole canine race as 
reducible to one species, and distinguished from other congene- 
rous animals, such as the wolf, hyaena, fox, &c., not only by the 
curvature of the tail, which is usually to the left, but by the 
disposition of the sutura velleria (or ridges formed by the meetmg^ 
of the several courses of hair on various parts of the body), and 
the number and situation of the vtrrucay or warty risings in tho 
Jace, In these distinctions, heretofore unnoticed, all the varie- 
ties of the dog (of which 11 are specified) agree. The proper- 
ties and uses, togetlier with the diseases, of this animal are fully 
described. Our author tells us, that the natives of Lapland and 
Dalarnc are in possession of some secret by which they instantly 
riisurui the most furious dog, and oblige him toily with all his 
3 E _ usual 

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usual signs of fear, becoming silent at oiice» and dropping hi»- 
tail. 1'his art is said to be not unknown in England. 

Mr. John Hunter was of opinion that the Wolf and the Jackiil' 
are varieties of the Dog. (See PhiK Trans. Vol. 77. p. 253 — 966. 
Vol, 79. p- 160—161.) 

54. Sfationes Plantarum. Resp. A. Heden^bero. 1754. 

The object of this paper is to prove, that the knowledge of 
the natural places of growth of plants is the true foundation on- 
which the art of gardening successfiiUy must be established, 
llie author laments that botanists, and wrlten of Florae have 
been too remiss in their observations of this kind ; whence num- 
bers of exotic seeds and plants have failed to produce flowers, 
and to perpetuate themselves in gardens. He mentions a re- 
markable instance in the Nitraria Schoberif which, remftined desti- 
tute of flowers, in the Swedish gardens, for 20 years; at length,, 
as has already been remarked (see p. 349)) Linnseus rendered 
it fertile by means of salt scattered about the ro<^. The know- 
ledge of the Stationes Plantamm is equally usefol also ia assist- 
ing the researches of the practical botanist. 

Every plant has its natural situation and soil, in which alone 
it will thrive, and out of which, m many instances, no care ot 
culture will preserve it alive. The knowledge ef this axiom (as. 
tar as respects indigenous plants) is applicable to purposes of 
agriculture ; and with this view the author has given an arrange- 
ment of the Swedish plants, divided into 6 classes, according ta. 
their several places of growth, as follows ; 

1. Aquatic. 4. Upland. 

2. Alpine. 5. Moantaiuous. 

3. Sylvan. 6. Parasitic, 

These again arc subdivided; the aquatics into marine, marv- 
1 time^ 

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iime, tnarsk^ and hog plants; and so on. Afterwards follow 
definitions of the terms, explaining the nature of these diftcreut 
toils and situations. 

55. Flora Anglica. Resp. J. O. Grufberg. 1754, 

At the time of the publication of this paper, the linncan 
system of botany had made but little progress in England ; to 
such, however, as had adopted it, this must have been a very 
acceptable present, as being the first arrangement, in that 
method, hitherto given to the English plants; as also the first 
of those compendious Flora, in which the newly-invented 
trivial names had been exemplified, and which are now, so 
much to the advantage of science, generally used. 

The author first discusses the utility of such local catalogues, 
and of adhering to the trivial names. He then concisely de- 
scribes the climate of England, and its different soils and eleva- 
tions, as favouring the growth of particular plants. Some of 
the plants which are peculiar to England are mentioned, and 
also the points in which those of Sweden differ from ours. He 
says that Sweden abounds more in alpine, upland, and wood 
kinds than England, which latter country excels in marine 
plants and such as afiect a chalky soil, whereas Sweden is almost 
destitute of chalk. 

This Flora contains nearly 1000 plants, but tlie mosses and/«7i^» 
are not introduced. Such as are not found in Sweden are 
distinguished by the Italic type, and of these there are nearly 
300. A list is subjoined of upwards of 100, which the author 
could not fully investigate. 

It may not be altogether superfluous to present the reader 
Tvith a sliort account of the other writers (both antecedent and 
subsequent to the author of this paper), who have treated of the 
indigenous plants of England. 

3 E a The 

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The first attempt to separate the native from the exotic botanj" 
of this island was made by Dr. William How, whose work is 
named Phytologia Britannica, natales exhibem indigenarum Sttr- 
pittm sponte einergentium. (Lond. 1650. 12mo.) ITie plants are 
arranged in the alphabetical order, and are above 1200 in num- 
ber ; but it must be observed that many of them are mwe varie- 
ties, and stiir more not actually natives. This Phytologia was 
followed, in 1667, by the PinaxRervm Naturalium Britannicarumt 
of Dr. Merret, who professing to supply How's deficiencies, enu- 
merated 200 additioTuJ plants; many of these, however, werq 
as Httfe entitled to places in a British Flora as others introduced 
by How. The accurate Ray, who published his Cdtalogus Plan- 
tarum AngUa only 3 years afterwards, did not venture to register 
more than 1050 ; but to this number lie afterwards added about 
50, in the new edition of his catalogue printed in 1677, and at 
length in the 2d edition of liis Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Bri^ 
fannicarum (I696. Svo.)*, he augmented the list to full 1600 
species, of which few have since been expunged, so cautious 
was this excellent botanistnot to adinit doubtfiil natives into his 
enumeration. In the year 1724, some time after the death of 
Ray, a third edition of his Synopsis was published (by Dillenius)^ 
containing 450 additional species, on the authority of various' 
contemporary botanists, But more especially of die editor him- 
self, and of Doctors Sherard and Richardson. From the pen- 
of an obscure individual, named Wilson, the Synopsis assumed ^ 
in 1744, an English dress, and, by the addition of a botanical- 
dictionary and several figures, became well calculaled- to render 

* The first edition oF lliis- work, pubUtbed in l6sO> contains S50 more spetueg. 
than the Calalogus, some of which, whoity new, had been before enumerated in this, 
author*! Fascicutas Stirpium Britannicarvm. (1688. 8vo.}, 





the science more generally understood in the coimtiy : ijulccd 
this work is to be considered as the first methodical Flora of 
England published in the vernacular language. None of Jhcse 
writers, however, though scientific had hccn substituted' fo? 
alphabetical arrangement from the time of Ray, had as yet at- 
tended sufficiently to genuine specific distinctions. Hence the 
9200 plants containett in Dillenius's edition of the Spiiopsis did^ 
not stand the test of Linnean rules, which reduced the Flora 
Anglicavevy considerably; so that Hudson, in the first edition 
of his work bearing that title (1762. 8vo.), did not include iii 
it more than 1566 species. The Flora of Hudson was the ear- 
Kest performance (if we except the Flora Britannica-, of Hill^ 
which scarcely deserves mention here)* that professed to- describe 
in a complete manner, a^eeably to the system of Linnaeus, the 
aative plants of these islands.. To this work, which came to a 
new edition, and was much augmented, in 1778, succeeded the- 
Botanical Arrangement of British Ptanls^ by Dr. Withering, who,- 
though not the first writer that published the British Linneaa. 
Flora in English*, has been excelled by none in his endeavours- 
to render the study of indigenous botany easy and useful to liis 
countrymen in general.. The Sotaniaal Arr-angement, after 
having gone through three editions (the last of which was com- 
pleted in 1796) increased the British catalogue to 2600' plants.. 
Fn 1790, an elegant serdes of figures was commenced' by Air.. 
Sowerby, which, with the descriptions by Dr.. Smith accom- 
panying- them, renders English botany more susceptible of being- 
easily studied than ever, and with the new Fkr-a BrUamiica^ of: 

* There is a " Generic and Specific Description of British Plants, translated frcm ■ 
the Gvnera and Speciee PlanUrum of lAnnaus," by James Jenkinson. (Kendal \7JS,. 
6.V0. with plate«.) Withering's work appeared the year after. . 


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which the scientific student is anxiously awaiting the completion, 
may be considered as establishing the phytology of our island 
on a basis of greater accuracy and authority than any other 
country in the world can hitherto boast oil 

56. Herbarium AmboinetiM. Resp. O. Stickman. 1754. 

The work entitled Herbarium Amboinense is cme of the greatest, 
and m(»t magnificent botanic treasures ever published. We owe 
it to the singular zeal and industry of Rumphius, who lived up- 
wards of 40 years in Amboyna, and was Consul there under the 
Butch East India Company. He sweetened the leisure houcs of 
his life by an uncommon and successful application to'the study 
of natural hist^^ry, which he pursued in ail its bruiches, but 
particularly in botany. He had the misfortune to lose his family 
by the fatal earthquake of 1674; and some years afterwards, 
having collected materials for this work, and meditated returning 
to Europe, he suffered the loss of his sight from a cataract, in 
whicii state he lived 20 years, and died in 1706. The Herbarium 
Amboinense comprdiends not only the plants of Amboyna, but 
also tliose of Malacca, Banda, and the neighbouring islands, 
and (allowing for the time when it was written) contains excellent 
descriptions of them, with a copious account of their uses. 
Though inferior to the Hortus Malabaricust as to the engravings, 
it excels that work in the history of the subjects. There are 
nearly 1000 vegetables described in it, and of these a great 
number were entirely new to the European botanists ; and more 
than 700 are engraved. The manuscript was 30 years in the 
possession of the Dutch East India Company, and was rescued 
from oblivion by tlie interest and extraordinary steal of the editor. 
Professor Burmann, of Amsterdam, who also, with great ski)] 
and industry, extricated the synonyms as far as possible, and 
subjoined such as were appropriate to each description. He 


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tcgan this publication in 1741, and finished it in 1750 (in 7 
Volumes folio), except a small supplement, which was not pub- 
lished until 1757- In 1769, the editor rendered the work still 
more useful, by the publication of an alphabetical index with 
th« Linnean synonyms, and a like one adapted to the Hortus- 

The pupils of the Linnean school much regretted, that the 
Herbarium Amboinense had not been completed before the pub- 
lication of Linnaeus's Species Flantarum, that the synonyms 
might have be^n introduced into tliat work. To remedy the de- 
fect was the intention of Dr. Sticftman's. paper, in which the 
subjects are arranged in the order of the original work, with the 
Lijmean name annexed to each ; and afterwards, as many as 
eouki be extricated are formed into a P/ojw, according to the 
sexual system- 
It is to our neighbours the Dutch, that botanists-are obliged' 
for two of the most valuable perfonnances, in the history of fo- 
reign vegetables,- that are yet extant^ this of Rumphtus, and the 
Hortus Malabaricus of Uheede. 

5Z- Cervus Tarandus. Resp. C, T. HoptBERc. 1754. 
In this dissertation we ha»e a- complete history of the Rein- 
deer, an animal which constitutes almost' the sole riches, not 
only of the Laplandier, but of the other arctic inhabitants of the 
globe. In Lapland' more particularly, the whote res^pecnaria re- 
spects- this- animal, which is more especially domesticated in. 
tliat country. In summer, the Rein-deer feeds on various herbs, 
but rejects a considerable number that are eaten by others. Of 
the species- thus refused,, the reader is presented witli-axatalogiir,- 
&om tlie experiments of a curious observer. In winter, they arc 
sustained solely by the Rein-deer Livenvort {Lichen pangifcnunsf, 
with which the Alps of the north arc cqx'ered.. 'I'he Rein-dccr. 


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are obnoxious to many diseases, which are all here distiHcUj de- 
scribed, and particularly those arising from the nidificatioa of 
Oestrus Tarandiy which are adverted to in various parts of Lin- 
jiaeus's writings. 

Since this respondent's time, various dissertations have been 
written on the animal here treated of, but most of the authors 
have borrowed largely from the present performance. 

^8. Ow«. Resp. J. Palmjeaus. 1754. 

The natural history of the Sheep is here given, on the same 
plan as that of the foregoing paper, and abounds with many in- 
teresting observations. The genus, species, and varieties are 
described ; many physiological observations are interspersed ; a 
list is given ofthoseplants which the sheep does not eat, amount- 
ing (jrom the experiments of the Pan Suecus) to upwards of 140 
species ; some are pointed out that are particularly grateful, of 
which number are the Sheep's Fescue Grass {Festtica ovina)^ and 
the Sheplierd's Purse, Thlaspi Bursa Pastoris ; and there is also an 
iCQumeration of such as are highly noxious and poisonous to this 
animal,^ — as the Corn Horsetail (Equisetum arvense), Spearwort 
( Ranunculus Flammula), Lancashire Asphodel {A nthericum ossifra- 
gum)*y Mouse-ear Scorpion Grass i^Myosotis Scorpioides), Wood 
Anemoije {4fiem<me nemorosa), and Dog's Mercury {Mercurialis 

In treating of the diseases of sheep, the author inquires par- 
ticularly into the nature of the rof, or dropsy, occasioned by 
worms {fasfiioltf hepatica) in the liver, which, he thinks, arc 
gwallowed by the animal in marsh water ; and he proposes salt as 
a preventive of their effects. Dr. Nicholls has described this 
(liscase in the Philosophical Transactions (\'v\. 49- p. 24?), and his 

* Narthccium ossifrogum, of Smith's Fhra Britamiica. 


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am<e:nitates academics. 401 

paper cannot be less useful to naturalists, and lovers of rural 
oeconomy in England, than the one now before us to an iotelU- 
gent Laplander. 

59. Mus Porccllus. Rcsp. J.J. Naumax. 1754. 

A zoological tract relating to the animal with us usually called 
Guinea Fig^ the Indian Rabbit of the old authors, and the Cobai/a 
of the Brasilians. It was placed by Linnseus in the genus !/«», 
but, in the 13th edition of the Systema Naliira, it bears the name 
of Cavia Cobaya. 

The writer treats largely of the whole oeconomy and manners 
of this restless little quadruped ; his observations are evidently . 
the result of long acquaiutance and attention. He says that the 
flesh is delicate food. 

60. Horticultura Academica. Resp. J. G. Wolluath. 1754. 
This paper is intimately connected with No. 54, Stationes 

Plantantm. In the beginning it is laid down as an axiom, that 
horticulture depends on a perfect knowledge of the climate of each 
plant, and of the soil in which it flourishes in its native country. 
As a striking histance of the necessity of paying regard to proper 
soil, and to induce cufious people who transmit seeds and plants 
to Europe to be more accurate in this particular, the writer men- 
tions Ricotia Mgyptiaca, which no management could bring to 
flower and fruit, until Linnseus suggested mixing the mud of 
the Nile with the earth in the pot: this was no sooner done 
than it succeeded. 

The Linnean terms applicable to the several kinds of gardens are 
here defined ; the hea,t of the different climates is noted, according 
to the graduations of the thermometer of Celsius ; and the various 
.soils and situations suited to each are distinctly enumerated. 

61. Chinemia f^qgerstromiana. Resp. J. L. Udhelius. 1754- 

. The name of M. Lagerstrom haa. already been mentioned in 
3 p this 

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this work as a great friend to science, in his oftice of Director 
of the Swedish East India Company*. Ue «as also a collector 
of natural curiosities himself, and verj libevaily presented to the 
Universit}' of Upsala a considerable number which he had re- 
ceived from China and the Kast Indies ; among these were a col- 
lection of the raedicinal plants employed by the Chinese apothe- 
caries, and & Chinese herbal, in 36 volumes octavo, of which 2 
yonsist entirely of figures. 

The dissertation before us contains a scientific description of 
more than 50 subjects of natorat history (chiefly birds and fishes), 
received from China by the above-mentioned gentleman. It is 
still of value, as being referred to in the Sijstema of our author. 
Fifteen figures are annexed. 

62. Centuria Plantantm. Resp^ A. D. Jpslenius. 1755. 

63. Centuria 2 Plantarvm. Resp. E. Torher. 1756. 

Tliese papers contain descriptions of very rare, or heretofore 
undescribed, plants, sent to Linnaeus from various parts of 
the world. Those in the 2nd Centuria were transmitted to 
him by Seguier, from Verona; by Sauvages, from Montpellier; 
by Dr. Burmann, who had received them from the Cape of Good 
Hope ; and Some by Miller, from Chelsea. The time elapsed 
since the publication of these dissertations has not rendered 
them useless ; for they are closely connected with the Species 
Plantarum, are referred to in that work, and remaia as so many 
illustrations of the system of Linnaeus. 

64. Somnus Plantarum, Resp. P. Breurr. 1755. 

The subject of this paper, at the thne of its publication, ex- 
cited the attention of philosophers throughout Europe. That 
nocturnal change to which certain plants are liable, and which 
is here analogically called sleeps is more particularly manifested 

f See p. 180. ia 

Dan cdb, GoOQIc 


in such species as are furnished with pinnated leaves, and of 
those the class Diadelphia affords the greater number. The 
■change consists in the different position which the foliolcsy or 
small leaves, assume in the niglit, from that which they exhibit 
in the day. Slight notices of the phenomenon are to be found 
in the antients ; in this paper the observations are extended so 
far as to include upwards of 40 species, which are here enume- 
rated, and divided into 10 classes, according to the differences 
observable in the position of the leaves, during this sleeping 
state. Sir John Hill, by a well instituted set of experiments, 
fuHj confirmed the idea tliat this change was owing to the ab- 
sence of light. His experiments were made with the scarlet 
Indian Pea {Abrus precatorius), in which plant the appearance is 
very remarkable, and had been observed by Prosper Alpinus. 

The substance of this paper (as has been mentioned already *) 
was given in English, in the Gewtlemans Magazine for the year 
1757, by the author of the present work. 

63. Fuiigus Melitensis. Resp. J. Ppeiffer. 1755. 

This plant, notwithstanding the name it bears, is vdry faj: 
removed from the tribe of Tungi; it produces perfectly di- 
stinct flowers, and belongs to the monandrous order of the clam 
Moncecia, being called by Linnaeus Cy«omori«m coccineum. 

The Maltese Fungus is a parasitical plant, singular in its form, 
(which is litUe more than that of a simple stalk, about a finger's 
thickness, and 6 or 7 inches long,) and, in its state of fructifica- 
tion, the whole may be considered as an amentum, or cat- 
kin. It is found on the coast of Barbary, in Sicily» and, 
sparingly, in Malta; springing from the roots of trees and 
shrubs, like Asartim Hypocistin^ with which it agrees also, in its 

» Page 5. See also P\il. TVaw. Vol. 50. p. 906— .S17. 

3 F 2 sensible 

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sensible qualities and effects, and it is used in the countries 
just mentioned as an astringent medicine. The writer of the 
present paper gives us, from the Acta Bononiensia^ a detail of 
experini^ts made with this and several other subjects of the 
same kind, to determine their comparative astringent and anti- 
septic powers on the human blood ; from the result of which, he 
tells us that the author was led to consider this, plant as one of 
the safest and most powerful of the class. 

66. Metamorphosis Plantarum. Resp. N. E. DAHLBEno. 1755. 

The subject of this paper scarcely admits of an abridgment, 
according to our contracted plan. In order the more clearly to 
explain what the author calls Metamorphosis Plantarum, he de- 
livers, in a concise manner, the Linnean doctrine of the physiology 
of plants, which supposes that the flower is nothing more than 
an expansion, or evolution, of the trunk, or stem, in the following 
arrangement, namely : the cortex, or outer bark, is ultimately 
converted into the periiintfiium, or cup; tlie liber, or inner bark, 
into the corolla, or blossom ; the lignum, or woody part, into the 
stamina, or chives; aiid the medulla, or pith, inio iXxepistillum, 
or pointal. Hence, whatever causes can disturb the usual, 
"natural, and regular expansion and evolution of these parts may 
be supposed to occasion great variety and changes in the ap- 
pearance of plants ; and thait such effects are brought about by 
change of climate, difference of soil, situation, air, culture, and 
perhaps various other (yet unknown) circumstainces, is certain. 
To these sources must be traced the varieties we observe in the 
leaves, flowers, and roots, whether permanent or not. The 
doctrine is here illustrated and confirmed by numerous examples ; 
and the young and iriexperienced botanist is guarded against the 
■delusion freqiiently occasioned by the operation of these causes, 
which are very extensive in the vegetable kingdom. 

67. Caleudarium 



67. Calendarium Flora. Resp. A. M. Berger. 1756. 

ITie Calendar of Flora is intended to exhibit the progress of 
the seasons, as they are manifested by the times of the flowering 
of different plants, which in every species appear to be deter- 
mined by some fixed law of nature, and from an observance of 
which (after a sufficient course of experiments has been made) 
the author thitiks that the sowing of grain, and many other 
branches of rural ceconomy dependent on the seasons, might in 
every country be better regulated, than by the rules in common 
use. The tables in this paper were formed from observations 
made on the common plants of Sweden, in the garden at Upsala, 
in 1755. The subject is connected with the return and departure 
of migratory birds, and furnishes many curious and useful hints; 
but we do not enlarge upon it, as the dissertation was translated, 
and published with an English Calendar of Flora, by Stillingfleet, 
to which we refer our readers for more ample information. • See 
also the Vernatio Arhqrwn {No. 46 of this collection), a paper 
strictly connected with the Calendar of Flora. ^ 

Several naturalists have treated of this curious subject, in Eng- 
land, since'Stillingfleet's time : as, Professor M artyn (in the Trans- 
actions of the lAnnean Society , Vol. 4. p. 158 — 163.); White {in his 
Naturalist's Calendar, 1795.); Markwick (in White's works, Vol.2. 
p. 12 1—156.) ; and Mr. Dawson Turner, whose observations relate 
more particularly to the flowering of marine plants, (in the Lin- 
^lean Transactions, Vol. 5. p. 126 — 131). 

68. Flora Alpina, Resp. N. N. Amann. 1756. 
The Alps of Europe produce a set of vegetables very different 
from, and incapable of culture in, the lower situations. Our 
correspondent, who was a native of one of the provinces border- 
ing on the Alps of Lapland, with a laudable zeal for the im- 
provement of his country, inquires what kinds of vegetables 





might be cultivated with the mist advantage io those desei't 
regions, where so few thrive ; where shrubs scarcely ever attain 
even a moderate size ; and where a tree will hardly grow erect. 
To this en<l, he enumerates all the alpine parts of Europe, and 
gives a list of 400 plants peculiar to those situations. He ex- 
presses a wish, that at the royal, or public, expense, a garden 
might be planted in the Lapland Alps, to determine with preci- 
sion what exotic plants would bear introduction into that coun- 
try; and concludes with pointing out some of the esculent and 
medicinal kinds, as also some that are applicable to dying and 
other arts, which he thinks might be cultivated there, to much 

69- l-'lora Palastina. Resp. B. J. Strand. 1736. 

Many commentators have employed themselves in determining 
the plants of the sacred writings, among whom none are thought 
to have been more successful than Professor Olof Celsius*, who 
was not only well qualified by his skill in the learned languages, 
..especially the oriental, but was himself also an excellent bota- 
nist. He lamented that, by a singular fate, whilst the mission- 
aries of the Romish church had, in various other parts of the 
world, been very instrumental in improving natural science, 
Pulsestine had been entirely neglected ; hence he was doubly so- 
licitous to recover the collection of his countryman Hasselquist, 
and much rejoiced when it was redeemed, hoping that an in- 
spection of the subjects would throw great light on his favourite 
pursuit of illustrating the phytology of the scriptures. Hassel- 
quist had particular instructions to attend to this point; how 
well he acquitted himself of the task is proved by the present 
Flora, which is framed chiefly from his discoveries. 

* The celebrated work of this author, entitled Hierobotanicon, has been alluded to 
(D p. 34. 



■ This ra.tiilngnc is compilfd in tlie same concise method as the 
other Flur(e oi" these volumes, after tlie generic the trivial name 
only being cited. The author- has ,also availed himself of 
helps (roiii other travellers, whose skill in this department of . 
knt)wlcdi^e was indisputable. Some plants he has introduced 
on the authority of Rau^volf, Prosper Alpinus, Shaw, Pocock, 
and Cronovius. The whole number amounts to 600 species. 
AVherever it was possible, Celsius's names are subjoined; but the 
curious will regret, that the learned author of the Hkrohotani- 
con did not live to give the public another edition of his work, 
as it might have been much improved by tlie new materials 
which had come to his hands* 

The botatny of Palestine has, since the time of Hasselquist, 
acquired great augmentation from the travels of Forskahl (in his 
Fiora Mgyptiaco-ATabica), La Billardiere {Icones Plantarum Stf~ 
ria rariorum. Paris. 1791. 4to.) and others. 

70. Flora Monspeliensis. Resp. T. E. Nathhorst. 1756. 

The happy climate and variety of soil of Montpeltier render ' 
this Flora one of the largest of any. The vicinity of sonte con- 
siderable mountains and forests, and the maritime situation of 
the place, conspire to fe-voar the growth of plants both of north- 
em Europe and of northern Africa, many of which are cotA- 
mon also to the East. This catalogue is compiled from the 
Botanicum Monspelicnse of Magnol (1683), and the Methodus Fo- 
Uorum of Sauvages (1751). The Flora of Montpellicr has since 
been greatly enriched by M. Gouan {^Flora Monspellaca. 1765). 

71. Fundamenta Vaktudinis. Resp. P. Engstrom. 1756. 
The author of this thesis ascribes the foundation of firm health, 

and vigour of constitution, to two sources : 1st, good stamina 

transmitted by parents; 2d, care taken in the education, from 

birth to the perfect state of adolescence. From the first, he 

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thinks that strength in the nervous system, and, from the second, 
that strength of the vascular system, must be derived. In con- 
sidering his first position, he has, in a concise manner, thrown 
together a variety of arguments, which l»e endeavours to confirm 
by the most respectable authorities, to prove that various disor- 
ders are transmissible to the offspring ; also, that {independently 
of the specific disorders thus transmitted by the parent) otliers 
arise in children from enervated and debauched progenitors. To 
the first class he refers mania, epilepsy, gout, stone, and some 
others ; to the latter, particularly the rickets. — In considering 
his second position, he prescribes the appropriate regimen for the 
mother during pregnancy, and for the nurse, whom he would 
always suppose to be the mother. He concludes his remarks 
with some forcible arguments to young men, not to defeat these 
desirable ends, by a course of intemperance. 

72. Specifica Canadensium. Rcsp. J. Von Coelln. 1756. 

In the first chapter of this dissertation, the writer, after prcr 
scnting us with a view of the progress of medical science through ■ 
the several schools and sects of physicians, and after condemnr 
ing that farrago of compound medicines with which practice 
has been so long burthened, consider the return to a more 
simple mode of prescribing as intimately connected with 
its improvement. This leads him to his subject, which is 
intended to exhibit and recommend to notice, a number of 
simples from the vegetable kingdom, used by the natives of 
North America in the cure of their diseases, and some of 
which may be worth the attention of European physicians. His 
catalogue is compiled chiefly from Bartram's appendix, Colden's 
papers in the Acta Vpsalicn^ia^ and from the communications pf 
Kalm. Among the medicines mentioned by Bartram, we have 
the exact method of exhibiting Lobelia syphilitica (the Indian 
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specific for the venereal disease), as delivered to Sir William 
Johnson, who purchased it of the Indians at a great price ; but 
it is much more largely treated of by Kalm. Tliere is a pretty 
full inquiry into the virtues of Spigelia Antkelmintica, or Indian 
I^nk ; Phytolacca Americana^ or Poke-weed ; Polygala Senega ; 
and Geum rivale, used with great confidence in North America as a 
substitute for Peruvian bark. The catalogue contains nearly 40 
plants, and the author concludes with proposing some of them 
which appear most worthy of attention, to be cultivated for 
medicinal purposes in Europe : such are, 
Aralia nudicauUs, 
ColHnsonia Canadensis. 
Lobelia syphilitica. 
Rumex Britannica. 
Polygala Senega. 
Actaa racemosa. 
Phytolacca Americana. 
73. Acttaria. Resp. H. von deb. Burg. 1756. 
Tim writer, after having pointed out the advantages and dis- 
advantages of eating crude vegetables, (showing to what consti- 
tutions such food is adapted), and liaving treated largely of the 
properties of oil and vinegar, describes the sensible qualities of 
the different vegetables eaten in various parts of Europe as sal- 
lads. Eighteen different sorts are enumerated, most of which 
are superseded amonggt us, by lettuce, endive, cresses, and 
celery ; th« last our author thinks particularly Imrtful to those 
who labour under nervous disorders. 

Our countryman Evelyn wrote on the same subject as tliis 
jKspondent. See his "Discourse of Sallets" 

3 G 74. PJmkfJta 



74. Phalana Bombyx. Re*p. J. Lvuan. 1756. 

The history of the Silk-worm, and its culture ; with »ome ac- 
count of the several species of mulberry on which it feeds. The 
white mulbeny is the mo«t acceptable to it ; i»ext the red; and 
then the black. This ivriter thinks it probaUe that silk was first 
wrought by the Chinese, from whom the art might have passed 
to the Persians. The Empenur Justinian attempted to intro^ 
duce the insect into Italy ; but it did not then succeed, neither 
was the proper culture of it brought to perfection until about 
the year 1130, when it Vaa established in Sicily, icoea which 
island it spread into other parts of Europe. 

The author mentions a species of Pbaltena (P. Atlas,) the 
coccoons of Avhich are much larger than those of the silk- 
worm, and the silk much stronger ; but unfortunately they 
arc ditHcult to wind, and are therefore commonly spun. He 
is too sanguiue, perhaps, in supposing that the culture of the 
silk-worm may succeed in so northern a climate as Sweden. 

75. Migrationes Avium. Resp. C. D. Ekmabck. 1757. 

This paper is confessedly one of the moftt complete hitherto 
publehed on the curious subject of the migration of birds, which 
is still involved in considerable obscurity, the cause, with re- 
spect to several species, and the places of their resort b^g un- 
known. As to the greater number of birds, it cannot be doubted 
that the facility of finding their appropriate food in distant 
countries, in different seasons, and their security dnring incuba- 
tion, have the principal share in this part of their oBCcmomy. 

The author observes that m(«t migratory birds belong to the- 

fiat-hilVd order {ANSERES), and the Waders {GRALLM); the 

tbnner breed chiefly in the extreme north, where, from the relation 

of Linnffius, their numbed almost darkens the air, and they are 

1 driven. 




driven southward by the freezing of the lakes and rivers. ]\Iany 
also of the PASSERES^ especially of those with slender bilhi arc 
of the migrating class. Tlie insectivorous retire southward when 
our winter advances, as others visit us, in that season, for the 
sake of the berries. 

It is no small merit in this writer, that he brings together, in 
one view, more completely than any other, all the known specks 
of migratory birds, whether exotic, or indigenous in Sweden. He 
gives a list of all such as are mentioned in the writings of Catesby, 
Klein, and Hasselquist; but the most considerable part of his 
dissertation is employed in a methodical enumeration of the 
native birds of Sweden^ under each of which he mentions (as 
fully as was then possible) the particular times of their migra- 
tions; the places whither they resort; their food, &c.; and he 
interspei^es many other remarks, equally curious and satisfactory 
to those who wish for information in this part of natural history-. 

Many interesting observations on migratory birds of the British 
isles may be found, in Pennant's British Zoology ( Ed. 1776. VoL 9, 
p» 60l — Gi5.) and in the Linneem Transactions (Vol. 1 and 3). 

Holm. 1760. pp. 483. Ubb. 3. 
(Lugd. Bat.) 

Erlang. (Sckreber,) 1788. cum pagg. et tabb. totidem. 
76. Morbi Expeditionis Classicee, 1756. Resp. J. BiERciir-K. 

The author of this paper was physician to tlie fleet of observa- 
tion, fitted out by the Swedes (at the beginning of a war be- 
tween England and France) to act in conjunction with the Danes 
in the north sea. The Swedish squadron consisted of 8 ships of 
3 o 2 tJie 



the line, besides frigates. When Dr. Bierchen received his ap- 
pointment (in August), he found not fewer than IpOO men on the 
sick list, the principal diseases being dysenteries, fevers, and 
the scurvj--. The dysenteries were attended with fever, great 
pain in the bowels, and a very weak pulse. The fevers were oi 
that kind which has been called the Upsala fever, from its hav- 
ing been remarkably epidemical in that city and neighbouriiood. 
This disease was evidently of the typhoid tribe, and was much 
more acute in summer than in autumn.. It was attended, with 
frequent and obstinate haemorrhagieft fh>m the nose, eu'ly in ths 
disease ; a quiet kind of delirium ;: trembling tongue ; twitching- 
tendons ; deafness; petechia;, and vibices.. As the beat declined^ 
haemorrhagy did not so often occur.. The attack of the disorder 
was marked by pain and lassitude of body ; pain and vertigo inf 
the bead; cough; and oppression o§ the breast ; and followed' 
by cardialgia, nausea, vomiting,. turbid (and- sometimes, towards- 
the decline, bloody) urine. The pulse, was weak, and^ many 
patients were seized, in the beginning, with violent fluxesk — 
The Scurry seems to have been attended with the usual sym;>- 

Our authorappears to have been very sedulous in his endeavours 
to discover the causes of the great prevalence of this disease in 
the fleet. In the scurvy, besides the use of salted meats, he at- 
tributes much to the want of sufficient exercise on board the 
ships, and confirms the observations of some other writers, that 
the disease, independently of regimen and diet, decreased when 
the fleet was out at sea, and when the ships were, consequently, 
more agitated by wind and waves, and the men more employed ; 
the contrary occurring when they were in a state of inaction in 
port. He condemns the use of fat and lard, as difficult of 
digestion, and favourable to the disease. In the cure he recom* 


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77. Febi'ia Uptalienm. Reap. A. Bostrom. 1757. 

'Vhe fever here described, which had been remarkably epide- 
uiical in various parts of Sweden, but particularlj at Upsala, 
and which had been supposed by many to be a new distemper, 
is considered by this writer as of the remittent class, and com- 
mon in all other parts of Europe. He determines its type 
to be that of the Hemitritaa of linneeus, or the Semitertian 
of other authors. In some years indeed, he observes, it 
seemed to change its form, was attended with petechia, and 
became contagious ; under which appearance it was named 
Febria peteckizons, and, when attended with delirium and *«fr- 
sultiis tendinum, Fcbris nervosa. In its milder state, especially 
in the spring, it assumed, either a regular quotidian, or a con- 
tinued tertian type. 

In investigating the causes of the frequency of this fever, 
especially at Upsala, our author accedes to the opiniooi diat 
they are owing to moist and foul air, and he thinks that, from 
the situation of the city, the closeness of its streets, and particu- 
larly from the stagnating canals and waters, the prevalence of 
the disorder may fairly be referred to this circumstance. To 
confirm his opinion, he adduces two remarkable instances of 
cities rendered free from these fevers^ by leading off and drying 
up stagnant and putiid waters. 

In the prognosisy he says, a stiffness of the neck was not un- 
common, and that it usually foreboded a long continuance of 
the disease ; it frequently ended in convulsions, and other dan- 
gerous affections of the nervous system. 

Tlie cure of this fever was usually begun by giving gentle eme- 
tics, and repeating them for a few days occasionally; without 
which, it was observed that the bark and other remedies tailed 
to produce their proper effect. GcntJc paregorics and saline 




medicines were interposed, and as soon as a remission took 
place, a table-spoonful of the following preparation of bark 
wias exhibited every two bours ; viz. one ounce was infused for a 
few hours in five ounces of red wine ; the residuum was boiled 
in a sufficient quantity of water to admit of eight ounces being. 
strained olF; and with this tincture and decoction three ounces 
of syrup of oranges were mixed- Blood-letting was commonly 
Ibund to be very hurtful. 

78. Flora Danica. Resp. G.T. Holm. 1757^ 

This Linnean catalogue of the plants of Denmark was formed 
principally from the Viridarium Danicum of P. Kylling, publish- 
ed in l688» which comprehends 1100 species^ A few are intro- 
duced into the present list from Burser's Herbarium^ and some 
from the author's own observations- 

Since the publication of this dissertation, the Flopa of Den- 
mark has been admirably illustrated, and received large acce»> 
sions, from the well-known work successively conducted (under 
Royal patrcmage) by M..M. Oeder, Miiller, and Vahl, and the 
plates in which now amount to>1140tn number. M. Rafn, also^ 
bas proceeded some way in a still more modem phytology of 
that country, entitled Denmarks og Holaieent Flora. 

It is curious to remark how few of the species enumerated in 
Dr. Holm's catalogue are not also natives of Great Britain, — a 
circumstance rendering the collection of figures to which we 
have just alloded particulaTly useful to the British student. 

79- PffMM D)<E/e^ici/3. Resp. J. SuENssoN. 1757. 

This dissertation begins with an enumeration of the several 
sorts of grain used for bread, and a concise account of their 
general qualities, and of the estimation in which they were held 
by the antients. The various kinds of bread, whether leavened,, 
unleavened, or fermented; their nature as articles of nutriment, 
and their different tendencies to acescency, ace then specified. 


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mhe atrthor condemns the too liberal use of it by tlie studious, 
^persons of weak habits^ and such as are troubled with flatulency. 
^He descants upon every part of the process of making bread. He 
describes the different kinds of mill-stones, reprobating strongly 
those formed of sand-stone, and quoting instances of their per- 
•nicious effects (such as are of a talky texture are recommended) ; 
remarks are made on the effects of fermentation, kneading, 
the different degrees of baking bread, . biscuit, cakes, &c., Mid 
also oh the qualities of the unfenuented kinds ; the use of hot 
taew 'bread is considered as extremely unwholesome. He con- 
-cludes with reciting the general properties of bread prepared from 
rice, Turkey wheat, -millet, and sago, and of the substitutes for 
bread used in different parts of the world : wkch are, the Cassava 
(root of Jatropha Maniot), Potatoes, Yams, root of the Sea-rush 
■i^Scirpus maritimus)^ roots of Drop-wort {Splraa Filtpendula), and of 
the Clown's AlWieal {Stach^$ palustris) Lichen InhndicuSj the bark 
of the wild Pine {Pinus sj/lve«tri$) still used in Dalarne, Cbesnuts, 
the seeds of Spurrey {Spcrgula arvensis)^ and others, which are 
enumerated in No. 34 {Planta Esculenta), and to which we may 
odd the berries of Rhamnus Lotus (the Lotus of Pliny) used by 
some of the African tribes. 

80. Natura Pelagi. Resp. J. H. IIagea. 1757. 

A general view of the contents of that vast expanse, the 
Ocean ; and a comparisou between its inliabitaots and those of 
the Eartlu 

In the VEGETABLE kingdom, the reader's attention is direct- 
e! to the Sargazo {Fncus natam)^ which, swimming in a growing 
fitate, covers the deep in some places foj" hundreds of leagues. 

Madrepores and Mi/lepares incrust, as it were, the holtoin of 
liic sta, and form banks, which at length rise into islands. Coral- 
iiiii'Sy Sea~faiis, &:c. are spread over them, as grass on the laud. 

But what words can express the myriads that belong to the 




class VERMES! — the Nereides, illuminattng the deeps ; the Me- 
dasa, or Blubbers, foodfor whales; the^sfen^e, or Star-fish, iSc^//(ra 
pelagica, or Sea-IIare, the Peiutatula, Holothuria PhysaliSf the 
Hepm, Argonautic, &c. 

It were endless to describe the PISCES. The various kinds of 
flying fishes : the Bonito, Albicore, Tunny, Pilot-fish {Gaste- 
ro&teu? Ductor), Sucking Fish {EcJieiieis Remora), the Splendid 
Dolphin, Spiny Ostracion, &c., are subjects both of wonder and 
instruction to the curious eye. 

Among the AMPHIBU, the whole Turtle genus, sleeping on 
the surface of the waves ; thi is Sharks, those tyrants of 

the ocean ; the Toad-fish ; th Frog, rioting in pastures 

of Sargazo, and feeding on -5 agica; 

: Above, the FEATHEREL : the Tropic bird {Phaeton 

<Efh€reus) soaring beyond the reach of the eye; tlie Albatross 
(Diomedea exulans) ; the Man of War Bird {Pelecatius Aquilus)-, 
the Shearwaters [Procellarm), skimming the surface of the sea; 
lastly, the numerous genera of Divers : 

Of i^id MAMMALIA: the enormous Whale, the voracious 
Grampus, the unwieldy Porpoise, the armed Morse, the basking 
Seal, &c.: — all these afford but a small sample of what the 
Ocean offers to the contemplation of the inquisitive and scientific 

81. Buxhaumia. Resp. A. R. Martin. 1757- 

ITichistory, accompanied by figures, of a small plant of tlie class 
Crifpiogamia (Buxbaumia aphylla), singular in being destitute of 
leaves. It was first discovered near Astracan, by Buxbaum, 
Professor of Botany at Petersburg, since whose time it has been 
found in various other parts of Europe, and named after the 
discoverer, by Haller, in consideration of his having enriched 
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natural history with many new |>lan.ts, on an exj^dition to tlijs ■ 
countries borrlerlng on the Casjiian Sea. 

82. "Exanthemata viva. Resp. J. C. Nvandxr. 17o7.' 
I'hc origin of contagious diseases lias exercised the pens- of; 
many ingenious physicians, and various theories hare been in- 
vented, all of which arc concisely noticed at the beginning of this 
dissertation; the author liad befcii led bysomc sihgular circum-' , 
stances to adopt that of Kirclier, /rtliich ascribes those disbasei , 
to animalcula, and which has hdd Jiiariy followers, especially in 
Trance. He proceeds to show the Several analogies that subsist 
in the symptoms of contagious complaints ; and, a$ amm&lcvld 
have been demonstrated in the Jtch, and likewise in the • 
Dysentery, so, he tells us, liavc they also in the Measles, by. 
Langius; in the Plague, by Kircher; in Syphilis, by Haupt-. 
man; in Petechia, bySigler; in the Small 'Pox, by Lusitanus 
and Porccllus; and m the Serpigo, and other cutaneous af-" 
fections. lie then adduces all that occurs in dpfence of this 
theory from the consideration of facts ill the following diseases: ; 
lit. the Itcli, Dysentery, Hooping Cough, Siiiall Pos, Measles, 
I'laguc, and Si/phHis. 

Ill the Itch, the existence of Acarus Sh-o is acknowledged, and ' 
our author thinks it not less certain, that a species of this genus 
exists as a cause of Dysenteries ; to this opinion he was led b^' a 
fact that occurred to Rolander, during his residence in Linnmus's 
house. Rolander had suffered from the dysentery for some time, 
and had been relieved twice by taking rhubarb ; but the disease 
recurred, commonly at the end of about eight days. He wai . 
the only one in the house thus affected. I?y the advice of Lin- 
iia?us, he examined hiS ^gcsia, with a view to prove the truth of 
JBarthoUne's assei-tiori, who relates that he had deen the alvine 



AiimiflTATES ACADEMIC^. 410 

'jdejectiohs in this disciEtse full ttf the rtios.t minute insects, Uolan- 
der's observations on fais own state confirmed the fact ; and he 
•afterwards discovered, that the animaicula were conveyed into 
'his body in water received from a vessel made of juniper wood. 
This Acarus is described in the Sj/stema Natura, under the name 
of J. Dj/senteriee. Our plan will not allow us to follow the 
author through the whole of his disquisition; it must therefore 
suffice to say, tliat it is ingenious, and worthy of the attention 
'of those who wish to be acijuainted with the doctrine which it 

83. TransmutatioFrumetUorum.Jles]>.T^.lIoR^D6a,G. 1757- 
The object of this dissertation is to combat a long established 
'error, which prevailed among some men of considerable 
knowledge, until the time of Harvey, and even now subsists 
among the vulgar, in some parts of Europe: namely, that one 
kind of grain is convertible, by different soils, into an inferior, di- 
stinct, and less useful species; thus Wheat, in an impoverished soil, 
would change into Rye ; the latter into Barley ; llarley into 
Daniel ; Darnel ihto Brome grass ; Brome grass into Oats. 
Some of the antients carried their belief further, supposing that, 
in fertile lands, the reverse would tak<; place. As these ideas 
Vere repugnant to truth, so were they, in many instances, un- 
friendly to improvement. This writer, after having obsoived, 
that among the Romans the Res Ritstica was held in such high 
estimation as to 'induce even men of quality to cultivate lands, 
'laments that, in modem times, it is too much neglected by the 
■great. He therefore urges gentlemen to pursue the history and 
^philosophy of vegetables, through its whole extent, as the foun- 
dation of practical improvements. With this vieAv, he Tcfere 
'them to the many excellent papers on the subject contained in 
this collection. Trom the physiology of plants, the consideration 

3 Hit f>f 

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of their structure, anJ particufaHy of the parts of fiiictification,. 
he shows the futiUty of the ophiibii Avhich has so long subsisted, 
and particularly level's his arguments against that part of 
the error wbieh has gained most hclicf, and remained fongcst in 
the miuds of his countrymen, — that Oats arc tninsniutable into- 

No notice is taken in this dissertation of the Secale coniutum, 
or Ergot, which, with other vitiated grain, has been supposed to 
occasion the Necrosis mtitaginea (of Sauvages's Nosology), and 
Tvhjch is treated of in the Philosophical Transactions, (Vol. 53.. 
p. 523—533. Vol. 55. p. 106— V26.) 

In the Uitgezogte VerhandeUngen (4 I>eel. p. 67^— 7t.) is a letter^ 
relative to the supposed transmotation of grain, addressed by Lin- 
na;us to M. Nozeman, who wrote on that subject in the same work.. 

84. Culina mutata. Resp. M. G^ Osterman. 1-757. 

In a former paper was exhibited a Kst of vegetables which are 
eaten in a. crwrfe state, as sallads. The present is intended to. 
show the change that has taken pltice in the choice of vegetable 
aliments, since the time of the ancients, a number of more 
bland, agreeable, and nutritive plants being now substituted ft>r, 
those which were then in use. 

In this review of the alteration which part of tlie culinary 
system has undergone, the writer gives, under each article, a- 
comparalive sketch of its qualities, andshoivs the superiority of 
the modern substitute. To mention some of the most materials. 

The Nuts and Acorns of the primitive days have given way to 
all the variety of sweeter farinaceous seeds and roots.. 

To the Malvaceous tribe of plants, sonmch used by the^peefcs, 
and Romans, has succeeded the more grateful Spinach; and to. 
the lilite, the Garden Orach. 

The rough. Borage is supplanted by the acesceiit Sorrel ; ainl. 
4. Asparagus-. 

Digitized by 




Asparagus has banished a number of roots, recorded by the 
Roman writers under the name of Bulbs^ though at this day it 
is not easy to determine the several species. 

Our author thinks that the Parsnip, however, has usurped the 
place of the Skirret undeservedly. 

The 13can of the antients, improperly sa called (being the 
root, as well as other parts, of the Indian Water Lily, Nympbaa. 
'Netumbo), is superseded by the Kidney Bean. 

The Garden Rocket {Brassica Eruca) eaten with, and an antir 
dote against, the chilling Lettuce, is banished by the more agree- 
abFe Cresses and Tarragon ; the Apium by the meliorated Celery ; 
the Pompion, and others of the Cucurbitaceous tribe, by tlie 
Melon ; and the berries of the Sumach by the fragrant Nutmeg. 

The Silphium^ or Succus Cyrenaicns^ (which the Romans pur- 
chased from Persia and India, at a great price, and which is- 
thought by some to be the Asafoetida of the present time), is no 
longer used in preference to the Alliaceous tribe. 

To turn- from the vegetable to some of the animal substitutes:, 
we may mention, the Carp among Fishes, as having excluded a. 
great number held in high estimation in ancient Rome. 

The change of Oil for Butter; of Honey for Sugar; of Mulsa. 
(liquors made with wine, water, and honey) for the exquisite 
wines of modern times; and that of the ancient Zythm for the 
improved Malt Liquors of this day, are all recited. We may 
mention also the exchange of the Cal'ida of the Roman For the 
bewitching Tea and. Coffee of modern taverns. 

85. Spigeiia Antkelmia. Resp. J. G. Colliander. 1758.. 

A botanical and medical history of the Indian Pink, which has 
been so highly celebrated, and. so much used, for expelling 
w.orms from the human body. 

• Dr.. 

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Dr. CoTlininIm- does not mfrejy treat of the plant, 'for*!* 
-enumerates also the se\'6riCl"kind.s of worms infesting the hiinian 
-species:: Axcm-is vevmicularis, and LttinbrtcoideSy I.umbricm 
terrestris (y. of the %*(. 'Nat.) and the ']\nu(e. He then gives 1i 
•distinct acconnt of the symptoms that indicate the presence of 
^licse creatures in the human body, and the diseases wliicli they 
itoo frequently occasion. Afterwards, a catalogue is given of all 
•the supposed anthelmintics, from flie vegetable an<l niinerrf! 
•kingdoms ; and, before be comes to the history of tlie plant in 
•question, the sevcfi-al dimples which have been considered "as 
"Specifics are recited: among these, we*niay note particularly tiie 
Tern, -mentioned by Dioscoritles as -an anthelmintic, and de- 
(scribed in France. as such, at the expense of the King. 

The history of the SpigeUa {\vii)x a. figure annexed") is delivereii 
batlarge, nearly as .it stands in Browdie's History of Jamaicq, ancl 
iin Garden's account, printed in the Bd'mbiirgh •Essays (Vol. 3. 
.p. VA'o — 153.") The success of this -remedy amon^ the negroes 
antroduced it into general practice. Browne admmistered it in 
■decoction.; the >iorth American .physicians giv« tlie powder of 
■the root. Subsequent observations have proved, however, thaft 
ithe South American and the North Ameriam SpigelM^rc not of 
Jthe same species; the -former is figured in Browne, and the Matter 
•{Spigetia Marilandica) in the Assays abov-e mentioned. 

86. MedicaiaentaG'nrveokntia. Resp. J.'T. FAORiEus. 1738. 

It is a ^ostulatum in tlic ph'desopiiy of Linnaeus, that " the 
<;ualities of medicines a^e, in a general way, -to be -determined 
^y their effect oa the organs of taste and smell." And further, 
that " (!h€ Sapida, or tliose which strike the taste more sensibly 
•than l^e smell, operate principally on the vascular system," ami 
*hat * the Olida^ or those wliich ntore sensibly strike the or^M 




AM(£-NXT«lTE3vACAI>EHICil!. 483, 

of' smell, operate on the medullary, or nervous system." The 
paper entitled &7/?o»' Medtcamentorum (No. 30) of this coUectiou,. . 
ivaj be consldei-ed as a comment on the first part of tliis general , 
distribution of medicines, distinguished by the term Sapida ; and. 
the present tktsis as an ejiplanation .of a large division of the - 
Olidaf here called Groyeo/cMd'a^ ftom their .strong and ungrateful-, 

The combinati<?ns of iScrp/rfjf and'0/itfs ai^ innumerablfe; but' 
that medicines, strictly of the latter kind, do, in a sudden and 
ejttraordinary manacr^ exert their inHuence on the nerves,, is, 
certain.. Our author contents himself with asserting the fact, 
without inquiring in what way the functions of the nerves are- 
performed. I'rom the Graveolenfia. {which ate the subject of. 
hjs paper),' he justly observes, that we derive some of- the mosU 
powcifui medicines. , Of these he gives a catalogue, dividing 
thciu into 5 ■classes: viz, 

[..Siibhi^ipid. 2. .Acrid. . 3. Bitter.. 

Eackof .. these is divided into 3 orders, as the subjects diifer in>.- 
(kgi-ecs of, strength. Tlie StibimipUl comprehend, chiefly the-: 
narcotics ;. the ^cWd se\-cral of- the purging and foetid roots, 
the fobtid gums, a«d carminative seeds ; the Bitter others ofv 
tht purging roots and lea.ves, and some of the bitter herbs.. 
Under each, the author^ specifies concisely, in technical terms,, 
the quality, and the diseases to which it has been appropria,ted.. 
Hct then, presents us . with, a very instructive theory of- the- 
oparation of this division of OUd<i-\ leaving tathe consideration ^ 
of othei-s the Suaveolentia. , After which fallows a general, patbo-- 
l(>gy of th.ose diseases which are rcmetUed by the Gr«t«o/eft//fl.. 

Kl. , Arboretum S«e/ic«w. . Resp. D. D..P0NTIN, 17a9. 

88. Prufe/itm Swewcwm. Resp. D. M. ViRGANDEE. 1758.. 

'II16 design of these papers nearly coincides with tli3t of the* 


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. 421 AM<miT4TES AC KVT.MU:M. 

Tlora (Ecommica (No. 17-)> having for its object the. culture of 
the native trees and shrubs of Sweden, and some of exotic ori- 
gin -which time has naturalized, anunintiug togi^her to 106 
species. In tiiese excellent papers, no botitnical descriptions ai-e 
^iven, the name only under which they stand in the Linnean 
system being introduced. The provinces in which these upectes 
3ire most plentifully found ; the soil in which they best thrive ; 
their times of leafing, flowering, and ripening their fruit ; their 
■duration ; the best modes of sowing or propagating them ; and 
their uses in the arts, but particularly in rural oeconomy, are 
concisely and distinctly treated of. 

At the end of the Arboretum are subjoined some general rules, 
to secure the propagation and growth of trees ; and at the con- 
clusion of the Frutetuntj the author has pointed out the proper 
Stinds of shrubs for all sorts of hedges, adapted to diflferent soils 
and situations. 

89. Pandora Insectorum. Resp. E. O. Rydbeck. 1758. 

This writer pursues the plan of the Hospita Insectorum (No. 43), 
the completion of which cannot but be subservient to the arts 
of gardening and agriculture, aud to the management of cattle, 
in a variety of instances ; and it is likewise necessary to facilitate 
the inquiries of the entomologist. 

In the preliminary sections, the j^ader is presented with a 
history of the metamorphosis of insects, from the worm, or 
maggot, through the state of chrysalis, to the period when the 
creature comes out in its full beauty and perfection, and per- 
forms all the functions of its being. 

The catalogue (like that of the Hospita) exhibits a list of 
Swedish plants, arranged according to the sexual method ; and 
under each is mentioned the insect which it nourishes. It has 
this advantage above the former dissertation, that the insects 



are better defined, by a more complete addition of the trivial 
names, taken from the enlarged edition of the Si/stema Natura^ 
which had been published in the interval between these two 
papers. It is accompanied by a plate, coiitaining nearly 50 of 
the more rare species, with references to the numbers in the 10th 
edition of the St/siema. 

90. Senium Salomoneum. Resp. J. Pilcrex. 1759. 

A commeat on Solomon's description of old age, which has -so 
frequently employed the pens both of medical and theological 
critics. The allusions of the Jewish writer, however, are pro- 
bably too obscure, at this distance of time, to admit of uncon- 
trovertible explanation. 

91.. Auctores Botanici. Resp. A, Loo. 1759« 

We are here presented with An alphabetical catalogue of bo- 
tanic writers, amounting to upwards of 350, on the following 
plan. After the name of the writer is given the time of his birth ; 
liis rank, or profession ; the period in which he flourished (com- 
monly taken from the date of his first publication, the title of 
which is concisely noticed) ; and, lastly, the year of his death. 
Such as have been eminently conspicuous for their merit are, in 
t^is list, distinguished by an asterisk affixed to the name. After 
the alphabetic catalogue, other arrangements of the same authors 
are exhibited ; in one, they are placed according to the countries 
of which they were natives. The paper concludes with pointing 
out those writers whose work« are indispensably necessary to such 
persons as would make any considerable progress in the history 
and knowledge -of botany. 

92. Instructio Peregrinatons. Rcsp. E. A. Nordblad. 1759. 

After some pertinent instructions to tlie young traveller, hcv^ 

to conduct lumself in foreign countries, and useful liints relative 

U) those requisite qualifications, in which, it is to be regretted, 

3 I "too 

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too niany who travel are de6cient» the writer of this dissertation 
exhibits a ctunplete method of keeping a journal, on the most 
extensive scale, pointing out whatever is worthy of observation. 
It is not easy to conceive a plan of iostructicm. on this head more 
perfectly described. The traveller will not wily find his memory 
much assisted by having proper objects of inquiry su^eated to 
him, whether in nature or art, but also the method of arranging 
bis remao'ks greatly facihtated. One part of the author's advice 
is, of the utmost importance, for without the due and regular 
observance of it, nothing will be effectually, accomplished i 
" Nulla dies sine Unea.'* If the traveller would be successful in- 
his undertakings, he must make a point of entering and arranging 
the remarks of each day, before the next arrives. 
9^. PlanteE Tinctoria. Reap. E. Joelin. 1759- 
Intended to bring into one general view all the vegetable sub- 
stances, whether indigenous or imported, which are used in the 
art of dying. The author determines the exact plant from which 
each article is produced, adding short observations on the colour 
it yields, and the methods of extracting it. In this MaUria* 
Tinctoria occur many of the indigenous plants of England, not 
commonly known to be possessed of any colouring quality ; and 
though their use, at present, may be superseded by the facility 
t)f obtaining better from abroad, yet they nevCTthekss remain 
fit subjects of inquiry with the encouragers of arts. The cata- 
logue consists of 100 articles, exclusive of a few from the animal 

94. Animalia Composita. Rcsp. A. Back. 1739- 
The Compound Animals are so called from being connected to- 
gether by one common base, or support, either in the form of 
irregular or rudcly-branchcd stony masses, of a calcareous 
nature, as the Lithophytaf or Corals; or as fixed to one common 
* 1 stalk 



stalk more or less branched, as the Zoophyta, or Corallines^ and 
some others. 

In order to give a more perfect idea of these animals, the 
writer of this dbsertation displays the general analogy between 
animals and vegetables, principally to show that the former are 
not, like the latter, endowed with that multiplicative power of 
propagating themselves without the particular energy and exer- 
tion of the generative function ; whereas the Animalia Composita 
seem to unite tliese powers, since they appear to propagate not 
only by eggs, or -viva soboles, but also by progressive extension 
and ramification. 

The animals of the Litkophyta, like the Testacea, fabricate 
their own base of calcareous matter, forming the whole mass 
into tubes, each ending on the surface in pores, or cells (accord- 
ing to their specific diflerence), where alone the animal seems 
to dwell, in the manner of vegetables, leaving the base at length 
to perish. 

The animals of the Zeophyta, containing the Corallines, &c. 
particularly thejixed^ approach much nearer to vegetables than 
the foregoing, both in their texture and form in general, arising 
as if from a root, and constituting a stem and branches, which 
are beset at the extremities and articulations with the animals, 
or Polypes, appearing by the help of glasses like so many flowers. 

Since this dissertation was written, the subject has received 
much additional illustration from the discoveries of Ellis. Sec; 
Phil. Trails. Vol. 57. p. 404—427. 

95. Flora Capenifis, Resp. C. H. AVannman. 1759. 

In the time of the Romans it was a trite proverb, *• Semper 

al'iquid noti ex Africa;" which still remains true, as in these days 

it aftords, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, some of 

ihe most stupendous and singular productions of nature. IVom 

3 I 2 the 




the first discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, whence Europe 
has chiefly been furnished with the plants of Africa, their Tin- 
common aspect, so very, different from those of Europe, has 
attracted the notice, not only of naturalists, but of all mankind; 
and as the mildness of that climate admitted of their cultiva- 
tion here, they soon became favourites in the English gardens. 

Some of the first Cape plants that were brought to Europe 
we owe to J. Heurnius, who sent them to his brother, a Professos 
at Ley den ; and they are figured in Bodisus- k Stapel's Tkeo- 
pkrastus. Among these were Canna Indica, Htemantkus coccineus, 
Aletris Vvana^ and a few others. But the first botanist who 
visited the Cape was Paul Hennann*; he collected 800 species, 
then unknown in Europe. After him H. B. Oldenland,. a Dane, 
and J. Hartog, a Dutchman, made collections of African plants* 
which at length falling into the bands of John Burmann, of 
Amsterdam, that Professor published catalogues of them-f, and 
also a collection of plates of the more rare species J. The prin-!- 
cipal part of the last catalogue, however, was taken from Kolbe's 
Bescbryving van de Kaap de goede Hoop. (1 Deel. p. 285—304.) 
From these materials chiefly the present Flora is composed, which, 
according to the usual plan, contains the trivial names only. 

Among the plants of the Cape here enumerated are 38 genera 
peculiar to that part of the world, several of which excel all 
others in the number of species, as well as iu their uncommon 
and superb appearance. The vast number of species under the 
same genus, so frequently met with in that country, strongly 
favoure the idea of the perpetual new origin of plants, and that 

* The Eame who made the collection at Ceylon. See p. 88. 

t Catalegi duo Plantarum ji/rieananan, &c. Amatel. 1737. 4to. 

t Rariorum jifricanarum Planlarum Decades X. Ibid. 17S8-1739. 4to. 


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going plants, made from Browne's collection, when it came into 
the possession of Linnaeus. 

93. Nomeiiclator Plantaram. Resp. B. Berzelius. I7j9. 
This paper contains the vernacular names of genera of plants 
(particularly of European and garden kinds), in Italian, French, 
English, Dutch, and German, placed in columns opposite to 
the Latin name. It would have been aa acquisition if the plan 
had been extended much further, so as to have included the 
name by which each species also is known in the several coun- 
tries ; a point too much neglected by almost all writers of local 
catalogues, tliough highly necessary to render them more exten- 
sively useful. Evoji the provincial names should likewise be 
collected, if possible, as they are frequently very different for 
the same plant. Linnaeus is almost the first and only- author 
who has taken due notice of, and supplied, this deficiency. (See 
Flora Suecica.) There is a work on the subject by Mentzelius, 
entitled Index Plantarum Polyghttus {1682); but it is very in- 
complete, and indeed cannot be rendered otherwise, except by 
the united endeavours of botanists throughout the world. 

A tiomenclator of the plants of Denmark, in French, English^ 
Dutch, Swedish, and Danish, was published soon after this 
dissertation, by Professor Oedec. — ^The Lexicon Hotanicum^ of 
Beckmann, is also an useful work to the botanical etymologist. 
99. Aer llabitabilis. Reap. J. V. Siefvert. 1759. 
The atmosphere is here considered in t!ie various changes to 
which it is subject ; the properties of its different states are 
discussed; its effects on the various parts of the globe; and its. 
influence on the healtji and joeconomy of life, and the manners 
<}f the inhabitants. 

From the very imperfect state of chemical and meteorological 
Jtuowjedge at the period when this paper was written, it will 




not, of course, be read with much interest at the present day ; 
yet several curious facts are introduced in it, and many pertinent 
ubservations, especially of a medical nature. 

100. Su8 Scrofa. Resp. J. Lindh. 1759- 

A natural history of the Hog, in which the whole oecononiy 
of the animal and its uses to mankind arc more completely 
treated of than in any other publication. 

Vol. a 

Holm. 1763. pp. 486. tabb. 5', 

(Lugd. Bat. 1764.) 

Erlang. (Schreber) 1789. pp. et tabb. totidem. 
101. ^eneratio Arningena. Respi C. L. Ramstrom. 1759. 
The author begins with a concise explanation of the ancient 
and modem theories relative to this obscure subject. He ob- 
serves that the doctrine of equivocal generation generally pre- 
vailed, until Harvey taught that every animal is produced 
€A' &vo; and that his system may now be considered as including 
a double hypothesis : first, that adopted by himself, which sup- 
poses the entire rudiroeats of the future feetus to be present in' 
the ovum, and only waiting for animation from the vivifying 
principle, or aura genitalis masctdina ; the other, that of the 
seminal animalcule entering into the (wum, according to the doc- 
fe-ine founded on Leeuwenhoek's microscopical discoveries. \Vc 
have before remarked, that Linnaeus very early forsook Leeu- 
wenhoek's theory, in consequence of attending the demonstra- 
tions of Lieberkuhn.- 

The argument of the present dissertation tends to show, 
that both sexes are equally efficient ; yet it leans to the fol- 
lowing opinion, viz. that the external form, as well as the 


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specific energy of the vital functions, is principally derived 
i'roni the male parent. This is partly the opinion also of Haller 
(P/i!/s.%7SG.); and Danvin (Zooiiomia^ Sect. 39.). After having 
drawn a physiological analogy between vegetables and animals, 
our author asserts that the male js commonly most conspicuous 
in tlie external form, and this assertion he substantiates by 
several examples of hybrid xpec/es in both kingdoms. 
102. Po/itia Natitrce. Resp. II. C. D. Wilcke. I76O. 
This paper is intended to point out the perfect order and just 
subordination by which the several parts of nature are rendered 
subservient to the conservation of each other, and of the whole, 
and which, collectively considered, o^r ^.uthor has not unaptly 
named the Police of Natjire. His physico-theological design is 
executed on nearly the sanje plan as that of tjie CEconomia Na- 
iitra (No. 19.), exhibiting, 

1. A general view of the Mineral Kingdom, as constituting the 
Mirface of the globe, and as disposed iuto land aod water, moun- 
tains, hills, rajleys, &c-; 

?. That innumerable variety of Vegetables, with which tlie 
surface of the earth is clothed and adorned, as adapted to tho 
different soils, cjimates, gjid .elevations, and as affording nutri- 
ment to various kinds of animals ; 

3. In the Animal Kingdom, a general view of their relations to 
^ach other, and the proportion they bear in the scale, tlnough 
the several classes, from the lowest up to the highest and most 
perfect tribes; their specific uses also in the general oeconomy 
jire regularly considered. 

Numerous examples are adduced from all parts of the animal 
find vegetable kingdoms, to show how admirably the grand 
^pheme of nature and providence is ordained for tlie generation, 
^niirition, and due proportion of each. 

IDS. Them 



103. Theses Medica. Resp. J. C D, Schheder. 1760. 

In this dissertation, the respondent delivers a short explanation 
of the Linnean doctrine relative to the anatomy and physiology 
of plants; and he endeavours to sustain. the following theses: 

1. That all plants consist of a medullary and a cortical sub- 
stance: by the former the life of the plant is perpetuated, through 
tlie medium of seeds and buds, which are considered as the 
ultimate distribution of the vegetable medulla ; the latter, or 
cortical substance, is subservient to nutrition. 

2. That, as in a certain assortment of species, which in artificial 
systems form a genus, we see a, similar proportion and an agree- 
ment of the parts of fructification, however different the exter- 
nal form of the whole plant; and as we not unfrequently see 
hybrid plants produced, they may have all originated, in the 
same way, viz. by. the various admixtures of the farina. From 
this power in the medullary part of perpetuating itself, and of mo- 
difying the whole internal structure, the author also deduces the 
similar qualities, which are commonly found in plants of the 
same genus, and manifested by the taste and smell. 

104. Flora Belgica. Resp. C. F. Rosenthal. 1760. 

A Linnean Flora of the indigenous plants of the United Pro- 
vinces, compiled from the works of Commelin, (Catalogus Flan- 
tarum indigenarum Hollandttx), and De Gorter, {Flora Gelro- 
Zutphanica), the one printed in 1709, 2nd editioji, and the other 
in 1745. The author refers to the page in both these works, for 
each species. He premises a general account of the country, 
with respect to the climate, inhabitants, and commerce of the 
several provinces ; enumerates the universities and gardens ; and 
then gives concise lists of the plants found in particular situa- 
tions : for instance, in the canals, dykes, woods, osieries, &:c. 
3 k The 

Digitized by 



The plants of Holland (as far as soil and situation admit) are 
ncarJy those of England ; but a^ the former country is destitute 
of mountains, rapid rivers, and chalky lands, a great variet3' are 
necessarily excluded. 

In 17C7, an enlarged edition of de Gorter's book was printed, 
under the title of Flora Belgica. ']'his contains upwards of 10oi> 
species; which number has been since considerably augmented, 
as may be seen in the edition published at Haarlem, in 1781. 

105. Atithrepomofpha. Resp. C. E. Hoppius. I76O. 

After a general account of tlie manners of apes, the reader is 
here presented with a history of 4 remarkable species (as they 
were then considered), viz. 

1. Simia Pj/gmaus^ or the Wild Man of the woods, (S. SatyruSt 
of the Stfst. Nat.) described and figured by Edwards, tab. 213. 

%. Satyrm Indiciis, of Tulpius (Ob$. Med, lib. 3. c 56.) which 
Linnseus considered as a variety, only, of the above species, but 
which is the Stinia Troglodtfies, of Gmelin. 

3. A Cercopithecus, of Aldrovandus,(I>f^V. p. ^9)* said to 
exist in Java and Nicobar, and of which travellers, consider- 
ing it a Homo caudatust have related strange stories. This 
animal is here described on the authority and testimony 
of Koping, a Swede, who asserted that he had seen both 
male and female ; but it has been suspected (not without rea- 
son) that the account is either entirely fabulous, or a great 
exaggeration. The reader may sec more relative to the anim^ 
and to Koping's account in a letter from Linnaeus himself to the 
author of The Origin and Progress of Language (Vol. 1. Ed. 2Qd. 
p. £60. note). 

4. Homo Nocfurnus of Bontius's Java {t. 84^, which in fiio 
12th edition of the Systema bears the name of H. Trogtadytes. — 
Our author takes great pains to prove that this animal is really 

a child 


"1 vM 


a child of darkness, -and incapable, from the extreme dilatation 
of the pupil, of seeing in the day-time.— -Gmelin, conceiving 
the description of this animal to be either founded in fiction, or 
to relate to some monstrous or morbid individual, or, at any 
rate, to belong with more propriety to a species of Simia, has 
not retained it in the genus Homo. 

Accompanying the dissertation are figures of these several 
animals, copied from the respective authors who originally de- 
scribed them. — ^The Linnean orders of Primates and Simite have 
been recently elucidated by the labours of Camper*, Audc* 
bert-f-, and Cuvjer;!:; but the history of many species is still in- 
volved in much obscurity. 

106. Planta Africana rariores. Resp. J. Printz. I76O. 

Of all the quarters of the globe, no one displays such luxury 
and v^iety in tiie production of plants as southern Africa. It is 
thence that the European gardens have derived their most superb 
and ornamental species. This catalogue contains descriptions of 
100 of the most rare, some entirely new, and others imperfectly 
noticed before. It was drawn up from an inspection of the plants 
themselves, which had been sent ftom the Cape of Good Hope, 
and with a view of which Linnoeus had been gratified by Dr. 
Laurence Burniann, when be paid our great naturalist a visit in 
the summer of the year I76O. Extremely as the Cape plants 
differ from those of Europe, many of the latter nevertheless 

• NatHurkundige verhandeling over den Orang-ouiang en eenige asdere Aopen, 
Amst. 1782. «o. 

t HUtoire Naltirelle des Sh^es et des Makts. Paris. An. 8. FoL 
J See Magasin Encycloptdique, Tom. 3. p. 451— 46s. 
.Notcv. tbumal de Physique, Tom. 3. p. 18S — 191, 

3 K 2 tlirive 


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thrive well in that climate. The paper concludes with a list of 
African plants, as an appendix to the Flora Capenais (No. 95). 

307. Macellum Olitorium. Resp. P. Jerlin, I76O. 

Under this title our author includes the plants of the kitchen- 
garden ; and we are here presented with a catalogue of 77 tpecies, 
principally such as are either found growing spontaneously, or 
are easily cultivated. It is drawn up on the same plan as lin- 
nseus's Materia Medica, specifying, in a concise manner, the 
duration of each plant, whether annual, biennial, or perennial ; 
the part in use; the mode of preparing • it ; its taste, or other 
sensible qualities ; and its reputed effects on the human body. 

Culinary herbs are here divided into 3 classes. 

1. Roott : and these into /Msi/brm and (M6erou5. 

2. Stalks : comprehending chiefly the young and blanched 
shoots, as AsparaguSf and the disk of the flower, as the Arti' 

3. Leaves : divided into Olera, or boiling herbs, sprouts, and 
greens; and A cet aria, or sallads, eaten crude. 

Our author commends parsnips, in preference to turnips and 
carrots, as being less flatulent, and more nutritive. He con- 
demns the use of mushrooms, and says tliat the disk and young 
stalks of the Onopordum Acanthium may be eaten, which resemble 
artichokes. It is here repeated that celery is prejudicial to 
people subject to nervous disorders. 

108. Meloe Vesicatorius. Resp. C. A. Len^us. 1762. 

A complete history of the Blistering Fly, an insect of the class 
Coieoptera, with filiform antenn<x, and distinguished from the 
other genera by the rounded thorax, and gibbous, inflexed head. 
The species in conmion use is found all over Europe, more or 
less, on the privet, tlie ash, and the elder; but there are also 



three othcre endued with the same vesicating acrimotiy, two of 
which are European, and the other is frequent in the East, parti- 
cularly in China, where it is used in tlie shops. Many reasons 
are mentioned to prove tiiat this last (Meloe C'tcJiom) is the true 
Cantharis of Bioscorides. 

After having given the natural history of the insect, at larger 
our author prescribes forms for several vesicating plasters, and 
also the places and mode of application. In his last chapteri- 
which is professedly medical, he treats of the internal and ex- 
ternal uses of Cantharules, considering chiefly, how far they are 
useful and safe as diuretics; and he introduces a case, whiclt 
furnishes a caution against the* use of them as aphrodisiacs. 
After having made some general observations on the action and. 
use of blisters, he enumerates the diseases in which tijey are 
salutary, and also those in which they are contra-indicated. 
109- Diata acidularis. Resp. E. Vigelius. I76I. 
It is not surprising, that, in a country abounding with iron, 
chalybeate waters should be frequent. In fact, these acidula are 
80 in Sweden, and their efficacy has been known, and extolled in 
that country, as our author observes, from the most ancient 
times. He thin-ks that the inhabitants of the more northern 
climes were led to the frequent use of these ttcidula, by 
long experience of their salubrity as diuretics and tonics, in 
remedying the inconveniences occasioned by a long winter's 
diet of salted meats, which dispose the constitution to scorbutic 
cachectic, and dropsical disorders. The later physicians of Swe- 
den have regulated the use, and confirmed the good effects of 
them; and in this dissertation Dr. Vigelius has, in a. concisa 
and perspicuous manner, prescribed the regimen adapted to 
such persons as enter upon a course of these waters, under the. 
six well known heads of the Non-naturals. 

110. Potiu 

Digitized by 



110. VotusCoffea. Resp. H. Sparschucii. I76I. 

A botanical and medical history, with a figure, of the Coffee- 
tree [Coffea Arabica), and its fruit. The writer is one of the last 
of 20 authors who had written professedly on this shrub, and 
who are here enumerated, with the date of their writings, from 
1621 to Kalni's treatise in 1755. 

Coffee, originally the produce of Arabia Felix (where the 
best now is most successfully cultivated), is called by the 
Egyptians Bo», and was first mentioned by the Arabians, about 
the year 9^0. Our author says that it was brought into Europe 
about the year 1645, and that the first coffee-house was set up at 
Marseilles in I67I- The shrub itself was introduced into the 
gardens of Europe about 1710, by means of seeds procured 
from Arabia, by Governor Van Hoorn, of Bataria, who also 
first cultivated it at Surinam. 

We are next presented with the classic, generic, and specific 
character of this plant ; to which succeeds a copious list of 
synonyms, and the description, at large, as it stands io the HoT'. 
Uts Clifoi'tianus. The culture of the shrub ; the preparation of 
the berry ; the different times and modes of drinking this liquor^ 
as established by custom in the various nations ; and the »ucce- 
danea to the berries, are then discussed. Among the succedanea 
are mentioned peas, beans, beech-nuts, almonds, maize, wheat, 
and the seeds of the sun-flower (Helianthus annuus). Of these, 
the author prefers almonds, but he observes that they dispose to 
flatulency much more than coffee. 

In speaking of the qualities and virtues of coffee. Dr. Spars- 
chuch thinks that it should rather be classed with medicines, 
than considered as a nutritive article of diet. He appears to be 
00 friend to its frequent and indiscriminate use, conceiving that 
it destroys rather than creates appetite; that k occasions watch- 
fulness ; 



fulness ; promotes flatulence and indigestion, instead of reliev- 
ing either; and tliat it debilitates the nerves, and occasions 
tremblings. On this occasion, he thinks it worthy oi' intiuiry, 
M hether it may not contribute to those sudden deaths, which are 
fre(iuent in Stockholm about the winter solstice, as they have 
been observed to happen to such as were inordinate driidicrs of 
this liquor. That it is anti-aphrodisiac, he says, is generally al- 
lowed ; and he illustrates and confirms this quality by a pleasant 
tale from Olearias's 'iVavels. He describes It also as producing 
weakness of sight ; as being noxious to melancholic, hypochon- 
driacal, and hysterical people ; as promoting hxmorrhages of all 
kinds; and, in short, as being generally unsafe when freely 
used, except to the corpulent. That head-aches are frequently 
relieved by coffee, is confiraied by daily experience ; and our 
author relates that Linnaaus fo^nd it singularly beneficial ia 
taking off a cardialgia, with which he was himself affected, 
when he was physicianto the fleet, in 1740, and which, as it 
constantly-succeeded his morning visits to the sick, he attri- 
buted to the effluvia of the hospital. 

Numerous treatises on the subject of Coffee have made their 
appearance, since the time of our author, but few of them afford- 
any additional information of importance, except as to its che- 
mical analysis. The English reader may consult Ellis's His~ 
torkal Account of Coffee (1774. 4to.), and Mosely's Obeervations, 
{1785. 8vo.) 

111. Inebriantia. Resp. O. R. Alandeii. 1762. 

Inebriants are almost universally derived from vegetables. 
They are defined by our author to be such articles as affect tlie 
nerves in a particular and agreeable manner, and through them 
alter and disturb the functions of the mind. They are pro- 
perly divided into native and artificial; the former in use 
8 chiefly 

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chiefly nnioiig the oriental nations, the latter cliiefly among 
Kuropeans. Of native inebriants the following are enumerated, 
and the mode of administration and effects of them described. 

1. Opiuntt in use all over the East, and of which the Turks,^ 

tlirough custom, swallow as much as a drachm at 
a time. 

2. Peganum Harmala, or Syrian Rue. Tlie seeds are sold in 

Turkey for this purpose ; and with these (as J^I- 
lonius asserts) the Ottoman Emperor Solyman 
kept hiiusclf intoxicated. 

3. Maslac, of tlie Turks, or Bangue, of the Persians, pre- 

pared from the dust of the male flower of the 
Hemp, or from the leaves. 

4. Ba}igue,of the Indians ; from the leaves of Hibiscus Sahdariffa, 

5. Seeds of various species of Datura, or Thora-Apple. Sec 

Rurapbius's Herb. Amh. 5. p. 243. 

6. Pinatigy or Bctle, of the Indians. 

7. Roots of Black Henbane {Hyosciamus niger). 

8. Hyosciamus Thysaloides. 

9. BeiTies of the Deadly Night-shade {Atropa Belladonna). 

10. Leaves of Millefoil {AchtUea MillefoUian) ; used by the in- 

habitants of the province of Dalarne, to render 
their beer intoxicating. 

11. Tobacco, and several others less powerful, as Clary, Saf- 

fron, and Darnel. 
Artijicial Inebriants are fermented liquors from farinaceous 
rsecds ; wines and spirits, drawn by distillation. With these our 
author ranks the Nectar of the Gods, and the anodyne medicine 
of Homer, commonly called Nepenthes; also the spells by which 
Medea and Circe produced their enchantments. — A fable is In- 
Iroduced, in a most striking and lively manner, to illustrate the 




effects of intoxicating liquors on the Imnlan frame an<\ passions. 
After showing when they may be safely aHowed, the author con- 
•cludes with cautions and exhortations- against the habitual use of 

112. AfoMwra Serpentum. Resp. J. G. Acrell. 1762. 
, In this dissertation on the venomous bites of serpents, the 
author premises a general description of the structure of this 
order of Amphtlm, and some observations rdative to Boa Con-' 
:sfrictor (the Gigantic Sefpent of the East Indies), and its capa- 
■city of ingorging large animals. — He adverts also to the fasci- 
natmg power of the Rattle-snake, with which, he says, Coltiber 
Berus -(the common Viper) is in some degree endued. — He de- 
«cribes tlie mechanism of the jaw, and the venomous apparatus 
in serpents. The description is illustrated by a figure ,* he theft 
gives an abstract of Redi's experiments, and discusses the theory 
of the operation of the virus, in the explanation of which he 
inclines to the opinion of the mechanical theorists, attributing 
the effects rather to an almpst instantaneous alteration induce^ 
in tbe fluids, than to its immediate action on the nervous system. 
The symptoms following the punctures of the various species are 
then described ; those from the viper particularly, and of the 
asp, which kills by inducing sopor and lethargy. Three asps are 
mentioned by the ancients. That called Pfi/as he supposes to 
be the Coluber Ammodytest of the modems, described and figured 
in the paper entitled Surinamensia GriUiana (No. 16 of this 
collection). Besides those of the Rattle-snake genus, there is a 
■ list of 8 of the Viper genus, furnished with venomous organs. 
Among these, none strike n»ore suddenly fatal than Coluber Naioy 
or the Cobra di Capello. 

This author next treats of the various remedies in use among 
3l the 

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the ancients, and note* their geaeral ineflficacy. He then' exa- 
mines the three noted antidotes of Europe, Asia, and America 
which are regarded as speciAcs again&t the venom of tlie most 
dangerous kinds, in the respective quarters of the globe:. 
1. Oil of 0/im, against the Viper of Europe. 2. Ophiorrkiza 
Minigosy against the Naia of Asia (see No. 21 of tbiscoUectioD). 
a. The SenegOy agiiinst the Rattle-anake of America. There is. 
iievcrthelesa a small veooiiKuis viper {Coluber Chenea). in Swe- 
den, against the bite of which the <^ of olives ^led to produce 
tlie usual good effects, mid the patient died. The author meo-^ 
tions an instance of the successful administration of Senega ia 
that country. He c<uichidra with descantang oa the P$tflli, oc 
Charmers of Serpents, in the East, and tells us that Professoc 
Jacquin, of Vienna, purchased a secret of the same kind in th& 
West Indies. 

$inc6 this dissertation was written, many ingenious writers-have 
taken up the subject, but more particulaily Fontana (Ricerche 
Ji$iche sopra il veleno deUa Vipera.. Lucca. 1767- 8vo.); and th& 
anatomy nod physiology of serpents have been much illustrated^ 
by Russell {Account o/' Indian Serpents^ Phil. Trans, 1304. p. 70)^. 
Home, and others, in our own country, where it was first accu- 
rately investigated, by the celebrated Tyson (^hil. Ttans. Vol.13., 
p. 26). 

113. Termini Batanici. Resp. J. EmcitEN. 1Z62. 

This paper does not admit of being abridged. It is a. metho-^^ 
dical arrangement, and complete explanation of all the terms, 
(amounting to 673) used in describing plants, according to. the 
Linnean method of botany. Somewhat of the same kind was. 
begun in the Hortus Cliffortianus, and prefixed also to the 
enlarged editions of the Systema^ These terms necessarily 




occur too, aiid are explained, in the PkHosopkia Botaniea.-^ 
In this paper they are amplified, improved, and methodized in 
so excellent a manner, that no one who wishes to gain precise 
ideas on the subject ought to be without it*. 

114. Pianta Abtromeriih Resp. J. P. Falck. 1762. 

This plant is o^ American origin, and belongs to the //&ran> 
drotts class and Mmtogj/nvus order of the system. Three species 
are here noticed, the two first of which were described and 
figured by Pera FeuiH^e (in Peru), who ranked them with the 
HemerecaUisy or Day Lily. IJnnaeus. received the seeds of the 
last, which is a singular and beautiful plant, from Cadiz, by 
means of M. Alstromer, son of a genUeman of that name, who 
was Counsellor of. the Swedish College of Commerce. Finding 
it to Ik a new genus, fae gave it the name of Alstromeria pere- 
grina ; and it is here completely described and figured. Its vir- 
tues are not ascertained, but the sensible qualities of the root 
rank it with the 5arsaj}qrs7/a. It appears, from Feuill^'s account, 
that there is another species in Chili, which the natives use as a 
substitute for the above plant; and hence Linnseus gave to this 
the trivial name of Sahilla. 

115. Nectaria Florunh Resp. B» M. Hall. 1T62. 

" Dulci dislendunt nectare cclias." 

Vug, Georgv 4. 164. 

Hence Linnseus gave the tenn nectarimn to a particular gland* 
or repository, which in most plants contains the honey. This 
part in flowers had been but little noticed before Linnaeus raised 

* Such of our readers as are not possessed of either <^ the above>mentionnI work« 
will find an useful substitute in Forsler's Enchiridion (Halie I78S. 6vo), and in Mar- 
tyn's Language of Botany (London 1793. 8vo). There at« nilmcrous other pilblica- 
ttons on the subject, in various languages. 

a L 2 it 



it to importance : in his system, it affiwds an exoellent aiark 
of distinctiuD, in various genera and species. 

Our author premises some short observations relative to the 
glan<U of plants, which are situated mosttjr on the feaves and 
petioles. He then proceeds to the direct design of the disserta- 
tion, which is -to point out the several kinds of nectaria in 
flowers, and to specify their different situations in diflerent 
classes, orders, and genera. It is therefore an instructive pap»- 
to those who would gain a m6m complete idea of this singular* 
and before neglected part, the use of which, hoyreyeTy is as yet 
imperfectly ascertained^ 

116. Fuudumerttvm Fructi^atinis. Resp. J. M. GrIbero. 

Having concisely stated the improvement of botsmy, and d&> 
fined it as a science, the writer proceeds to explain the title of 
his dissertation. Under the word Fructification, beincludes not 
merely the Coro//a, Pericarpium, and. Semma, simply considered,, 
as Toumefort had done, but also the Cafyx, Nectarium, Stamina, 
and Pisiilia. All these parts therefore constitute the cn^ns of 
fructification, and on them the foundation of all true system 
must be laid. He then sketches the rise and progress of botani- 
cal system, from Gesner, through the improvements of Csesal- 
pinus, Columna, MorisoD, and Toumefort, to Linnceus, who, 
by defining the parts of fructification as above, first laid the 
basis of accurate generic distinctions. The author afterwards 
enlarges on specific distinctions, and shows what constitutes 
varieties iu plants. He proceeds to consider the generation of 
hybrid plants, concerning which he favours the opinion delivered 
in the dissertation entitled Generatio Ambigena (No. 101 of this 
collection), viz. That the internal structure, or parts of fructifi- 
cation in hybrid plants resemble the impregnated species, and the 



AnffiHItAtES ACA&EUIOA. 445 

itabif, or external parts, that which furnished the farina ftecun- 

On the whole, this paper abounds with curious matter for 
speculation, and is highly inter^ting to physiologists. 

117. Reformatio Botanices. Resp. J. M. Reptelius. 1762. 
We are here presented with a very entertaiDing history of the 
jiae, progress, and present improved state of botany. This his- 
tory is divided into 3 epochs : 

1. Under the Founders of the science,, after the restora- 
tion of letters. 
$» Under the Sifstematiea. 
3. Under the auspices of the great Swedish botanist. 

1. Among the restorers of botany, Brunsfelsiua, Tragus, Ges* 
aer, Fuc^stus, and Cordus stand foremost. They may be said 
to close with Caspar Bauhtn, who, by his incomparable Pinax 
(in which be collected all their synonyms into one work), gave 
«ae to their writings, and improvement to the study, which 
otherwise it coald not have acquired. 

2. Bauhin having laid thk foundation, the knowledge of 
plants made a rapid progres& in the seventeenth century, and 
received vast additions from the discoveries of Comutus, Marc- 
grave, and Piso, in America; from those of Hermann, Rheede, 
and Conuneline, in Asia; from Sloane, Flukenet, Petiver, and 
Sherard; Toumefbrt and Plumier. During this period also, it 
was reduced to system, from the hints of Gesner, first by Ctesal- 
pinus, and afterwards, more successfully, by Morison, Ray, and 

3. Dr. Reftelius dates the commencement of reformation in 
botany from the first publication by Linnaeus, in 1 735 : he then 
collects together in one view the improvement which the science 

3 has 

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lias received from the labours of chat great man. He enmn^tes 
the several disciples of Linnaeus who assisted their XDaster bjr 
their traveh ; add* a list of those writers who have foUowed his 
method ; and closes with a sketch of what ia yet wanting to give 
perfection to botanical system. 

118. Prolepm PlatUarum. Hesp. H. Ullmakk. 1760. 

The theory of vegetation founded by Malpighi and Grew on 
the anatomy of plants* and that of Hales and others drawn from 
what may be caUed their physiology, has not been followed in 
the Linnean school. Linnaeus early conceived the idea of an 
analogy between plants and animals, and speaks of the formn- 
consisting of a medullary and a cortical substance like the 
latter. (See No. 103 of tliis collection.) Tbb idea seems also 
to have led him to adopt the opinion of Ctesalpinus, relative to 
the evolution of lliose two parts in the order which is mentioned 
in the 66th dissertation. 

To con6rm and illustrate these opinions is the jMincipal design 
of the present paper, which is in fact a comment on the 23d and 
S4th sections of the introduction to the 2nd tome of the Systema 
Natura. As illustrations cannot be so aptly drawn from annual 
and other plants, on account of their tender structure and quick 
growth, the author adduces his, exempUfications from the bud- 
bearing trees; remarking, that the full evolution of the parts, from 
the origin of the bud to the expansion of the flower, as the final 
act of vegetation in each, is a progressive work, the accomplish- 
ment of which requires 3 or 6 years ; and that it takes place in 
the following order. The leaves (which are unconnected with 
the medullary substance, and derive their origin from the corti- 
cal,) are the produce t»f the first year; iu herbs and trees that 
arc furnished with bracte<Et or floral leaves, these are the issue 




tif t&e Sud jcar ; the perianthmm^ or cup- of th« fiower, of the 
Sd ; the petals of the 4th ; the stamiaa of the 5tb ; and the pi*', 
tilla of the 6th. 

119. Fructus Esculenti. Resp. J. Saeberg-. 1763- 

The dewgn of the Phnfa Esculcnfa (No. 34), Acetaria (No. 73>^ 
and the Macellum O&toviun (No. 107)^ is ia this paper pursued*. 
aod extended to ^ esculent/r«i7s, of which 133 are enume- 
rated, and their nature aud uses bsiefl^ pointed out ; they are 
disposed in 6 classes :; * 

1. Bemes- 4. Podded frvits^ 

2- PluBos. 5. Graini. 

3. Pomaeeous iruitst 6l Nuts. 

120. ProiepsU Planfarum. Resp. J^ J. Fbrbeb'. I763.. 

The design of this dissertation is simikt to that of the other 
hearing the same title (No. 118^; 

The author first treats, of the food- of plants, which, without 
entering into any subtle disquisitions pelative to its ekmentary 
principles and composition, is defined' to be the watery tincture 
of the soil, received by the roots, and- transmitted to the medul- 
lary substance by the vascular part of the cortical.. Pie esta- 
blishes it as a iact, that toe great aa a#ux of nutriment to the 
cortical part retards- the fructification, by compressing the me- 
dullary. This is proved,, he thinks, by the state of luxuriant, 
plants in general^ and by the effects of depriving them of the 
s*iperfiuity ; on which head, he quotes the expedments o£ Fitz- 
gerald, recorded in- the PAi/(MopAicai IVaTwaciiojtfi VoL52^ p. 71. 

He nest proceeds to show, that heat alone excites to actipn. 
and vigour the lih, or protrusive and expansive force of the 
medullary part, which is ever expended ia propagating the plant,, 
by fo)3ning buds, bulbs, or seeds, as its final and most perfect 
issue ; and, tiiat this iutentioa of natuce depends on the propor*^ 


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tioa of nutrim^t aflbrded by tite cortical to that -«f the he6.% 
administered to the meduUary structure. 

In the 2nd chapter, the evolution of buds is treated of; the 
writer acceding to the doctrine of th«r proigressive perfectibility, 
mentioned in the dissertation which has just been reviewed. 

Tiie last chapter is appro^mated to the inrolution of plants 
in the seed, and bulbs. It is ass^ted, that in the seeds of 
Ntftnphaa Nelumbo^ the very leaves of tbe future plant are 
visible. In bulbs, the rudiment of the next year's plant is also 
conspicuous, in like manner, buds c<mtaia tbe perftct plant, 
though in these the evolution requires a longer procesa. 

It may be observed, that a set of expenments made by M. 
Mustel, and printed in the Philotophical TramacHtms, Vol.63, 
p. 126, seem to favour much the theory of vegetaticHi here ad- 
vanced. Too many difficulties, however, attend all the specu- 
lations hithCTto advanced oa this obscure subject 

121. Ceniuria Insectorum. Besp. J. Johansson, 17^. 

Insects wene scarcdy noticed before the time of Conrad Ges- 
ner, whose comprebemive mind -extended over the whole field of 
nature. He, to^tber with Mouffet and Aldrovandus, may be 
said to have laid the foundations of eatomtrfogical science. To 
these succeeded another set of writers, who were employed prin- 
cipally in investigating the ceconomy and metamorphoses of in- 
sects: such were Goedart, Lister, Swamnierdam, and Reaumur; 
we may add- also Madame Merian, who took a voyage to 
Surinam, with the sole view of gratifying a taste for this branch 
of jiatural history. 

Nevertheless, after all the researches of these ingenious per- 
sons, and the labours of our eminent countryman Ray, a de- 
fect of system rendered this the most difficult to study of any, 
branch of zoology ; and it will readily be granted, that the true 




tera of this science commenced with Linnaeus, who very early 
turned his attention to it, and by whose method the history of 
these minuter animals has been wonderfully extended. 

The present catalogue contfuns the description of 100 rare 
^ecies, few of which had been described before ; they were sent 
to Linnaeus from Carolina, Pennsylvania, Surinam, and Java. 

122. Lignum Quassia. Resp. C. M. Blok. 1763. 

Quassia amara, or the Bitter Ash (as it is called in the West 
Indies), is a tree. of the class Decam/ria. Its root was first 
brought into use at Surinam, by a negro called QtMi«n, who re- 
vealed its virtues. The medicine was known, but the species 
and its true history were undefined until at length a branch of 
the tree, with the flower and fruit, was sent to Linneeus ftova 
Surinam. The root appears to be the most pure and intense of all 
bitters. At Surinam it has a high character for curing intermit- 
ting, exacerbating, and malignant fevers, so endemial in that 
country; and even (as the author asserts) in cases wherein the 
Peruvian bark has &iled. It may be given in any form ; but the 
most frequent is that of an aqueous infusion, in the proportion of 
1 drachm to 1 pint. 

The history of this medicine is accompanied* by figures of the 
leaf and parts of fructification. Three cases of its good efiects 
,(from trials made in Sweden) are inserted, and those are not con- 
fined to fevers only. 

There is a confirmation of its virtues in febrile cases, given by 
Farley, of Antigua, in the Philosophical Transactions. Vol. 58. 
p. 81 ; it is said to have succeeded when the Peruvian bark would 
not remain in the stomach. 

123. Baphania. Resp. G. Rotiiman. 1763. 

The disease here described is defined, in the Genera Morborum, 
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to be " a spastic contraction of the limbs or joint*, at^tend^d with 
convulsions and excruciating periodic pains." The author gives. 
a full account of the Rapkaniat from the two principal Swedish 
writers on the subject. He had seen it himdelf ; and observes, 
that it had frequently been epidemical ift that country. Some 
physicians had thought it a hew disease ; he has traced it, 
however, in the Hvritings of a "nnmerons set hf authors, from 
tbe year 1596 to 1727, whence it appears to have been com- 
mon in other parts of Europe. This dreadful malady some- 
times held the patient for three or four weeks; and thcue 
who perished generally sunk under either a -diarrfioea -or con- 
vulsions. Valerian, castor, camphor, and other antispasmodics 
of the like kind, appear to have been the most beneficial 

The hypotheses of the various authors relative to the cause of 
"Rapkania are brought together in one view. Some of these 
suppose it to be owing to a certain constitution of the air; Others 
to vitiated grain, darnel, or Secale comutum ; but all of them 
were rejected as unsalisfactoiy by I>r. E. Rosen, one of the last 
and most intelligent writers on the subject. Our author says, 
that in Sweden it - always commences in the autumn ; that it is 
frequent only among the lower orders df people, and codse^ 
quent to eating bread made with new com. Hence he sought 
for its origin in impure admixtures with the grain, and atiength 
was led to attribute it to the seeds of Raphanus Rapkanistrum ; 
hence the name given to the disease. The dissertation closes 
witli a figure and botanical description of the plant. 

The hand of a master is no where'more visible than in the 
scientific manner of drawing up the history of this disease; and 
it may be proposed as a model in its kind. 

3 124 Genera 



124. Centra Morborum. Resp. J. Scuboder. 1759. 

Of this arrangement of diseases, as it stands in Linnaeus't 
own publication, a detailed account has been given before. 
(Seep. 14q.) 

Vol. 7. 
Holm. 1769. pp. 506. tabb. 7. 
<Lugd. Bat) 
Erlang. [Schreber) 1789. pp. et tabb. totidem. 

125. Motus poUfchrestus. Resp. C. Lado. 1763. 

There aie few who do not require rather to be reminded than 
convinced of the many betie6ts arising from proper exercise. It$ 
signal uses, both as a preservative and a restorative of health, 
are in this dissertation concisely, but very strikingly, delineated. 

After some general physiologlciU observations on the effects of 
exercise, the writer describes its efficacy as a preservative ; in 
strengthening the body; procuring the most genial warmth; 
belping digestion; Increasing perspiration; promoting all the 
excretions in due tinxe and proportion ; procuring the most re- 
freshing sleep ; and, in valetudinarian habits particularly, sub- 
duing that fruitful source of disease, acidity in the first passages. 
He then enumerates those dise^es in which exercise is to be 
considered in a medicinal view : as, ht/pochondriasis, habitual 
debility, languid appetite, obstructed visceroy consumptions, 
asthma, &c. 

In speaking of the kemicraniay he remarks that Linnaeus him- 
self had been subject to violent paroxysms' of that kind, which 
usually held him 24 hours, with intervals of rarely less than a 
week; and that these paroxysms were excited by very slight 
3 H 2 causes, 

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causes, even such as the drinking of only a spoonful of wine. 
After having tried ineffectually various remedies, the Professor 
attributed the restoration of his health to the use of daily morn- 
ing exercise, preceded by a large draught of cold water. 

A case is also related of a person, who, from his infancy to his 
94th year, had never been free from ascarides, but got entirely 
rid of them by taking a journey on horseback, as far as Tomea 
irt Lapland. 

126. Hortus cuUnaris. Resp. J. C. Tenobobg. 176*. 

This dissertation exhibits an account of all those vegetables^ 
which are, or as the author thinks might be, advantageously cul- 
tivated in the fields and gardens of Sweden ; it describes also, in 
a succinct way, the manner of propagating the several kinds of 
grain, hops, tobacco, saffron, kitchen, or boiling herbs, sallads, 
fruit-trees, &c. ; their proper soils, and methods of guarding 
them from the severity of the climate. 

V27. JUrudo Medicinalis. Resp. D. Weser. 1765. 

There are 14 spema of Leeches described in the last edition 
of the Syttema Natura. That which is used for medicinal pur- 
poses is distinguished by the name of Hirudo {medidnalis) de- 
pressot nigricans, supra Uneis jlavis «t, intermediis nigro-arcuatis ; 
subtus cinerea nigro-maculata. The anatomical structure and 
natural history of thb worm ; the opinions of the ancients re- 
specting it ; the proper time of procuring it ; the method of 
preserving and applying it — are all discussed. After this, the 
author points out the several diseases in which the mode of 
blood-letting by means of leeches has been preferred to others. 
He previously quotes, however, a case from.Zacutus Lusitanus, 
in which the leechj during its application, made its way into the 
rectum ; and takes occasion to recommend, in any similar occur- 
rence, the immediate injection of salt water, which he thinks 




be equally efficacious in tlie stomach, if the animal should be 
swallowed, a circumstance that has sometimes been attended 
with fatal consequences. 

128. Opobahatnum decfaratum. Resp. W. le Moine. 1764. 

Among several articles of the Materia MedicOy of the produc- 
tion of which physicians had a very imperfect knowledge, none 
excited mcH'e curiosity than this drug, called also Balm vfGileadf 
and Balsam of Mecca^ from the place of its growth : a drug, the 
virtues of which were highly extolled throughout the East, from 
the inost ancient times. Nearly 20 authors are here mentioned, 
who have written professedly on this article ; but few had seen 
the shrub that produced it. Prosper Alpinus says, he saw the 
plant growing in a cultivated state, in gardens, near Cairo. It is 
now doubtful, however, whether he saw the true species, though 
of the same genus. We owfe the fiiU discovery of the "^hrub to 
Forskahl, who saw it growing [Jentifully in Arabia Felix, parti* 
cularly about Medina, and transmitted a branch to Lianseus, in 
1763. It is now known to be of the same genus with the plant 
which, in America, yields the Gum Elemt, belongiog to the 
order Monpgynia of the class Octandrta. Its name is Amyrit 
Gileadensis. A complete history of the shrub, and tlie virtues 
of the balsam are exhibited. Concerning the latter, we need 
only obsen'e, that modem physicians have found substitutes in. 
other natural balsams, and therefore do not entertain so high an 
opinion, as the ancients did, of the wonderful restorative powers 
of this medicine. The present %^ has made us acquainted with 
the plants that afford the Elemi, Animse, and Copaiba; but we 
yet wait for the discovery of those which produce Attunoiuacum, 
Caranna, Myrrh, Bdellium, and Sagapenum. 

The dissertation is terminated by a description of the plant 
honoured by Linnaeus with the name of Forsku/tleat of which 


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genus the 13th edition of the Sj/stema contains two species,; 
besides the one here alluded to, which is F. tcTiacissima. 

129. Dieeta Mtatum. Rcsp. D. J. Ohrquist. I764. 

A concise account of the changes which the human body 
passes through, in the several stages from birth to extreme old 
age, inculcating the necessity of observing all those rules re- 
specting diet and regimen that are best adapted to give vigour 
' to the constitution, and permanence of health during these 
Ticiflsitudes. It poinu out also, under each period, the disorders 
incident thereto, and the most efficacious meaos to escape th^ 
influence of them. 

130. Morbi Artificum. Hesp. N. Skragge. I764. 

It is. well known that artificers in various trades are almost 
necessarily subject to dangerous and scHnetimes lingering dis- 
eases, which frequently shorten the period of their lives. 
Minta^ hewers of free-stone, workers of metals, painters, and 
various others are notorious instances of this truth. But, as our 
author observes, they are not the only eufierers in this way, inas- 
much as too close an application to any business or profession 
will ever be atfcraided with insalutary effects. In this general ac- 
count of the diseases of tradesmen, tlie respondent professes to 
have made all possible use of Ramajzzini's work on the subject ; 
but he has extended that author's catalogue, and availed himself 
of subsequent observations from various writers, interspersing 
several remarks of his own. 

151. Lepra. Resp. J. Uddman. 1763. 

The disorder here described has long been endemial in Nor- 
way and several parts of Sweden, particularly on the eastern 
coast of the Gulph of Bothnia, and in Finland ; also in the 
islands of Aland and Gothland. So long since as the year 1631, 
a pest-Iiouse was erected in the parish of Croneby, for the re- 




cqition of tlie sick of that neighlxmrfaood. Our author defines 
the Lepra, from Linneeua's -Geowm Morbontmy as " a disord^ 
-ahowmg itself in pustules, tbrvwing off dry scabs, or scuff; 
attended with moveable discoloured nodes in the flesh, and rha- 
gades or dry fissures on the skin." "Whether the disorder of 
which he undertakes itb give the history he ihe same with the 
Lepra Arabum, or AMunatdrma^ the Javai^uUt and the Ameri- 
cana (of all which he has given l^e characters), is act absolutely 
determined ; he is inclined to thii^ it various in its appearance. 
Being a native of Bothnia, be hiul frequent opportunities of 
observing it, and deaciibesit asAssoDungthe foUowiog appear- 
ances in that country. 

It showed itself in tubtfcles, or nodes, in the fleshy parts ; in 
the forehead, cheeks, arms, and thighs. These nodes were in- 
dolent, moveable with the finger, and of a livid hue. There 
were tobercles also in the mouth, faucet^ and about the root of 
the tongue, of the same, or -sometimes of a brownish yellow, 
cast ; ulcers in the nostrils ; tumours, or thickenings of the edges 
'df the outer ears ; thick lips ; feet and hands enlarged and in- 
flamed ; in some, ulcers, or rather fissures, on the skin, creeping, 
broad, and deep, with callous edges, bleeding from slight pres- 
sure or handling, but destitute of pain, as were all the nodes and 
tubercles, so far as the author observed ; yet, he says, they were 
inclined to itch round their bases. 

We cannot follow our author through his inquiriea into all the 
hypotheses relative to the cause of this disorder, ingouous as tbey 
are ; it must suffice therefore to observe, that he favours the 
theory of Ixanthematic ammalcuia; and, from the frequency of 
this disorder on the sea-coast, where the inhabitants live much 
on fish, and particularly herrings^ which abound with the Sea 
Hair-worih {Gordius marinus), he adduce a train of arguments 


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to show that it probably origiDates from tiiese worms. We have 
mentioned before*, that a similar opinion was entertained by 
Martin (another of the Linnean pnpils), who travelled in Nor- 

In the cure, our author descants on ihe vtper^broth of the 
ancients, and remarks, that the famed viper of the East is a 
different serpent from ours. He next treats of the inefficacy of 
mercurials as vermifuges, and quotes Scopoli as observing that 
no people are more troubled with worms than those who work in 
the quicksilver mines of Carinthia. At lengthy against this ob- 
stinate and formidable maJadj, Dr. Uddman informs us that 
Russell's method of cure, which consists in giving large quanti- 
ties of sea-water, assisted by enemata of that fluid, to which 
were joined frictions with warm and acrid oils, had been attended 
with more success than any thing else. 

132. Fundamenta Omithologka. Resp. A. P. Backhak. 1765. 

To all lovers of Omithtdogy this must have been an acceptable 
morsel, as containing tlie rudiments of the science according to 
tiie Linnean method, and a full explanation of the terms therein 
employed. It is divided into 4 parts. In the first, the author 
gives a brief history of ornithologists, amongst whom he places 
Belon and Gesner, as the first writers worthy of attention, de- 
scending to Aldrovandus, Marcgrave, Willoughby, and Ray, 
before any thing like system was introduced. To these succeed 
Rudbeck, Albinos, Catesby, and Edwards, the last of whom, 
from his unwearied diligence, and the opportunities atForded by 
his situation, far excelled his predecessors. Brisson, Kleiu, 
Briimiich, and Barrere, are added. Later times have to boast 
of Latham, Shaw, Daudin, Schreber, &c. 

• Seep. 1^3. 




In the Snd part, the anatomical structure and external form of 
this order of animals wee described : first, the form in general ; 
then the particular parts. Under each, the terms used in describ- 
ing them, as also in forming the generic luid specific characters, 
are fully explained. This part is illustrated by a plate, which has 
been copied into several sneceodtng works oa the subject. 

The 3d treats of the history of birds ; their habitations, mi- 
grations, incubation, and the whole of their natural oeconomy : 
to which is subjoined the method of constructing scienti&c de- 
scriptions and generic characters. 

The 4tb exhibits a general view of the uses of birds in the 
police of nature ; in diet ; and to man. And here we cannot 
but note Parra Chavaria (the Faithful Jacana, of Latham), which 
is trained by the Indians, in the Ddghbourbood of Carthagena, 
to defend their flocks of poultry, that stray ia the woods, against 
the nuiBerotis birds of prey, no one of which will dais to eo- 
counter this bird. It is never known to desert the flock, and 
returns in the evening to roost. — ^Our autbtH* touches od the 
prognostics of birds in presaging weather, so well imderstood by 
seamen} — and lastly, as beautiful and pleasurable objects to man. 

The ornithological terms and descriptions, employed by the 
lifineau school, are now methodically explained in other places 
besides this academical dissertatioD. We refer the reader more 
pfoticularly to Forster's Enchiruimit i»efofe noticed in our ob- 
servations on the Termim Botonici. 

133. Fundaaenta Entomologia. Rasp. A. J. Bladii. I767. 

The knowledge of Insects may foe said to be the last branch 

of natural history that raised its )iead. Notwithstanding this, it 

iiasof tate attained a high degree of perfection, which cannot but 

be attributed, in a great degree, to tbecxodlent axrangement or 

3 N Linna;us, 

Digitized by 


458 AUtENl'J'ATF.S ACAnr,UIC£. 

J,inna^ii«, under whose a*ispices it has extended itself bevond 
till other parts of zoology. 

'Jhe plan of t bis paper is exactly that of the foregoing, and 
will iun]>ty satisfy tlibse who wish to enter on the stuHy(»f insects. 
Vn his first chapter, the author gives a cbrojiolugical- list of 3=2 
writers on the subject, beginning with ^loulfet (who publi^ihed 
in 1634), and ending willi Scheeffer, in 1 767. 

The substance of tins dissertation is contained in the Etichiri- 
lUoR of Torstcr; and also in an English publication by Curtis, 
entitled Instructions for collecting and preaetviag Insects (London. 
1771. Svo.) 

134. Ftindamenta Agnsiogpapkut. Resp. H.Gahn. 1767. 

Dr. Cahn professes to liave undertaken tliis dissertation chiefly 
with a view to aid the good designs oi those societies which, to 
the honour oi their founders, bare been established, in several 
parts of Bsrope for the adraoc«Bte|it of agriculture, — a branch 
of rural ceoonomy with which the subject of the dissertati<m is 
intimately connected. 

That large natural class of plants caHed Gra$se»-, compre- 
hend also the Ceren/ia, or Grain, and (inclXidthg all. that are 
hitherto known) do not amount to fewer thsfn 80O species. 
Such a number of plants, so nearly alike in tljeir habit as these, 
must require numerous subdivisicms and nice distinctions, in 
order that the species may b« discriminated. To eifect this is 
the intention of the present dissertation ; in which, after some 
curious preliminary obserrations relative to the stations and uses 
assigned by nature to particular kinds, and a list of all the com- 
m(Hi grasses (then known), classed accctirdiug to their native 
situations, the author presents us with an historical account of 
ihe principal writer whg have treated separately on this tribe, 




exhihiting under each a concise view of their respective systems 
(if clabsili cation. 'J'hese are C Jtauhin, Uudbcck* Kay, and, 
above ail, Seheuchzer, who descriljed all the specie:) at that time 
discovered, with incredible labour. Several other writers, who 
have illustmted this branch of botany, may be added, particu- 
larly Morison and Holler. 

Then follows a description of the natural cliaractf* and Imbit 
of a grass ; intended to convey a full explanation of the terms, 
and referring to two explanatory plates, on which is engraved a 
flower of each genus. 

Various have been the methods invented to class Grasses. 
Our author here gives them a new disposition, entirely indepen- 
dent of the seikual system, and established on. the Jigute. and 
number of the valvi^s composing the glume, or calyx, and those, 
of tiie Hower, classed under two geiteral heads, as they grow, 
citlwr in spik«9 ix panicles. 

In all natural classes, the distinctions depend on minute dit*. 
ferences,: wliteh require very delicate discmuiuatiQua. . The 
author therefore proceeds to point out these, in several instances; 
he also .aMb the exceptions tlwt arise under different genera^'- 
an imperiectipn attendant on all systems. He concludes with ri> 
full explanation of the. plates, which are w«ll adapted to convey, 
to the student a true udeaof this tribe. Schrebei's taUes arc 
not adapted to common use in England, where, .howeyer, we 
have several works written professedly on the i^tive grasses ; an 
those of fitiilipgfleei <in his :MMctll4moMs Trfictt^), Curtis {i^rac-. 
Heal Oktmviatioits on Bi:ithli.Gr4sse$), and others. 

135. yi$riitas Ciborum. Reap* A. F. WEDENBEac. 1767. 

The immei^e variety of food, whii^ cusUan, necessity, and 

luxury have introduced,, is here displayed ; the simplicity of 

some nations, whether arising from penury or from climate, and 

3 N '2 the 



the Apiciah luxury of others, together with the various effects of 
the culinary art, arc aTso briefly pointed out ; aud then follonrs a 
division of aliinentA into classes, thus> 

1. IVaterif. 6 Bitter. 

3. Dry. ' 7- Virctm*. * 

3. Fat. 8. Sail. 

4. Styptic. 9. Stseet. 

5. Acid. 10. Acrid. 

Uwter each are subjoined summary observations, relating to 
the effects of a regimen in which any one of these classes form» 
a prevailing part, and to the diseases which it has a tendency to 
produce. 'Jlie author then speaks of the great power of custom 
over the habit. He concludes with mculcatiDg tiie >fe qtdd nimi», 
a maxim of much greater importance than any of ^ose nice 
distinctions relative to the mkoiesome and uai^o/esofne, which so 
often perplex the minds, and disturb the comforts, of many well 
weaning peo{^. 

136. Fervidorum et GeUdorum Vsus. Besp. C. Ribe. 1765. 

This writer fixes the heat of the human body between 55 and 
37 of Celsius's thennometo', and pronounces all foods and 
drinks of the temperature of 40 to be hot. He considers the 
constant and daily use of hot aliments as an abuse that calls for 
the strictest animadversion, showing, by their effects on the 
solids of the human body, t^eir tendency to produce a variety 
of chronic diseases, which he here specifies. Man is the only 
animal accustomed to hot foods, and is ahnost alone affected 
with carious teeth. Hence our author takes occasion to con- 
demn, in a forcible manner, the cust(»m of drinking hot tea> 
coffee, &C., and to dissuade his countrymen from like practice 
of eating bread, boiled rice, puddings, and other like foods in a 
hot state,*<t practice, to which the Swedes (from the severity of 


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(be cTimate perhaps) are more addicted than many other nations. 
He does not coDclude this part, however, without pointing out 
those cases in which tepid, and even fervid, liquors are both al- 
lowable and beneficial : such are some kinds of fever, several 
spasmodic diseases, and those resulting from rigidity of fibres. 

In the second part, the author reprobates the use of iced 
creams, jellies, &c., but particularly of a sort of food, unknown 
amongst us, though frequent in Sweden, namely congealed oysters. 
The pernicious qualities of these he endeavours to proVe by 
several cases. lie is not less decisive in condcnming a kind of 
iced malt liquor drunk in Sweden during the summer months. 
The dissertation concludes with a recital of the advantages of, 
simply cool liquors. 

137. Potus Thea. .Resp. B. C. TiLLiEus." 1765.. 

At the time of its publication, this dissertation had perhaps-, 
the merit of being the most complete history of the Tea shrub ; 
owing to the lucky incident of its arriving safe in. a, regetating. 
state, in Sweden, through the skill and care of Captain Ekeberg* 
who is said to have been the first person, that succeeded in the 
leveral attempts to introduce it into Europe. Linnsus had sug- 
gested the patting of the seeds into earth just as the ship left. 
China ; and the success confirmed the propriety of his method. 

Tea is now known to be the leaves of a plant of the class 
Fofyandria, and the flower of which is succeeded by a tricoccous 
capsule. This wnter describes ^eshcub at Ibrge ; includes all fhe 
synonyms ; and mentions those authors who have given figures of 
it : among these, Keen^fer's is considered, by him as the only 
exact one. It was long believed that there was but one species 
of Thea ; but the Groen Tea is nOw said to be the produce of 
another, which differs from the Bohea, ip having 9 petals in the 
flower, ■whttesa the latter ha^ only 6. It is not known to grow 
2 spontaneously 

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spoiTtamou*Iy elscw here than in Cliina and Japun ; in the former 
kingduni it is cultivated in all the provinces, ftutn Cantun to 

Our author nu-ntions the mode of preparing the leaves, of 
which a (lifluso and exact account is gtven by Kiempfer, who, 
having resided two years in Ja|>an, was enabled to obtain the 
most complete information. The origin of the use of Tea in 
tho!«i rtnintrics is too remote to be ascertained, add commerce 
has now extended it to almost every j-rart of tlie civUiaed world. 
Jn no country has the demand tor tliis arttclo increjised to a 
gicatcr extent than in Great Britain. At the beginning oi' the 
hist century, the annual public sales of tea by the East-Iudia 
Company did not much exceed 50,000 {)ounds (weight), but now 
their annual sales amount to more than 30,000,000, answering to 
tlic rate of at least 1 pound' ^r anntii^ -th -every 'md'tv'^'iial 
througliout the IJritish dominions. 'The high price^of tea, at itit 
first introduction, induced many physicians to" think of a substi- 
tute; and it is wdl known that Sirfton Pauli thouglit JXj/rica 
Gale to be the shrub itself. AVe ore informed by Sir George 
Staunton,' in his scconnt of the British Embassy to China, that 
our common Sage {Salvia q^cinalts) was brought into use in that 
country by the Dutcli, but the Chinese soon became tired of it. 
Several succtrianea are mentioned by our author: such as the 
loav<'s of tlw! Sloe Tree (Pntnus spittosa), of the Wild Marjoram 
(Ortganum vulgare), the Arctic Bramble [Rnltia- Arciicui), the 
Conmion Speedwell [Veronica i^inalis)y Wild Germander (Kjerw- 
nica Chaniertb-^fs), Mexican Sweet BHte {Ch,ettopod2itm Ambroitioides)^ 
Sweet-weed, or Goat-weed {Capraria hijtora). Sec, ... • 

To this part of our author's dissertation may be added tlie yreU 
known so|>liisticatiou of tea practised in some of the southern 
parts of England, by smugglers, who have redaeed to a regular 


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process the management of the leaves of the Ash and tifc Elder; 
in purlicular; these, when prepared, arc called Smoiich, and 
mixed (as it is said) in the proportion of one third witli the 
ordinary teas. To whut an extent the tradc'iu this sophisticated 
tea was once carried, to the detriineiit of tl»e trees, may be 
imagined, when the reader is informed that ah Act of FaHiament 
was found necessary, to prohibit it under very severe penalties. 
But to return to our author : 

He next considers the sensible qualities of Tea; its fragrant 
odour, and styptic taste ; and, from its place in the system, 
botanically considered, with reapeet to the natural ordtn, he 
thinks it highly probable, tliat what Kaempfer relates of its nar- 
cotic quality, when greeni is consonant to trutli. From similar 
instances he proves that this quality may be easily tUfown off, 
by that degree of heaf which the sudden exsiccatiuD o£ the leave? 

In, discussing the virtues of Tea, he obsen'es, that, the Chinese 
recommend the exhibition of it in all lethargic diseases, but con- 
demu it in ophthaimies, c(>]ics} and palsies. From Kahu ht^ tells 
us, that the Indians of North America knew not thc'incouveni-- 
ences of cavieus teeth, and debilitated stoinachs^ nor the women 
difficult labours until tea was introduced among them. The 
physiciansofHaniburg, Amsterdam, &c. attribute the frequency 
of leucorrhea among < the women of condition, to- their indul- 
gence in this liquor. Further, Boerhaave ascribed to the sipping 
of hot tea a scirrhosity of the glands of the cesopiiagus^ which he 
had met with on dissection, and which he thought was a disease 
unknown to the ancients. - 

The author subjoins some observations on the important and 
extensive influence of Tea in a mercantile point, of view, and as 
an article of luxury ; also, the history of the .introduction of the 


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living plant into Europe, as above mentioned ; and hints re- 
specting the possibility of naturalizing it in other countries. A 
plate of the Bohea shrub is annexed. 

138. Polus Chocoiatce. Resp. A. Hoffman. 1765. 

AVe are now come to the last, and what our author thinks the 
most salubrious, of the three el^ant articles of luxury which 
the modems have acquired by the discovery of the East and 
"West Indies. Chocolate is the produce of an American inter- 
tropical tree, flowering twice in a year, and singular in producing 
its fruit from the body or trunk, and not &om the branch^. It 
belongs to the order Fentandria of the class Poltfadelphia, and it 
distinguished by the name of Tkeobroma Cacao. 

We are presented with three methods of preparing Chocolate, 
as practised by ibe Indians, Spaniards, and others. The Indians 
to one pound of the roasted nuts put half a pound of sugar dis- 
solved in rose-water, and half a pound of flour of maize, or 
Indian com. The Spaniards to six pounds of the nut add 
three and a half of sugar, seven pods of vanilla, one pound and 
a half of maize, half a pound of cinnamon, six cloves, one 
drachm of cepsicum^ and as much of the roucou-nut as is requi- 
site to improve the colour, together with ambergris or musk, to 
impart an agreeable scent. In the other, and more common way, 
to seventeen pounds of nuts are added tm pounds of sugar, 
twenty-eight pods of vanilla, one drachm of ambengris, and six 
ounces of cinnamon. 

The pods of vanilla are filled with minute seeds, from a para- 
sitical climbing plant, described under the name of EpidtMHnt^ 
Vanilla, belonging to the class Gynandria, and, like the Qrchidet, 
reputed aphrodisiacal. 'J he spices are added to give pungency, 
and mitigate tb^ <^eaginoue quality of the nut. 

Having detailed the Ustory «f t^ nut, the audtor proceeds to 




consider it as an aliment, and in a medicinal view. He recom- 
mends it in diseases of emaciation, and in hypochondriasis, ad- 
ducing in confirmation of his advice the case of Cardinal Riche- 
lieu, who, he says, was restored to health by living on chocolate. 
He is not less copious on its good effects in the treatment of hee- 
morrhoids, and relates a singular case communicated to him by 
Linnaeus himselfl 

139. Spiritus Frumentl. Resp. P. Bercius. 1764. 

The Arabians have the credit of inventing the alembic and 
the distillation of ardent spirits, which they are said to have used 
principally, if not entirely, as solvents only, to extract the virtues 
of simples, and exhibit them in the form of tinctures. Our 
author remarks, from Raymond Lilly, that spirits WGte unknown 
in Europe at the commencement of the 14th century ; but the 
distillation of spirit from fermented grain is attributed to Arnold 
de Villa Nova, about the year 1315. Soon after this time, 
brandy was made in Sicily ^first from spoiled grapes), and very 
early became an article of extensive commerce at Venice. 

Having enumerated tlie properties of this inflammable fluid 
from Boerhaave's chemistry, and described a method of pre- 
paring the grain for distillation as practised in Sweden, (which 
is different from ours), the writer discusses the effects of spirits 
taken medicinally, as analeptic, diuretic, cordial, and stomachic; 
under all which heads he lays down apposite rules for their exhi- 
bition. He prefers them to wine, as preservatives against conta- 
gious dysenteries, and asserts, that this was cleariy proved among 
the seamen of the Swedish fleet, in the expedition of 1742. Di- 
luted with coffee, brandy is recommended as a diuretic, in calcu- 
lous cases. The imprudent use of it is afterwards considered ; 
and, from its power of coagulating the fluids and solids (as our 
3 o author 

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author suppoi&es) are deduced its effects in producing infiamma- 
tory fevers, cousumptioDs, dropsy, jaundice, hsemorrfaoids, Ire- 
morSf Sec. The dissertation concludes with some well digested 
observations on the general abuse of fermented liquors, and tbeii 
influence both in a Moral and political view, on society at 

140. Mentha Usus. Resp. C. G. Laurin. 1767- 

Mint is one of the vegetables which have retained their cha- 
racter from the earliest ages, having been used by the Greeks 
and Romans. Eugland, above all other countries, abounds with 
plants of this genus, of which there are not fewer than 12 species 
mentioned in the Flora Britannka, 

The Swedish physicians at this time employed M. stflvestria, 
Pulegium, and ■ crispa ; but of these the London Pharmaeopceia 
Tetains only one, «2. Fulegium^ or Penny-royal, the other species 
which hold a fAa.ce in it being M. M/ioa, and Piperita. 

In the natural orders of botany. Mint is among the Vert'tcillaiie, 
which are in general supposed ta have resolvent and nervine qua- 
lities ; and from these powers arise the good efiects usually 
ascribed to this, piant, in a variety of disorders specified in the- 
present paper. 

141. Purgantia Indigena^ Resp. P. Staandman.. 1766.. 
After some preliminary observations relative to the opinions of 

the Empiric and Dogmatic Sects in medicine, as connected with 
his subject, and some encomiums on the institution of hospitals, 
as affording a field of observation and experiment to the physi- 
cian, which private practice does not allow, the writer presents 
us with a catalogue of such vegetables as are endued with a 
puEgative quality, confining his enumeration, however, to sueh 
^& are either iodigeoous, or easily cultivated in the gardens of 


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Sweden. Under each, he mentions the place of growlii, the part 
used, its preparation, dose, effects, and the disorders in which it 
has principally been employed as a purgative. 

142. Siren Lacertina. Resp. A. Ostekdam. 1766, 

A complete history, with a figure, of the Lizard Siren, or Mud- 
higuana, of Carolina, a biped eel-shaped animal, having boUi 
^ills and lungs, the former placed entirely on the outside of the 
body. It is sometimes seen 2 ieet long, and sends forth a cry 
someT^at like that of the young of the duck kind, but more 
acute and clear. — We have made some observations on its place 
in the Systemat in former pages of this work (195—200). lliere 
is an excellent description of an animal very nearly allied to 
Siren Lacertina^ in the Philesophical TransactumSf for 1801, 
p. 241 — ^264 ; but the real nature of neither <^ these species is as 
yet fully ascertained. 

143. Metamorphem Humana. Resp. J. A. Wadstrom. 1767. 
An ingenious and elaborate dissertation on the changes which 

the human system undergoes, in the several stages of life, fh)m 
both to extreme old age, divided into 12 periods. Under each 
of these, Man is considered with respect to all tbose alterations 
which succeed each other in the structure and discharge of the 
several functions of the body, or, in other words, anatomicaUy 
and physiologicalh/ ; also, in regard to the diseases of each 
stf^e, or pathologically; and he is, throughout, contemplated 
in regard to the powers of the mind, the affections, and the pas- 

This .detail is succeeded by tables, in which, imder the same pm- 

ods, are given the different temperatures of the body ; the different 

degrees of muscular strength; the appetites ; affections; passions; 

the exercise of the mental faculties, and their aptitude to works 

3 o 3 of 

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of genius, science, and judgment ; the powers of speech and 
oratory ; and, lastly, a scala atatuml containing all the tables 
brought together, and scientifically opposed to each other. This 
paper is closely connected with, and properly accompanies, the 
Settium Salomomiim (No. 90), and the Diata Mtatum (No. 129). 

144. Cura Generalis. Resp. J. G. Bergman. 1766. 

In a foregoing park of these memoirs, a short account has been 
given of Linnaeus's. Theory of Medicine, or bis Clavis Medicina, 
in which was observed the distmction he has made between the 
cortical and medullary, or, in other words, the vascular and ner- 
vous systems of the human body. The present dissertation is a 
comment on the first part of the Clavisy relating to the diseases ef 
the vascular system. Our respondent traces tlie immediate ef- 
fects, both oB the solids and fiuids, of any excess or defect in the 
air, nourishment, motion and rest, sleep and watchfulness, excre- 
tions and retentions. The passions, as being more immediately 
connected with the medullary, or nervous system, do not belong 
to this scheme. Having discussed the ill consequences of these 
errors to the constitution, and remarked on the diseases originate 
ing from Chem, he turns to the consideration of the old canon, 
" that diseases are cured by their contraries ;" and, agreeably to 
the theory of his master, that such as spring from these errors are 
principally the objects of dietetic medicine, and to be cured by 
Sapidsy he shows the po^ver of the several classes of Aquosa, Sic- 
ca, &c. in preventing and curing diseases, conchidiiig his disser- 
tation with the distinction between the rational and the empirical 

In mentioning the scurvy, and the effects of salted meat, our 
author relates a memorable instance of an arthritic patient, who, 
after having taken, in one summer, 1800 boles of Mrs.. Stephens's 





medicine, became affiicted with the highest degree of genuine 
scurvy, which he thinks might fairly be attributed to the quantity 
of alkaline salt contained in that preparation. 

145. Usus Muscorum. Resp. A. H. Berlin. 1766. 

The u^ of this tribe of plants in well cultivated countries, 
and in benign climates, can be but little known; in the northern 
regions they, are conspicuous. The writer, after having mention- 
ed those botanists who have particulariy attended to the Musci, 
and given due praise to the matchless work of Dlllenius on the 
subject, describes their particular advantages in the general 
oeconomy of nature : for instance, the terrestrial Liverworts 
{Lichenes) lay the first foundation of soil on barren rocks, as the 
Sphagnum, and many other bog mosses do in marshy places. In 
human ceconomy, nothing is niore remarkable than the utility of 
the Rein-deer MpBS {Lichen rangiferinus) in the regions of the 
arctic pole. Many of the Liverworts are ingredients in dying ; 
and several have their places in the materia medica, among which 
may be particularly mentioned the Iceland Liverwort (Lichen 
Islandicus), the virtues of which, in consumptive complaints, 
were first fully made known by Scopoji (in his Annus 2ndus Hts- 
torico-Nat. p. 107 — 118), and have since been highly extolled by 
m:my other physicians both in Germany and England. 

The reader will find a paper on the uses of Lichenes, written 
by the author of this volume, in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1758. (Vol. 1. p. 652—688.) 

14f6. Mundus Invisibilis. Resp. J. C, Roos. I767. 

The subjects of this thesis, which are extremely curious, have 
been much agitated by philosophers skilled in optics. It turns 
principally on the discoveries of Baron Munkhausen, relative to 
the sTnut o£ wheat and barley, and to the dust of Agarici, Lyco- 
perda, and other plants of the order of Fungi; which substances 


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he asserted to be no other than the ova of animalcules ; whence 
doubts had arisen, whether Fungi should be ranked with aoimals 
or vegetables. Linnffius adopted, though with great hesitation, 
the Baron's opinion, as appears from p. 1326 of the Sysfema No' 
tura; but his sentiments on this subject, after the experiments 
made by Ellis, (who instituted a course professedly to determine 
this point, at Linnseus's own request) do not appear. The result 
of Ellis's inquiry proved the negative, as may be seen by his 
papers, published in the Philosophical Transactiotu (Vol. 59. 
p. 138 — 152), and in the Gentleman's Magazim (for 1773, 
p. 3l6). Much curious matter occurs in the present disserta- 
tion. An important fact is related from the Baron's book, who 
recommends seed wheat to be washed in a lye made of lime 
and sea-salt, by which practice, for twenty years, he had secured 
his crop from smut, though his neighbours sometimes lost a third 
part of theirs. 

In the latter part of this paper, the author descants on 
exanthematic animalcules, and appears to favour the hypothesis 
concerning them, candidly confessing however the difficulties 
that occur, and concluding with a string of doubts, proposed by 
way of queries, relative to this abstruse point. 

147. Usus Historic Naturalis. Resp. M. Aphonin. 1766. 

This ingenious dissertation, written by a young Russian noblc- 
man, a student at Upsala, is one of the most entertaining and 
best digested on the subject, in this collection, and cannot fail 
to carry conviction with it It is divided into two parts. In the 
first, he points out the necessity of a knowledge of Natural His- 
tory in general, as opening the way to improvements in all 
branches of agriculture and gardening. 'Vo illustrate its utility 
in rural oecononiy, he mentions a memorable fact (from Lin- 
nseus's Travels in Skane) of a number of goats which were pe- 

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rUfaing in an island that abounded with the Reed Bent-grass 
(Agroitis arundinacea), a plant on which horses feed with avidity, 
and thrive extremely. Thus also, on the other hand, goats will 
riot and fatten on the Meadow-Sweet (Spiraa Ubnaria), whilst 
hwsea, and horned cattle, especially when they are young, will 
not touch it.— The second part abounds with curious observa- 
tions concerning the oeconomy of domesticated animals; in 
treating of which, the author points out both the most nutritive 
and the most noxious plants, descending afterwards to domestic 
fowls and inferior parts of the animal creaticm, which are more 
particularly the objects of husbandry. A plate is added, on 
which is engraved, together with a rare species of Henbane, Ac- 
i<£a Cimicifugaj famous in Russia and Tartary, foi expelling bugs 
and some other noxious insects. 

14&: Necetsitas Historic Naturalis Itosai6e. Besp. A. de Ka- 

RAKYSCUEW. 1766. • 

This paper also was wiitten by a Bussian nobleman, and is in- 
tended to excite his countrymen to a diligent cultivation of the 
study of natural history, as a science eminently bene6cial to a 
rising people. He endeavours to raise thei? emulation, by show- 
ing the progress it has made, and the useful influence he has had, 
in the eastern nations of Europe ; exhibiting also the vast field 
which the Empire of Russia affords for its cultivation. He then 
gives some biographical anecdotes of those who have improved 
the natural history of that country, under the patronage and 
command of its sovereigns, since the time of Peter I. Such are 
Messerchmidius, Buxbaum, Gmelin (who resided in Siberia 
from 1733 to 1743), Krascheninnikow, Martin, Steller, Amman, 
and others. A Ust is giveiL, from the Museum Peiropolittmumt of 
zoological subjects requiring further investigation, and, though 
natives of Rusua and Siberia, imperfectly ksowo. Me endea- 
6 voura 

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voiirs to persuade his countrymen to cultivate a number of use- 
ful vegetables, by presenting them with a long catalogue of exo- 
tics, which have been, in some sort, naturalized at Abo, in Fin- 
land, under the care of Professor Kalm, the traveller. His dis- 
sertation concludes with a list of Siberian plants, extracted from 
the manuscripts of Ileinzelhnann, Gerber, Lerche, an'd Schober, 
all of which were in the hands of Linnaeus. A figure of a spe- 
cious Siberian plant accompanies this paper : it is Fumaria apec- 
tabilis, of the Species Plantaruni. 

Russia has now to boast of a Flora no less splendid than scien- 
tific, commenced in 1784 by Professor Pallas ; and there can be 
no doubt that the prosecution of the work will continue to be 
encouraged by imperial patronage. 

149. Rariora Norwegia. Resp. H. Tonning. 1768. 

The peo of a learned, ingenious, and skilful naturalist is visible 
ill this dissertation. The writer first traces the origin of natural 
history among the Danes, whose monarchs have lately been its 
celebrated patrons. Among the principal modem authors of 
that country stands Gunner, late Bishop of Drontheim, who, 
to the highest merit in his sacred profession, also added an ex- 
quisite taste for natural history, and a consummate knowledge of 
that science, as his writings fully testify*. Neither is Strom for- 
gotten, who published, in 1762, a natural history of Sondmor, 
in the. diocese of Bergen -f-.— After this literary introduction, the 
principal intention of the writer is to exhibit lists of the more 
rare subjects of nature, especially such as are not common in 
Sweden. Agreeably to this design, we have a catalogue of the 

* Ste Fien-a Norvegica {Pars prior, Nidrosice 1766. Pars post. Hajvitzms. fbl. 
aim tall. ten. IS) and other works, 
t P/^sisk ag acotumisk Beshivelse over Fogderkt Scrldmor, ice. 1 76S. Vol. S. 4lo, 


' "~ ' -^ -^ 




peculiar plants of Norway, — the Alpine, some other rare species, 
and particularly of JPuci, with which the Norwegian coast 
abounds; also. Bishop Gunner's list (from the Norske Vidensk. 
Selsk. Skrift. 12 Deel. p. 314—316.) of all the American fruits 
which are thrown on that coast every year, and which have oc- 
casioned much speculation, to account for their transmission 
so particularly to that part of Europe. The author asks a so- 
lution of this difficulty from the learned; for they are sometimes 
found in no inconsiderable quantity, and so recent as to 
germinate, when properly secured from the effects of the cli- 
mate. These fruits are usually those of Cassia Fistula, Anacardium 
occidentale, or Cashew Nuts, Cucurbita Lagettaria, or the Bottle- 
Gourd, Mimosa scandensy called in the West Indies Coccoons, 
Piscidia Ertfthrina (called by Sloane Dog-wood Tree), and Co- 
coa nuts. 

The author next pursues his catalogue through all the classes 
of animals, using only the Linnean trivial names, and referring 
to the Fauna Suecica^ to Gunner, and to Striim. The last-men- 
tioned writer tliinks, that what deceived the fishermen, and by their 
means J^ishpp PoHtoppidan, under the appearance of a serpent of 
the exti-aordinary length described in the History of Norway y was 
no other than a string of sturgeons, which, at the stated time of 
tlie year, follow each other in a line, in immense numbers, with 
only their backs above water; which circumstance might suggest 
the idea of the waving motion of a serpent. 

The remaining part of this dissertation chiefly respects medi- 
cinal plants, and the diseases of the country. >\'c have an ac- 
count of some vegetable productions which form an article of 
commerce, being exported in considerable (piantities ; among 
these are reckoned Ruhtis Chanucmorus, or the Cloud-berry, and 
Lichen Islandtcus, mentioned in the account of No. 14.5, Vsiis 
3 V Muscontm. 

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MmcoTHm. Tlten follows a list of medicines easily obtaineci, or 
such as are in use among the country people ; among tbera» the 
good eifects of Linnaa bw-eahs, in rheumatic disorders, are well 
known, and much celebrated. He relates, on the authority of 
the President himself, tliat two mfin* who had been confined to 
their beds for several months by ischiatic pains, were cured in 
three days by a strong decoction of that plant. Its operation 
appears to have been of the aedatire kind, as the patients were 
thrown into a sleep, which lasted 16 or 20 hours. He coofirms 
the opinion of the Lepra arising from the Hair Worm (Gordiur 
aquaticus), as mentioned in No. 131 of this colIectioR ; and he 
mgices some observations relative to the Colica Lofpomumy de- 
scribed in Montin's dissertation, Ko. 27. At the end is a de-^ 
scription of an African plant, called by Linnaeus GtmnereL, in 
honour of the Bishop of Drontheim. 

150. Iter in Chinam, Resp. A- Sfabrman. 1768. 

This epitome of Sparrman's voyage to China conusts of little 
more than an enumeration of those uibjects of natural history 
which occurred to the journalist, both' on land and sea; for, as 
be makes use of the trivial names, ^1 descriptiona axe super- 
seded, except that some of those imperfectly known are more 
EMuply elucidated in the notes. 



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Writes of local Fhra. After haTing adverted to the various 
meacs, hy which seeds may be accidentally conveyed from one 
region to another, the writer gives a list of plants vhich he Con- 
ceives to hare been, naiurakged in Sweden in this way, and points 
out tliie countries from which they are supposed to ha:ve been 
origtoally tran^wrted. But hii observations are not confined to- 
the Flora of Sweden; for he gives the.htt4:oTy of several platrts in- 
bdtutii^ other coontries, in which they were not formerly to be 
fbttod. The Swedish tist is ajmmged accosding to the several 
. 153. Medicus Std Iptiia> Besp. J. Giors^ELiiTft. I768. 

Hfse oar auUior's dea^ is to point out by what means! any 
pesBOBy who sets a value onhis>ltfb, may preserve a sound, or re- 
pair a broken, constttotioa^ He follows the order of the nott 
vatmrtdif noticiug under ^ch the abuses to which they are re- 
sj^fltively liable, amd the diseases likely to be geflerated in con- 
sequence. The substance of this dissertation is not very differ- 
ent from that of No. 144. Cura generals. • 

153. MofbiNavtnruin India. Reap. C. H. Waptbian'. 17^6. 
In this pap^ we axe pEasented with 8 thesesy relative to- diseases 

which the writer had o^poortuoities of observing, on a voyage to 
the East Indies. 

154. Flora Akervemigi Resp. C. J. Lddt- 1769. 

A list of 478 apeoies of phmts found in the isle of Akero, 
situated in the lake Yngari, in the Swedish province of Suder- 

155. Erica. Resp. J. A. Daulgrbn. 1770. 

An elucidation of the genus JBn'ca, with a plate, showing all 

the variations in its cal^x and coroUa. A list of the i^ecies, 

amounting to 58 in number, is subjoined, and also a particular 

description of the Common Heath {Erica vulgaris), which is as 

3 p 2 abundant 



abundant in Sweden as in England, growing in the most steril 
places, where Finns st/hestris and Lichen Islandicus are alone to 
be found besides. 

This beautiful genus of plants is bow become one of the most 
numerous in the vegetable kingdom. Since Dr. Dahlgren's 
dissertation was published, several writers have taken up the 
aame subject ; and indeed no one of a similar nature requires 
more attention from critical botanists. The Chevalier Tliunberg 
had opportunities of investigating a great number of the ErioE 
in their native places of growth, and hence the dissertation 
published under his presidency at Upsala*, may be considered 
as one of the most correct and scientific descriptions of this 
tribe hitherto written. In our own country great pains have 
been taken to elucidate the. several species, by Mr. Salisbury, 
who has enumerated in the Linnean Transactions (Vol. 6. 
p. 316 — 388), no fewef than 246, a number exceeding Thun- 
berg's by 155. Mr. Salisbury's description includes a very useful 
s)/iiopsie, arranged according to the affinities .of the species. En- 
gravingt of Heaths, very superbly executed (in folio), with 
botanical descriptions, in Latin and English, have lately been 
commenced by Mr. Andrews ; and in Hanover, M. Wendland 
has carried on a similar publication, under the title of Ericarum 
Icones et Descriptiones (4to). These last-mentiwied works, if 
completed, must ultimately remove most of the student's diffi- 
culties in investigating this numerous, but interesting, genus. 
136. Dulcamara. Resp. G. Hallenberg. 1771- 
After some concise remarks on the imperfect state of physio- 
logy and pathology, and on the little attention that has beea 
paid to botanical distinctions in the Materia Medica, this respon- 

• Be^.J.B. Stnive. Dissert. Aead. Vpsal. habitec. Vol. s. p, 195 — 281. 


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dent proceeds to recommend to the notice of physiciians Solanum 
■Dulcamara, a plant the medicinal properties of which were but 
little known, until it was employed by Linnseus in the naval 
hospital of Stockholm, in the year 1738. On this occasion, it 
was found very efficacious in the cure of scorbutic complaints ; 
and our author recommends its exhibition also in rheumatic, and 
syphilitic pains, in the jaundice, uterine obstructions, and the 
itch. The mode in which this medicine is prepared among the 
Swedes, is to collect the stalks of the plant either at the begin- 
ning of spring, or towards the end of autumn, when being 
destitute of leaves, the woody part gives out most smell- and 
taste. A handful (or from 2 to 4 drachms) of these stalks, 
dried and cut into small pieces, is infused in a pint of hot 
water for half an hour, and then slowly boiled about 8 minutes. 
Of- this decoction, two tea-cups full are directed to be taken 
every morning and evening. It operates either as a sudorific, 
diuretic, or purgative, according to the circumstances of the 
patient, and is allowed to be taken in all those cases which are 
stated to be benefited by the use of sarsaparilla« sassafras, and' 
other similar articles. 

In England, the use of the Dulcamara seems now to be almost 
confined to cutaneous disorders; but it was very early brought 
into notice here, as having efficacy in other complaints. Sec- 
Gataker's Observaitons oti the internal Use of the Solanum (Lon- 
don 1757- Ovo). The editor of the present volume has employed^ 
it with most success in those affections of the skin which have a 
leprous character. 

157. Pandora et Flora Rybyemh. Resp. D. IT. Sodekbbrc. 

jjn enumeration of the insects and plants observed at Ryby 

. (near, 

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(aeor Stockhebi), tlie r^aideooe of Arcbiater Back ; with aUoft 
ob«erva^<»s 09 some of t^e mOTe remaxl^able ^>ecie8. 

158. Futtdafi(ienta Testaceologia. Kesp. A. Muhvat. 1771. 
XhU i» * coipptete exp^tion of t^e Licuieau priocipfeft of 

testaceologicaj. anraogemeat, acco^npanied by a very fuU ^x- 
planatioa of tenns,, aod two pl»te» illustrative of all the c|iSefe«t 
part$ of sh^Uft to wlucb they apfuly. The history of the scieace 
is con^iso^y sJ(etcbed» a& a sort of preface to. the dissertation ; 
^4 due notice is ta^oa of Uie general structure and physi^ok^ 
of testaceous awnak. Upon the whole, this, may be consider- 
ed ^s ope of the most u^u^ of such papei^ in the Ammmiutes 
Academictf afi relate to Uane fli^dation of o^ur amthor's^ general 

The history of autb(»s« iR this brandy i^ given more at. larg« 
in 1^ Tram^ictitmi of the Xf'nnean Societj/,. Vo4. 7. p. XIQ-^S^ 

159. Re$pirati» Diatfticff. Resp. J. Uti.B,OLv. 1773. 

We are here presented with some remarks on the diife^nt, 
kinds of air that have been found by experience to be most salu- 
tary, or otherwise, to the human constitution. As far a» th« nature 
of the respiratory process, and of its effects on animals, was in 
liinnieus's time understood, it is here explained, togettier with 
the general anatomy of the lungs. Many curious observations 
occur on the change produced in the air that is inhaled, the 
writer maiotaining that it parts with some principle, though. 
what that principle is, he does not venture to explain. 

ThcFC are many interesting facts relative to the different degrees 
of purity and salubrity of the atmosphere, in different parts of 
the globe. 

160. Fragavesca. Resp. S. A. Hedin. 1772. 

Ijnnieiis (as we have before remarked) derived great benefit, 


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Aft^NitAtts AtADfiMicje^ 479 

under the attacks of gout to which he ^a^ subject, from the use 
of strawberries*. The presetit paper states particularly, in ad- 
dition to a botanical history of the gefttid Ff-agaria, the circum- 
stances under which that fruit ptoved of such singular «cr»ice to 
our anthot, and which induced faith to recommend it to ar- 
thritic patients in gcnCfal. It appears, that about the end of 
June, 1750, he experiertced so vioient jin attack a$ to be unable 
to take either nourishment or repose for a fortnight; add he 
could not even keep his feet quiet two minutes at a time. The 
complaint passed from one foot to the other, into his hands, and. 
also to othef joiftts, affecting them with redness, swelling, and 
all the usual appearances. A plate of- strawberries having been 
accidentally brought to him, -frhilst he was in this afflieted state, 
they proved to be the only article thAt was at all grateful to his 
palate, and after eating them be slept some houi^, the only 
time during the whole fourteen days of his illness. When he 
awoke» he ate mtffe strawberries ; and haviAg again good sleep- 
from midnight until the next morning, he found bimsdf well 
enough to leave his bed, and in fact experienced no pain 
whatever, though the disease had of course debilitated him ex- 
tremely. The following year, the gout came on again, about the 
same period; and our invalid being then at Drottningholm, his- 
pale sickly countenance struck the Queen, who very condescend- 
ingly inquired what he would tafee? Linnaeus replied "Strawber- 
ries" which were not to be procured. Her Majesty, however,, 
ordered a plate of this fruit to be brought; and having eaten that 
quantity, he found himself well enough the next morning to go 
to court. The gout returned the third year (but in a much slighter, 
degree than beibre), and was again cured by strawberries > and. 

• See 5^108*. 

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on its access the fourth and fifth times, at the same season in 
the succeeding years, the same occurrences took place, and they 
were remedied by the same means. The attacks gradually be- 
came less violent, and, by persevering in the use of this fruit 
every summer, they did not recur at all for nearly twenty years ; 
indeed we do not find that Linnaeus experienced a return oi 
gout even after that interval. — It is no wonder therefore that the 
writer of this dissertation pronounces strawberries preferable to 
any medicine hitherto discovered, for the cure of arthritic dis- 

Two cases are mentioned, showing that, wholesome as straw- 
berries are universally considered, they will notwithstanding 
act as a poison on some persons. They occasioned syncope^ suc- 
ceeded by a petechial efflorescence on the skin. 

l6l. Observationes in Materiam Medicam. Resp. J. Lindwall. 

Here, as well as in a preceding dissertation (Vires Plantarumj 
No. 14), it is maintained that the medicinal qualities of plants 
are in many instances deducible from their botanical affinities. 
But the general mass of observations contained in this paper 
amount only to a sort of recapitulation of the uses of particular 
species, as originally given by Linnaeus, with their appropriate, 
generic and specific designations, and a catalogue of others 
Tvhose names and virtues had not hitherto been fully ascer- 

16'2. Vlanta Cimicifuga. Resp. J. IJornboeg. 1774. 

Some account of this plant had before been given, in the 
description of certain new species brought from Siberia by 
(jnielin {Ama-?i. Acad. Vol. 2. n. 29.); and it had been figured by 
Dr. Aphonin (Vol. 7- "■ 147.) Here, however, its history is 
given more at large, with a more accurate engraving, and we 




fifld sotne reibaiiis, worthy of att«ntioo, relative to its' gcnsihle 

T^is <plfwt, it appears, is universally rejected by horses, cows, 
sheep, goats, and hogs. Being of the natural order of Multi- 
aiUqu£, lUid AOfurly allied to the genera of Aconitumy Delpbiniha, 
ActiMf aad others (possessing well known poisonous properties) 
in the Ltnnean class Fi^andria, it is supposed to have very 
active virtues, which though not as yet ascertained, may prove 
of great importance in medicine. Our author recommends its 
being tried m ca^esi of diseased glands, scrophula, and haemor- 
rhoids. Xhe people of Siberia (as has been before observed) 
eioploy an infusioa of this lierb for the cure of dropsy, which 
it is said to actiug as aa emetic and cathartic. Dr. 
Homborg assures os. of Us 'power to produee vomiting, having 
taade 'the- experiment on hinisielf. We dpnot-find that its odour, 
s«tW'ith8tanding the laaaeoiCimic^itgafiEtida imfdies a peculiar 
etfensiven^s to bugs, is onore tliose Jmsects than to 

, TheFC is scarcely aay genus that •varies mOre than -Cmicifugat 
m the number both of its stamina and pUtiUay and of the parts 
o£. the caZ^x.and corolla, Jiinnteus .originally .considered it as an 

. 163. Esca AvUim ^omesticarum. Resp. P. Hol-mb'ERGE-r. 1774. 
This interesting paper is formed somewhat on the plan of that 
entitled Pan Stiecm*. It records a s«ies of experimeats on 89 
species of Inxcia and Vermes^ and on theaeeds.of 111 difierent 
kinds ;of .plants, to ascertain how many of them are devoured or 
rejected by our jsommon poultry. — The ganaral result of these 
experiments, which the writer informs us were (many of them^ 

• No, 95 of.thw collection (p. 371). 

■3 9 repeated 

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482 All(£iriTATE8 ACADEMICS. 

repeated at least twenty times, and. under the fttrest circam- 
stances, is as follows ; viz.' Geese ate 63 species, and reacted 7 ; 
Duckty out of 6'3* swallowed 54 ; Common Fcmis 119 out of 145 ; 
and Turkei/s 98 out of 115. 

What an admirable provision is established, says oov author, 
against that immense muitipUcation of insects and seetts «4iich 
ve daily witness ! According to Beaumtn, a single Phalcma 
may yearly produce 200,000 indiTiduab. In the capsule of a 
Poppy, we may count 33,000 sectb, and in diat of th« Tobacco 
at least 40,3S0 ( If then there were no peEUument newie carried 
on by nature for checking so (u-odigioos an iacreape, the li^ of 
man would be almost entirely emj^oyed in eadeavoutiog to rid 
the world of its myriads of noxious creatutes. 

164. Marum. Resp.J.A-DAHL&asN. 1774. 

A dissertation on the history, botanici^ chanicCnr^ raedkanat 
properties, preparations, &c. of Teucriitim Mmfttm, wliich th« 
writer considers as a powerful nervmet and as desernog' mors 
attention than physicians have hitherto paid to it. In England 
this plant is but little used, except as a Mern«itstoFy ; as such,. 
it holds a place in the Pitk/it Asari compotitus bf the Loadoa. 
Fharmacopffiia, for it yields a quick, pungent sm^, whicb pro- 
vokes sneezing. The form of exhibiting it recommended by our 
author, is that of powder, of which from half a dmchm to a. 
drachm may foe given (in his opinion) with advantage, in most 
diseases of debility. Cases of palsy and asthma are sufa^cmied,- 
m which the use of this medicine seems to have been attended 
with t>ene6cia) effects. Linnaeus himself speaks of it, in his- 
Claus Mediciruey as being preferable, to Thyme, Lavender, and 
Oiost others of his Spirantia. 

I65i Vioh Ipecacuanha. Resp. T>. "Wickkan. 1774. 

The well known root, called in the shops Ipecacuanha, has 

3 been 



been supposed" by different aathors to belong, to very diffeirnt 
genera. Ray judged it to be tt species of Paris; PUikenet and 
Morison as beltaiging to the Honey-Buckle tribe ; Barrere (who 
is followed by tiie preseat writer) as a Viola ; and VandeUi de- 
scribes it under the name of Tombalia Ipecacuanha, Now, how- 
ever, no doubt seems to be entertained respecting its real bo- 
tanical cbaracters, which have been very fully described, and 
elucidated by 6gures, in the Tranaactions of the Linnean Society 
(Vol. 6. p. 137)» Vtofesscfc Brotero, of Coimbra, the author of 
the description alluded to, denominates the plant Callkocca Ipe- 
eacuanbA, and sbowa its proper place in the Systema to be in the 
order Monogyma.^ of the class Peniandria, 

Dr. Wickman enumerates the medicinal properties of Ipecacu- 
anha, which are become too well known to need being remark- 
ed ttpoa in this place. 

16& Ftanta Sminamefaea. Besp. J, Alm, 1775. 

We havfi here eoncise notSces of the collection of Surinam 
plaato, prueHted to Linnteus by the King of Sweden. This 
coUection was. fomnd to contain yl3 new genera^ and between 40 
&iid SO new species, most of which were afterwards fally described 
in the Suppleatientnm Planfarttm, of Limisuv, the son. 

At the end of thra dissertation, are given the botanical charac- 
ters and a fignre of that fine species, named by our author Gus^ 
tavia Augusta, in honoiu* of his royal pati-on. 

Scune of the rarer ^ants of Surinam have been described and 
figured in an academical dissertation, published at Copenhagen, 
under the Vresidency of RottboU*. See Acta Literarta Univ. 
Hajhkmis. m^ p. 267-:304. 

• Descriptioaes rarwmm plantanaft, neenhn m^eritB medRca atque a 
term Siirimmmair (Hsnu*. 1776. tta, ctmitabb. tou 5). 

3 Q 3 167. Ledum 

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167. Ledum palustre. ."Resp. J. P. Westring. 1775. 

A botanical, oeconomical, and medical history of a plants 
very common in the moister woods of Sweden, and denominated 
by Linnaeus Ledum palustre. That it possesses very active pro- 
perties, the writer infers jrom its strong, subaromatic smell, 
which it has been known to retain, even when dried, during the 
lapse of 150 years. Its taste is bitter, and somewhat afttringent, 
like turpentine. The Germans put it into their beer, for the 
sake of increasuig the inebriating qualities oS that Hquor. 

It is certain that this plant is peculiarly oif<»isive to almost alt 
the smaller insects, especially bugs, lice, &c., and no animal is 
known to feed on it, except the goat. Instances are )ien ad- 
duced of its good effects in some cutaneous diseases, and . in 
hooping cough.; but it» use is more particularly recommended 
for the cure of Lepra, in which complaint recourse is had to tfaa 
Ledum by the peopleof Kamtschajtka (as it i» said) with singular 
success. We have the authority of Dr. Odhdius (in the Stockholm 
Transactions, of the year 1774) for believing this medicine to 
excel most others, in the treatment of the disorder kwt mention- 
ed ; and,, upon the supposition that exanthemata owe their origin 
to insects, — a supposition wliich our auUior evidently favours, 
physicians may do well to give the herb a more extensive trial. 
The form of exhibiting it recommended by Odhelius is to infuse 
■4 ounces of the Ledum in a. quwrt of hot water, and to give to 
the patient from half a pint to a quart internally, in the course 
of the day. 

168. Opwm. Ilesp. G. E. Geoegii- 1T75- 

A very full and excellent acconnt of the various fonos of 

opiates, with some concise remarks on the properties of opium 

in general, and on the comparative advantages of its several 

preparations. The writer declines entering minutely into all the 

1 medicinal 



medicinal effects of opium, lest he sliould seem " Hiada post 
Homerum scribere" tlie work of Trailer (published in the year 
1757) having anticipated, in his opinion, every thing that can 
be said on the subject. Since the time of Dr. Georgii's gradua- 
tion, however, much important matter has been added to the 
history of this inestimable drug, by various medical and chemi- 
eal writers ; but it would be too tedious to enumerate tltem in 
this place. 
■ 169. Biga Insecforum. Resp. A. Daul. 1775. 

'fbunberg, notwithstanding his skill in entomology, and his - 
^ligent search after insects, during the three years he travelled 
in the vicinity of the Cape, was unable to find scarcely a single 
new genus ; and Forster, whose sphere of investigation was stitt 
larger, observed a few new species only, in the whole space he 
visited towards the antarctic pole. Hence the author of this 
dissertation considered himself peculiarly fortunate in having it 
in his power, to add. to zool<^ the two genera here described* 
viz. Diopsis and Paussus^ individuals of both which are figured 
in a plate annexed to bis paper. They were first noticed in the 
collecti<Ht of our countryman Dr. FothergUl, who had received 
an immense number of insects from North America and Guinea, 
and sent many of these to Linnteus. 

170. Pldnta Aphytda. Resp. .£.A.cha.rius.- 1776. 
This singular plant, discovered by Thunberg, in Afi^ca, was 
considered by that botanist as a Fungus, . and described as such 
in the Stockholm Transactions of the year 1775, under the name of 
Hydnora Africana. The penetration of Linnaeus, howeveiv 
proved the discoverer's idea ' to be incorrect. . It was found to 
belong to the class Monadeip/iia, and having 3 stamina, was 
placed in, the order of Triandrta^ 


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I'his plant is ono of the most simple hitlierto knovf^o. It is 
destitute of stalk, leaves, and root, and puts forth only a siagle 
flower, in which even petals arc scarcely discoverable. In feet, 
no one would conceive it to be what is conimonly called a perfeci 
plant, without examining it in the closest manner ; and, from 
being parasitical also (on the roots of Euphorbu£\ it would m<*t 
I)robably be referred by most botanists to the order of Fungi. 
There are figures of it subjoined to the dissertation. 

171. Hypericum, Resp, C. N, Hellenius- 1776. 

A botanical history of the genus Hypericum^ of which .35 se- 
cies are described, and 3 <^ these, viz. H. Guineerue, Mexicanum^ 
and JEgyptiactany figured. — More particular notice is taken o€ 
H. perforaiumy a plant extremely common both in Sweden and 
£ngland ; bloA it is supposed by our author to possesa active 
medicinal virtues, especially as an oa^&ftec/sc, for wbicb purpose 
it was successfully employed by Lumceus himself, in a caae heis 
related. The professor's poeaenptian was as £:)Uows,. •otjc 

B. Summit. Hyperici Mp. 1. 

Coqne in Yini Hispan. lb. vr. ad t«stiae paiiis mnao. Cola. 

D. s. Decoct. Nwaraf tit ka^t qmarter mimges morgon oeh 

The respondent discusses at some length its efficacy in other 
complaints, quoting several authors in support of his opinions, 
and intersperung remarks also on the uses of the. plant in rural 
ceconomy and in dying. 

In Dr. AVilldenow's edititMi of the Species Flantaruntf tbenuin- 
bcr of Hyptrica are no fewer than 88. 

Vol. 9. 



Vol. 9. - 
Erlaflg. {Sckreber) 1785. 8vo. pp. 331. 
As Linnaeus was not known to have communicated to the 
respective respondents any part of the dissertations contained in 
this volume, it scarcely comes within our. province to notice 
them in the present work. As many of the Bubjbots are interest- 
ing, however, it may be desirable to the reader, at least to be 
made acquainted with their titles, and the authors' names. 

172. Hamt»rrkagia uteri mb itaiu graviditatit. Resp. E. £lp.. 

173. Methodua invettigandi vires medioamentorum dwmiea, Resp.. 
li. HioRTzBono. 1754. 

' 174.. Comectaria Electro-Medica. Resp. P. Zbtzell. 1754. 

175. Pulms inttmittem. Resp. A^Wahliit. 1756. 

176. Cortex Peruvidnu». Besp. J". C P. PXTxltssK. 1758. • 

177. Ambroiiaca. Re»p. J. Hzdeek. 1759- 

178. Hamoptym. Resp.' J. M. G&abero. 17^* 

179. Vena Resorbenies. Resp. C. P. Thunbekc. 1767- 

ISO. Febtiutn IntermiUentittm curatio varia. ^evp. P. C. Til- 
L^us. 1771-* * 

3.81. H^emoitka^iie cjc Phthf»a. Resp. J. M. ab Heidenstam. 

laS. Sutwa Vminerum. Ue»f. C. £. Bobcler. 1773. 
. 183. Medkamenfa purgantia. ^Res^. J . RoTHEitAM. 1775; 

184. Perspirath msemibilig. Resp. N. Avelian. 1775. 

185. Canones Medici, Resp. S. A. Hbdin. 1775 
186.. Scorbutus. Resp. E. D. Salomon. 1775. 

Vol. 10. 



VoL 10. 
Erlang. {Schreber) 1790. 8vo. pp. 131. tabb. sen. 6. 
'This volume contains 

1. Hypothesis nova defebrium intermitttntium causCt 
Jjiinnaeus-'s own inaugural dissertation, of which ire have al- 

-i'i.>ady taken notice in p. 42. 

2. Progranana quo memoriem anniversariam stiscepfi A S. R. Cels. 
Adolpbo FridcricOf Regtu Suec. 1. 1. Principe hareditario ekcto, &c. 
.Cancdlariaim Academia Ups. pie t 

LiNNvEUs, Acad. t.i. Rector, 1750. 

3. Programma quo Diem Natalem 
Regn. Suec. t. t. Princ. httr. eL ^e* i 
&c. 1730. 

4. Programma quo ad aolemnem inattgurationem meditam cele- 
■brandam invUavit constitutus PromotoTt C- L. 1758. 

5. Programma quo ad.audiendam orationem aditialemM. Joannis 
JJastbokm^^ (Econ. prJv. Prof. Regit et Borgstroemiani invitavit 
C. L. &c.'l759. 

6. Brogramma quo Saccessorem suum in Reetoratu civibus mdixit 
<:. L. &c. 1759- 

TheseSve programmata, ^published by Linnaeus in his official 
capacity, as Rector Magnificus of the University, except the 2nd, 
:3d, and 5th, were originally written iu Swedish, but are here given 
jn Latin. Being of a complimentary nature,£jid relating to local 
and tem.porary ckcumstancee, they scarcely either require or 
^dmit of analysis. 

7. Oratio coram Rege -et Regina Suecia, cum Academiam Upsa- 
' iiensem inviserunt. 1759. 

This oration is noticed inj>. 117. 

;6. Velicite Nature. Oratio recitata in Templo Cathedrali Upsd- 


Digitized by 



Hensi anno 1772 d. 14. Decembris, quum Fasces Jcademicot depone- 
ret, dC.v. L. 4-c. 

This was the last oration delivered bj* Linnaeus, and it afforded 
his audience so much gratification, that, the morning after his 
resignation <^ the Rectorship, a deputation was sent to thank 
him in the name of the Unirersity, and to request that he would 
print it in the Swedish language. Linnaeus acceded to this re- 
quest, and the oration was printed at Stockholm in 1773* under 
the title of Delicia Natura. Tal, hallit uti Upsala Dom-Kyra^ Ar 
1773- den 14 Decemb. vid Reetoratets nedlaggande of Carl v. Lmnct 
Sec ^pp. S2. 8vo.) The original (he informs us) was written but 
a feiw days before it was recited, and under the pressure of illness, 
as well as of baste. H«nce, in the Swedish translation probably, 
the oration was not oidy corrected, but also amplified. The fmrm 
in which it is given in the Amctnitates Academica, by Schreber, is 
not the original Latin, that editn* not having been able to obtain 
a sight of it. 

■ The title of this composition suflSciently points out the nature 
of the subject, which is treated in that methodical, yet interest- 
ing and energetic style, so peculiar to our author. He gives a 
figurative description of the three kingdoms of nature, with al- 
lusions to the various analogies that may be imagined to subsist 
between them, and notices of the more wonderful species and 
properties existing in each; and he concludes with some com- 
pliments to the students, on the marked propriety of their 
conduct in tlie University, during the whole time be exercised 
tJie Rectorship. 

On the whole, this oration is admirably calculated both to in- 
struct and fascinate the youthful mind, and to explain the peculiar 
delight attending the pursuit of natural history, a pursuit, which 
the instance of the venerable Linnseus himself, on this very oc- 
3 £ casion, 

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CftBtOA, iwoved to he aot like the ordutar}' and perishable eufoj- 
ments of life, but on the contrary, one of the richest and most 
j^emn^nent sources of pleasure which the ktudneae of Provideace 
hi^ opened to tbe humao mind. 

■Q. C. ti. &c. Duquisitio th Sexu Plautarvm, &c. &c. ct^ An-- 
noMionibui Xi- Jfit^ Edvar^ Smith tt P. AT. Aug. Broussomt. 

We have already givea some accoaat of this performaoce. 
(PK U5.) 

IQ, Afpf»dk' 

Pan $ueci/Aemen^ihet.ttmKtwi, Auetere P. G. Tckouaau. 

This p«pefl wa& origiostHy M'nltew a the Shiedish langvagev 
Qftd inserted ia a peiiodlctd wocfc, puJabshj^d by the Bayai Pairi-^ 
<^ Soviet; Qf Siredea» under the tUk oi Htuikiitiumg*rJguni(A. 
'iluB titJb.snffibiai^^y im|iliea vhst kiod vi amtiw k embraces, 
vhich i^' xety istjteireflttng and wei^^ as heia^ suppl«De»i 
tai^y to the ^bservatioas ajtd ej^periment^ coataJBed in No. 3& 
of this collection. In the original publication, its aukboir in- 
cludes the a^bstVACO of No. |63, whkbi hovevec^ m the pfeaent 
W:Ork is omitted. i^ 

The remainder of thw volum? cos^istfi of the bottwical dttsffiw 
tftUoBP pub^hed under the Presidency of Linneeus the 90a, the 
titles of vhick ajre as follow : viz, 

1. Nvoa Gramiaim Gemra* Hesp. IX £. Nxzei^. 1779'> 

2. Lava»diul<h Besp. J. !)• I^uni^marck. 1780. 

3. Methodm Musoorum UIus^hi^, Resp. O. Swartz. 1781. 

There is added a Peseription of Srica Sparrmanni, by Profes- 
sor Linnaeus (junior) himself. It was originally given in the 
St<fiikh(^m Transactions^ Vol. SP- 




hllSliAtJS's DEATH. 40} 

. IN the month of May, 1774» whilst lecturing in the botaniti 
garden, Linneeus suffered an attack of apoplexy^ th6 debilitating 
effects of which obliged him to relinquish the more active part 
of -his professorial duties, and to close his literary labours. 

in 1776, a second apoplectic seizure supervening, rendered 
him paralytic on the right side, and impaired his mental powers so 
mucli, that he became a very distressing spectacle. But the more 
immediate cause of his dissolution was tm ulceration of the 
urinary bladder*, under which he languished to the 10th of 
January, 1776* when he expired, in the 7l8t year of his age. 

To the lovers of science, it will ndt appear strange, nor will it 
be utlpleteant to hew, that Unoonimon respect wa* shcnra td Hie 
memory of tiiis greM man, by every description of his felloW 
citizens. .. .We are told that, on his death, a general mourning 
took place at Upsala, and that his funeral procession was at- 
tended by the whole Univercityj tts well professors as students, 
the pail being supported by sixteeil Doctors in Medicine, all of 
whom had been his pupils. A subscription was also commenced 
for erecting a monument.-f* to him, in a small chapel, near his 


* It appears from « passage hi the Diary, that the first tinte IJunieus experienced aiijr 
eyaptoms indicating disease in the bladder (which disease he suppMed to be Calcuba), 
ttas in the ADfumn of ) Tit, jaBt after he bad completed the Speeies Plantarnm. He 
«ttribaied Itie com^nt to bis long sittbg md application to that laborious work. 

t "this Wis nt>t coihpleted, however, until the year 1798. It is described as being 
executed *vith grtat simpltcity and beauty, in the red porphyry of Elfsdabl. On the 
upper part is a bronze medallion of IJmiffias, modelled by Sefgell, with a wreath of 
latftel above; aod belo*, the folkmiftg inscription, in Oiarabte^t of gttt braK3'(of 
idmifabte etegatlce and ^rkmaaiMp) placed in high rdief, ea tbcf jit^Iwd aurftce of 
the porphyry, v«. . ■.■ ' , 

Sua Cakol* 

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grave, in the cathedral church of Upsala. — His sovereign onler* 
ed a medal to be struck, of irhich one side exhibits liiKnasus's 
bust (with the Linnaa in his bosom), and his name, 

CAROitrs LiNNXus, Arch. Reg. Equ. Auratus; 
and the other Cybele, in a dejected attitude, holding iii her 
left hand a key, and surrounded with animals and growing 
plants ; over these is the following legend, 


and underneath. 

Post obitum UpsaSa, die X Jafu MDCCLXXVIII. Rege 

Hie same generous monarch not <mly honoured the Royal 
Academy of Sciences with his presence, niwn Linneeus's com- 

Cak«lo a Lihm^ 


Amici et Discipuli 

The expense of this monument, plain knd tisafit u it is, amonnteJ to 2000 lix 
dollars (upwards of j£'46o sterling), of which sum 400 (^03) were expended upon the 
letters alone. It is rather to be lamented that the words Botamcorum Prinetpi were 
inserted, as they are but a weak and superfluous allusion to the botanical talents of 
Linnsus, and seem to limtt h^ superiority to one of the kingdoms of nature, though 
it was undeniably so conspicnons in all the thiee. In other respects, the style of the 
inscription strikingly corresponds with the simplicity and taste of the monument itself. 
— Tht reader will find an engraving of it, fronting the tttk-page of the Allgeme'me 
Utaratur-Zeilmg. (Jan. Feb. Mar. 160S.) 

* This medal wae executed by Liungenger, ene of the first artists Sweden has pro- 
duced, . The worknaasbip is excelleni, and the likeness said to be strikingly correct. 
Sec the plate faontii^ p. 1 IS of this volume (fig. s) . 




inemoTfttlonf wa» held at Stockholm, but, as a still higher 
trilHite of revpect, lamented the public loss, in his speech fron^ 
the throne to the Assembly of the States. " The University of 
Upsala" (said his Majesty) " has also attracted my attention. 
Always shall I remember with pleasure that the Chancellorship 
of that University was intrusted to me before I ascended the 
throne. I have also instituted there a new professorship. But I 
have lout, alas I a man whose fame wasauis great all over the world 
aa the honour was bright which his countrtf derived from him as a 
citizen. Long will Upsala remember the celebrity which Ht acquired 
iy Me KflBK of LiNNJfius+." 

Nor has the memory of this illustrious naturalist been honoured 
only in his own country. Dr. Hojpe, Professor of Botany at 
Edinburgh (who died in 1786), not only pronounced an eulogium 
of Linnaeus before his students, at the opening of his lectures 
in the spring of 1778, but also laid the foundation-stone of a 
monument, which consists it£ a vase supported on a pedestal, and 
bears the following inscription* vix. 

LiNMfO posuiT J> Hope. 

The Marechal Dwc de NoaiUes also showed a similar mark of 
respect for Linneeus, by erecting in his "noble garden at St. Ger- 
main en Laye, a cenotaph, supporting the bust of that great 
man, with the plants Linnaa and Ayenia springing up by its side. 

Very shortly after Linnteus's death, his Uloge was read before 
the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris^ by the celebrated M. de 
Cofidorcet, and published in the Memwres of that body for 
the same year (1778. p. 66—^). It appears that our author, 

* The speech waa made by Liniueiu't intimate friend Aichiater Back, and published 
under the title of jtmhtulse-tai bjver Carl von laimt, &c. (Stockholm 1770> Sro, - 

t See Stoerer** lift tS liniueiii, tmuUtcd by Tntpp, p. s«0. 


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494 tiKyjftOs'A utntTi. 

willing to {^reirent inaccumcy even in the aecmint of Ids aim 
life, sent several particalars to the Academy himself, as soon as 
he perceived his dissolation to be ftpproaclnng. — Aiioth&t El^gt 
was delivered before the Royal Medical Society of Paris, by 
M. Vicq d'Azyr* ; &nd also a third (in that kingdom) beibi« the 
Royal Academy of Sciences at Montpellier, whefe this duty de*- 
volved to M. de Ratte-f-. — Neither did the Royal Society of Up^ 
sala omit paying to the memory of their depu-ted member a 
similar compliment. A history of his life was printed among 
their Transactions J. 

The universal respect which still attaches to the memory of 
Linneeus, and the high reputation of his writings throughout the 
world, render any encomium in this wotk ^together unnecessary ; 
with all lovers of batural'science his na^ie alone is eulogy, and 
will doubtless be very long insep^ttble froih the idea of extfaor- 
din&ry merit. Yet we may be pertriitted, perhaps, to offer the 
following biief estimate of his ttflefits, Tfhioh, it is hoped, will 
be thought just, and naturally dedtlcible from An imptutial view 
of his writings. 

Nature had been emiiiently liberal in the etldowmefits of 
his mind. He was possessed of a liv^y imagidfttlon, eotrected 
by a strong judgment, and guided by the laws of strict 
system ; the most retentive memory ; the most unremitting in- 
dustry ; and the greatest perseveittnce in all his pursuits, as is 
evident from that continued vigour with which he {jftj^ecuted 
his design (adopted so early in life) of totally reforflSte^ and 
arranging anew the history of all the productiohS Of natar^. 

• SnEBil,et Mam. da Me4. 1777^t776.p. I7-*M. 

t Assemllee PtihUque de la Soc. Roy. des Sc. a Montpellier. 1779- p. 100— 'lit. 

I Nova Act. Soc. Sc. Vpsal. Vol. 6. p. SSS^-^M. 




To this science he garc a degree of perfection uoknovn before; 
and he had the uncoaanion felicity of living to aee bis own me- 
thod, notwithstanding every discouragement Its author at 5rst 
laboured under, and the opposition it long me^ with, preferred 
tu alt others. Yet no irriter more cautiooaly avoided that com- 
mon ^ror, of endeavouiing to build his ovrn £une on the ruin of 
another man's. He every where acknowledged the several rae< 
rits of each author's system, and no one appears to have been 
more s^aisibie of the partial defects of his own. Those anoma- 
lies which bad principaUy been the subjects of criticism, he 
well knew every art^ttai arrangement must abound with ; and, 
having laid it down as a fism. raaxim, that every system musifc . 
finally rest on- its intrinsic merit, he willii^ly committed his 
to the judgment of posterity. Perhaps there is no circumstance 
of linnaeus's' hfe that shows him in a more dignified light, 
tikan Ins. condact towards his opponents. Disavowing contro- 
versy, and JABtly eonsideriog it an unimportant and iruitless sa- 
diifice of time^ he never replied to any cavila or invectives, nu- 
^eroHs and. malignant as they at one time w«re*. 

Liunten bad a happy, comnand of language, and no man 
ever applied it to bis purposes moie successfully^ or gave it more 
precision and eoncisene^. It has been objected, as derogatory 
to his learning in no smaU degree, that he has introduced a num- 
ber of terms not warranted by classical authority. But, grant- 
ing this, it ongbt to be recollected that Linneeus, ia tbe investi- 
gation of nature, discovered a multitude of relations entirely 
UAkoown to tbe ancients ; if therefore the objection have any 

* '' jicerrhna <»nincia" (says he^ in die pre&ce to his Species Plantamm) **■ iguam- 
ationes, caviUationeSy Jmccinationef, preestantioram longe virorum omm eBVo UdionspriB- 
titta tranqiuUo aamo sustinuif wc iptarum autorilnu mvidea si iitde ipsis apud vuJgms 
gloria major evadat," 

6 force. 

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force, let it be shown that the terms which he has introduced to 
express these relations are not fairly and analogically deduced 
from the Greek and Latin languages, an'd that they are not well 
adapted to that technical phraseology, which is so usefully sub- 
stituted for the tedious circumlocutory descriptions of former 
writers*. If the same industry and genius, which were mani- 
fested by our author in bis scientific pursuits^ had been devoted 
to the acquisition of the learned languages, and the graces of 
composition, the most fastidious philologists would most probably 
have sought for grounds of censure in his works without success ; 
but, on the other hand, it is not to be conceived that be could, 
in that case, have attained any considerable degree of the more 
exalted kind of fame, which now survive him in the anhaU of 
lULtural knowledge. 

The ardor of Linnseus's attachment to the study of nature, 
firom his earliest years, and his uncommon applicaticm to the 
philosophy of that pursuit, gave him a most comprehensive view 
both of its pleasures and of its iisefulness, at the same time that 
it opened to him a wide field, before but little cultivated, espe- 
cially in his own country. Hence he was early led to regret, that 
natural history had not, by public institution, been more culti- 
vated in universities, in many of which logical disputatious 

* The followmg remarks made on this subject by RouHseau, in tlie introduction to 
hia Lettret Elementaires sw la Botaniqtie, may be appropriately introduced here in 
support of the above observations. " On s'est plaitit" (says that ingenious and ele- 
gant writer) " que lea mots de cetle langue n'etmtnt pas tons dans Ciceron; mm cette 
plaint avnit un sens raisonnahUy li Ciceron e&tjitit tin trmti complet de Botaniqve. Ces 
moti cependant sont tans Grecs ou Latins, expressift, courts, sonores, etjbrment m^me des 
constructions elegantes par leur extreme precision. C'est dans la pratifue jourttaUere de 
I'ert fu'on sent i'avantage de cette itmivelie langue, aussi commode et necessaire aux 
Botanistes qt^est cellede I'Algehre atut Geotnetres." 




and metaph3rsical theorizing had too long prevailed, to the ex- 
clusion of more useful science. Availing himself therefore of 
the advantages which he derived from a large share of eloquence, 
and an animated style, he never failed to display in a fascinating 
and convincing manner the relation this study has to the public 
good ; to incite the great to countenance and protect it ; and to 
encourage and allure youth into its paths, by opening its various 
sources of entertainment to their view. His extensive know- 
ledge of the science, as connected with almost all the ceconomi- 
cal arts, did not allow him to confinehis arguments and incite- 
ments to those only who were designed for -the practice of medi- 
cine. He laboured to inspire the great and opulent with a taste 
for it, and wished particularly that such persons as were devoted 
to an ecclesiastical life should acquire some portion of it, not 
only as the means of sweetening retirement and a rural situation 
(obliged as many are to reside constantly in the country), but as 
what would almost inevitably lead, in a variety of instances^ 
to discoveries which such sitOations alone can give rise to, and 
which the learned in great cities can have no opportunities of 
making; not to add, that the mutual communication and en- 
largement of this kind of knowledge, am^ng people of equal 
Tank, must prove one of the strongest bonds of union and friend- 
ship, and contribute, in ft much higher degree than the usual 
perishing amusements of the age, to the substantial pleasures 
and advantages of society. 

The habit of scrutinizing and contemplating the wonderful 
energies and oeconomy of nature had the effect of inspiring Lin- 
nreus,with an unsophisticated sort of pious feeling, which breaks 
forth in various parts of his writings with peculiar and most en- 
gaging eloquence. Not one of his greater works either begins 
or ends without a passage fro^ some sublime author, declaratory 
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of his adoration of the Supreme Being, and of his admiration 
of the stupendous and endlessly diversified contrivances in th& 
creation. Tlie ivarrath of his heart also produced, on various, 
occasions, the most glowing expressions of gratitude to Provi- 
dence, for the taste with which he liad been gifted, and which 
had afforded him so much interest and delight in existence*. 

Linnaius lived to enjoy the fruits of his labours in an uncom- 
mon degree. Under his culture, natural history raised itself, in 
Sweden, to a state of perfection unknown elsewhere, and it was- 
thence disseminated throughout Europte. His pupils dispersed 
themselves over the globe, and with their master's doctrines 
and celebrity extended science and their own. In those very 
places where his writings had been treated with most cwi- 
tempt, and where his system had at first met with most 
disparagement, he had the satisfaction of obtaining the com- 
pletest triumph -f-, and of perceiving even national partialities 

* Hts Diary is inUrsperfcd with many passages from scripture, expressive of these 
feeling!). — Over the door'of the hall in which he gave his lectures were painted the 
words " Jhnocue vivito; Nitmen adest !" 

t At Rome, measures were taken in the year 17A8 for the absolute suppressioiL 
of his writiogs, the pontifical officers inserting them in the list of forbidden books ; 
but no sooner bad the calightened Ganganelli (Clement XlVtb) ascended the papal 
throne, than he made all the retribmtiQH in hts power for this absurd tnsiilt to tbe cause 
of science and to the reputation of the Swedish naturalist, by a proceeding thus ad- 
verted to in a letter from the latter to the Chevalier Thunberg, viz. " Pajven, som for 
15 or sedan befall, at, om m'ma backer dit komma, skulls de Iramtas, har af salt Pro- 
testor Botanices, som eifdrstod mm method, och tillsatt en annor, som shall lasa fub- 
lice min method ock iheorie" (Stoever's CoUectio Epist. C. L, p. Qi.) *' Tbe Pope,'*' 
(says he] " who 15 years ago ordered my books to be burnt as soon as they were found 
in his dominions, ha^i now removed the Professor of Botany from his chair, because he 
was ignorant of my system, and has appointed another in his room, who vill give 
public lectures according to my own method ajid theory." 


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give way to the influence of his individual genius and philoso- 
phical eminence*. He lived to see several sovereigns of Europe 
establish public institutions expressly for the cultivation of na- 
tural history, — institutions which have excited a general curiosity 
for the sciefice> and a sense of its importance that cannot fail to 
further its progress, and raise it to that rank which it is entitled 
to> hold, among the pursuits of mankind -j-. 

Those who feel a reverence for the memory and merits of Lin- 
Bseus will naturally experience some gratification in forming an 
idea of his person, habits, and manners. — In stature he is de- 
icribed as having been rather sliort than tal), yet his limbs were 
muscular, and,he was of moderate corpulency. His head was 
large, with a very strong gibbosity of the occiput or back part of 
it. His features were agreeable, and his countenance animated, 
the eyes, which were brown, being remarkably bright, ardent, 
and piercing; he speaks of having enjoyed excellent sight. 
His hair, in in&ncy, was as white as snow, but it became brown 

* in France, the prejudices io favour of her own illustrious naturaligts, Touroefort, the 
Jussieus, Bu0bn, &c. were of course extremely strong; yet the example of Gouan 
^bo^ in his Icthyological and Botanical works), and of Gerard (in his f^a GaUo~ 
Provincialis), paved the way for the introduction of the LiniMan systun in that country 
48early utheyear I/S&r— In Portu^ a royal ordinance, issued in the year 1771 for 
the reform of the University of Coimbra, expressly required the Professor of Botany 
to adopt the principles of the Linnean school; which began to be generally adopted 
a]»» IB Spam about the tame period.— The prognrsa of the new system ia the other 
principal countries of Europe may be coUecled from Ac mnarks dispersed in the 
preceding pages. 

t If the reader should be desirous of perusing a more detailed review of IJnnaeus'g 
pn-emitttat laerits, and of tlK eStct* of his cxtTaordtQary labours, he might be grati- 
fied by consuhing the icvei^ EJugts above reicrred to, also that of M. de. St. .Amaas 
^in Ne. 9, *, i, and 6, of the Jmnmi dts Scimu»s viilet), and a dissertatjou de Fita 
et Merit'u lATtntsi, in Gilibert's Ftmd. Bot. (Tom. 3. p. v — xxxii.) 

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when he grew up, and, in advanced age, hoary; at which last pe- 
riod many large wrinkles appeared on his forehead. His teeth 
were weak, and very early became carious, in ccmsequence of 
an hereditary tooth-ache, to which he whs subject in hia youth. — 
In temper he was quick and irritable, yet easily AppesLsed; he 
possessed a natural cheerfulness*, and even in old age exhibited 
nothing like torpor or inactivity. He did not appear to take 
much interest in the fine arts, nor was his ear sensible to music. 
Wholly devoid of pride, and valuing his honours and titles only 
as they marked his scientific greatness, he was always -affable 
and courteous, and his style of living had nothing in it either of 
ostentation or luxury ; on the contrary, his establishment was bo 
moderate, that he sometimes incurred the imputation of avarice. 
Prom the extreme difficulties, of a pecuniary nature, which he 
experienced in tlie early part of life, it is not improbable that 
he acquired habits of very strict (economy and frugality ; but 
that the love of riches was not a passion with him, is proved by 
his acknowledged liberality re^p^ecting fees from his pupils, and 
by the scanty profits-f- with which he was content Irom his 
publications. Linnseus's foible (if it be necessary to record 
it) was his love of fame, which must be confessed to have 
been boundless, and it is no where more apparent than in the 
pages of his own diary. Yet who will charge this great man 

* Mr. Dryandermfonnsme, thtt lituunu would often nuke upduiceifoiIiisJaiiiily 
and pupils, at Hanunarby, wheie, with unaffected uid amiable gaiety of miod, he 
used <o look on, and even to derive amusement £rom these little domestic festivities. 

t He ia understood to have never recdved more than a ducat a sheet for soy of lua 
writings, which, fVom the time of bis beii^ settled in Sweden, wen purchasad by 
Laurence Salvius, of Stockholm, who for many yean made large ezportatious of books 
to the Dutch fairs. 




with having arrogated to himself merit that did not justly belong 
to him, or with having disputed the pretensions of others, be- 
cause they interfered with his own ?— He ever showed the most 
sacred regard for truth. All his actions and employments 
were regulated by the strictest order. He never deferred any 
thing; and whatever fact came to his knowledge he made a point 
of noting immediately, in its proper place, never trusting to his 

So exact was he in the distribution of his time, that he always 
proportioned the duration of bis repose to the season of the 
year, sleeping in the winter from 9 in the evening to 6 in the 
morning, and in the summer only from 10 to 3 ; but he never 
extended his application o^" raind beyond the moment at which 
he felt fatigue,, nor did he disdain social enjoyments when his 
faculties were unfitted for exertion. In fact, it was by such ma- 
nagement alone, that he could have accomplished those extraor- 
dinary labours which it has been our business to record ; and 
notwithstanding his regulated relaxation from intellectual exer- 
tion, so intensely had his memory been exercised, that its powers 
very obviously declined many years before his death, and had at 
last almost wholly deserted him. 

The hand-writing of lannaeus indicated, in some degree, the 
neatness and method lo which he habituated himself; though 
diminutive, it was remaricable for its legibility and elegance. 
A specimen of it, accurately engraved, from one of his letters to 
Archbishop Mennander, fronts the next f>age; and the following 
is a translation, viz. 


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■** The Right Reverend Bishop and Pro-Cliancellor, 
Dr. Meuander, 


Right Reverend Doctor and Bishop. 
My dear iViend, 
The busy life ive have led for some time has prevented m« 
from writing to you. I commissioned my son to send you the 
seeds ; if those before sent for Professor Kalm did not come up, 
it is his fault and not mine, as every seed was ct^lectcd in this 
garden the year before, and we sowed some of the same, not 
one of which has failed. 

Nothing could give me greater pleasure than to see you, my 
dear friend, for a few days, at my little country seat, 5 of a 
[Swedish] mile from Upsala, and to converse with you once 
more before we leave this world. Pray keep your word, and 
come if you can- 

I remain, 

My dear friend's most Humble servant, 
Upsala, Carl v. Linse'.** 

Sth of May, 1766. 

'Iliose who would wish to form a more accurate idea of Lin* 
DKus's person than can be given by mere description, may be 
acquainted, that the plate fronting the title page of this 
volume is very accurately engraved from a portrait* (in the pos- 

• This portrwt was painted for Archbishop yon Troi!, by whom it was sent as a 
present to Sir Joseph Banks. 

3 session 


r- - - nr - ' 


session of Sir Joseph Banks, K.B.), which w»s copied by Pro- 
fessor Piisch from a picture belonging to the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Stockholm, and which is estaemed the most 
striking and characteristic likeness that has been executed. The 
original picture was painted by a ftmoos Swedish artist named 
Roslin : and two engravings have been made from it in France, 
one by Clement Bervie, and the other (in colours) by Alix. 
There is an engraving also from Sir Joseph Banks's picture, by 
Messrs. Facius, who, however, cannot be said to have been very 
successful. The portrait in Miller's Illustration of the Seiml 
System was copied from an elegant medallion, done after die 
wax model for the bust on the royal medal (already described), 
by a Swede named Inlander, which medallion has been imitated 
also by Messrs. Wedgwood, in England. In the meeting-room 
of the Linnean Society of LondoB is aa excellent cast from 
•a large imsto-relkvo, in white marble (executed by Archeveque), 
which now adorns the royal palace of Drotningholm; it was 
presented to the society by Sir Joseph Banks.— There is a pic- 
ture of Linneeos (painted by an artist named Krafft) belonging 
to the College of Physicians at Stockholm, which has been en- 
graved by Acrel. — A scholar of our author, named Hallman, 
painted some portraits of him ; one of these is in the possession of 
Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq., V.P.LS., and is esteemed a 
good likeness. — But, all the portraits we have hitherto men- 
tioned represent out author as he appeared when far advanced 
in years. There is a picture (said to be now in the possession of 
Dr. Thornton) which was taken, when he was a very young man, 
and which originally belonged to Mr. Cliffords 1 his is a whole 
length, representing him in his Lapland dress ; and it has beea 
engraved in mezzolmto by an artist in London. The painter's. 


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name was' Hoffman. — There are extant three faalf-lungth por- 
traits of Linnaeus in his own works. The first (prefixed to the 
Xeipsic edition of the Systema Naturay printed in 1748) and 
the second (in the first edition of the Philosopkia Botanica) 
represent our author, apparently, in about the fortieth year of 
his age ; he is figured in an undress, resting upon a volume of 
the Systema, and holding in his hand a sprig of the Linnaa*', in 
this manner also he is represented in a plate engraved by Tanf*^, 
and published at Leyden. In the third plate (prefixed to the 
Species Plantarum of 176i)-f- he appears in a full dress, with the 
insignia of the Order of the Polar Star, and Aurivillius's inscrip- 
tion underneath : 

** Hie Hie est cut regna volens natura recliuit^ 
*' Quamqite ulli dederat plura videnda dedit." 
It has been observed before, that Linnaeus married the daugh- 
ter of Dr. Morseus (provincial physician of Dalarne), soon aAer 
he settled at Stockholm, in 1739- This lady is still living;!:. He 
left a son^ and four daughters. The younger Linnteus (as has 
been already mentioned) became Demonstrator in the Upsala. 
garden when he was only 18 years of age, and in 1763 was ap- 
pointed joint Professor of Botany with his father, at whose 
death he was elected also to the chair of medicine. 

* This plate has been copied (but in a very itiferior manner) in Willdenow's edt- 
tioA of the PAt^MopAta Botanica, printed at Berlin in 1790. 

t Many portraits of linnseus, besides those above enumerated, are mentioned by 
dificrent writers; but it was not intended to notice, in the present work, such as have 
not occurred to the editor's own inspection. 

X At Hammarby, which, with Sofja, was bequeathed to her by Linneus. 

§ But this was not the only son whom Linnieus ever had. There was another, 
named John, who was bom in 1 754, but <Ued an iofaat. 




Besides the Supplementum Piantarwn (noticed in p. 301,), he 
wrote a considerable botanical work, descriptive of rarer plants 
growing in the Upsala garden*, and he was author also of scnne 
dissertations, which we Imve noticed in p. 438. He died of an 
attack of apoplexy, at Upsala, Nov. 1, 1783, in the 43nd year 
of his agef , and his corpse was deposited in the cathedral church 
of that city, close to the remains of his father, immediately over 
which is a very plain entablature of stone, with the following 
inscription, viz. 


Caeoli- a- Linnke' 
Eqv. a V if 

Marito Optimo 

Filio Unico 

Carolo' a* Liitite' 

Patris Successor! 


Sara* Eeisabeta* Morjea- 

Elizabeth Christina, the eldest daughter of Linnaeus, married 
Captain Carl Tred 13ergencrantz, of the Swedish Ujjiand Itegi- 

• Decas prima Plantarum rariorum Horti Upsalimsis, sistens descriptiones etjiguras 
plantarum minus cognitarvm, Stockholm 1763. Fol. pp. SO. ubb. 10. Decas seainda. 
1763. pp. 20. tabb. 10. 

PUmlarumTariommHortiUpsaliensis Fasciculus imus. L'ipa. 1767. Fol, pp. so. tabb. 10. 

t An ample account of the younger Linn»u3 may be found in Von Schulzenheim'* 
Gri/ie-tal ofver. Vallome Hem Herr Carl von Linne', M.D. (Sc. (Upaa!. 1784. 
6vo.) — an oration read at ihe. funeral, and pretty closely copied into Stoever's Life of 
the elder Linnaeus (see the translation by Trapp, p. 289 — 307). 

3 T ment,. 

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ment, but died before her brother. This lady obtained distinc- 
tion in the scientific world, by a discovery which is described in 
the 'transactions of the Stockholm Academy*. — ^The youngest 
daughter, Sophiarf-, is the wife of M. Dusc, Syndic {Academiem 
Umbudsman) of the University of Upsala, and, with her sisters 
Louisa and Sarah, is still living J. 

As the only surviving son of Linnaeus died without issue, the 
male branch of the family is, of couree, now extinct. But the 
name of this illustrious man can never die. It will be cherished 
in the memory of every lover of nature, and remain on the fair 
records of science, to the end of time ! 

V For the year 1768, p. SEM — 387^ under the title of Ota Indiamka Krassans llkk- 
ande, ox Remarks on a btminous appearance <^ the Indian Cresses. This appearance, 
which had never been noticed before, is like the sparks that arise from a fiilminatiDg 
powder, and was first observed by this lady when she was walking in her father's garden 
at Hammarby. She mcatioiis its being visible only in the dusk of evening, and ceas- 
ing when total darkness came on. Subjoined to her account are some observations by 
M. Wilckes, a celebrated electrician, who considered the pbsenomenoa as being of an 
electrical nature. 

f This daughter (Linnsus mentions in his Diary) was to all appearance dead when 
she was brought into the world, bot hei father revived her by expanding her lungs 

i For these particulars respecting the surviving family of Linnasus, the editor is 
indebted to M. Casstrom, His Swedish Majesty's Secretary of Legation at the Court 
of Great Britain, 










" Cltiid propensie juvst ; quid paoca dedJtie tpueti- 
"Temporaj quid mcti conseroisse diem, 
'* Si «emel hie ■tandtim eit ? " 

H Stat foacuique did; breve et irreparabile tempoi 
" Omnibus ett viUe; led feinam extenders facta, 
"Hoc virtu til «)png." 




(Poteit fe can ^ magaua exire.) 

1707. Mav +J— 14, between 12 and I o'clock in the night, born at Ras- 
hult, in the parish of Stenbrohult, in Smaland. His £ither was Nils 
X^nngpiiBj at that time Comminisler, but afterwards Pastor there; 
his mother, primiparOf Christina Brodersonia. 

1717. Sent to &e trivial school at Wexio. 

1724. Entered the gymnasium at Wexio. 

1727. Became a student at the UniTcrsity of Lund. 

1728. Became a student at the Univeraty of Upsda. 

1730 and following year. Lectured publicly intheUpsalaCarden asRudbeck's 

1732. Travelled through Idpland at the expense of the Society of Upsala. 
17S3. Lectured privately on mineralogy (he was the first person who had done 

8o) at Upsata. 

1734. Travelled through Dalame at the expense of Baron Reuterholm, Go- 

vernor of that province. 

1 735. Cotmnenced his travels in Denmark. Germany, and Holland. Took the 

degree of M.D. at Harderwik \.\ June. 

1736. Botanist to Clifibrd. Vi^ted England and returned to Clifford. 
2737. Published many works whilst in Clifford's Museum. 

1788. Wth Professor Van Royen at Leyden, where they arranged together the 
botanic garden. Returned from France to Sweden. 


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510 LINNiUs's DIART. 

1739* Obtained a pension on condition of lecturing publicly on the cabinet 
belonging to the Royal College, May 14. Appointed Admiralty- 
Physician to the Stockholm Hospital, May 15. Became first pre^- 
dent of the Academy of Stockholm, of which he was one of the 7 

17*1. Public Professor at Upsala, May 5. Travelled over the isles of 6]and 
and Gothland, by order of the States. 

IT42. The Upsala garden, being in a ruinous state, was restored and improved 
by him. 

1743. Museum of the Univerdty established by him. 

1744. Secretary of the Society at Upsala. 

1746. Travelled through West Gothland, by order of the States. 

1747. Appointed Archiaier^ mthout having made application for that office 

in January. 
1749. Travelled through Skane, by order of the.States. 
1751. Described the Queen's Museum at Drotningholm. 
1753. Described the King's Museum at Ulricksdahl. 
1758. Knight of the Polar Star, — the first Literatus who was advanced to that 

honour. Purchased S(!Qa and Hammarby * * * 
1760. Obtained a prize from the Rusdan Academy— the first foreign mem- 

_ ber that was honoured with a prize firom that body. 
l;76]. Ennobled April 4th by the King's express nomination. 

1762. Elected one of the 8 fordgn ordinary members of the Royal Academy 

at Paris, one of die highest literary honours, and the first instance of 
its being conferred on a Swede. 

1763. He was the first person who imported tea into Europe alive. 
1768. His own Museum built, of stone, on an eminence at Hammarby. 


Dicin cdbvGooQie 


>S TENBROHULT is a parish of Smaland, in the goTerament in Cronoberg, 
and in the hundred of jilbo. It is atuated on the (;oiifines of Skane^ in a very 
pleasant spot, adjoining to the great lake J^9;!/en» which forme itself into a bay 
about a quarter of a [Swedish] mile long, and in the centre of this bay stands 
Stenbrohult church. It is surrounded on all sides, except to the west, where it 
fronts the lake, by well cultivated lands. At a Uttle distance, to the south, the 
eye is relieved by a beech wood ^ to the north, the lofty mount Taxat rears its 
head, and Miiklen lies on the opppodte bank of the lake. Moreover, to the east, 
the fields are. encompassed with woods, which westward inclose broad meadows 
and large spreading trees. In short. Flora seems to have lavished all her beau- 
ties on the spot that was to give birth to our botanist. 

Samuel Brodersonius was pastor of this parish about the beginning of the 
£l8th3 century; his father Pekr Brodersonius, and his maternal grandfather 
Mis Torgen had enjoyed the living before him, and he had for his successors his 
son-in-law and grandson. He married Maria Skee (daughter of Jiiran Skee^ 
pastor of ff^seliojlj in the province of SAajie), by whcnn be had four children 
Christina, Pekr, Mary, and Jbraa. 

Nils Linrtieus, bora in 1674, was the s<m of a peasant named Jngemar 
Bengtssan, who lived at Stegeryd, in the parish of JViltaryd, in Smaland, and 
married Ingrid Jngemarsdetter, sister of Sven Tiliander, pastor of Pielteryd, 
The latter took Nils Linnaus into his house, and educated him along with his 
own children ; having a very good garden, he gave him also a taste for horticul- 
ture. After having qmtted school, he went to the univeraly of Lund, where 
he had to contend with poverty for some years, and appUed himaelf very dili- 
gently to his studies. Returning to his native place, he was admitted into holy 
orders by Bishop Cavallius, and first became curate, and afterwards (in 1706) 
Comminister of Stenhrokult. He soon after this married the pastor's eldest 
daughter Christina Brodersonia, a young lady possessing all the virtues of her 
sex, and an excellent ceconomist. Nils passed all his leisure hours in cultivating 
his garden at Raskvlt, the residence of the Commmisier. His first bom was 
our Carl, beddes whom he bad (2) Anna Maria, married to Gabriel Hiik, 
2 . pastor 



pastor of ff^relstad, (s) Sophia Juliana, married to Johan Collins^ pastor of 
Ryahy^ (4) Samuely who succeeded his father, and (5) Emerentia, wife of a 
Receiver-General, named Branting. 

In 1708, NiU irfrt7ii«M was appointed by letters ol King Charles, then In 
Poland, pastor of Stenbrohdty the duties of which situation be 4£8cbai;ged witb 
piety and moderation until hm death is ] 748. 

C^RL LINNjEUS was brought into the world between the hours of 12 and 
1 in the night dividing the -H^ and ^^ of May, 1707,— ^delightful season of the 
year, in the Calendar of Flora, being between the months of frondeseence and 
Jldrescence. His parents received their first bom with joy, and devoted the 
greatest attention to impressing on his mind the lore of virtue, both in precept 
and example. The same thing that is said of a poet, *' Nascitur wmfii" may be 
said Twthout impropriety of our botanist. From the very time that he 'first \tSt 
bis cradle, he almost lived in his Other's garden, irtiich was planted with some 
of the rarer shrubs and dowers ; and thus were kindled, before he vas well out 
of his mother'a arms, those sparks which ^lone so vividly all his lifetime, and 
latterly burst into such a flame. Bm his bent was first decidedly displayed on 
the ibUowing occasion. He was scarcely four years old, when he accompanied 
his father to a feast at Moklen^ and in the evening, it being a very pleasant season 
of the year, the guests seated themselves on some flowery turf, listening to the 
pastor, who made various remarks on the names and properties of the plants, 
showing them the roots of the Succisa, Tormentilla, Orchtdes, &c. . The child 
paid the most uninterrupted attention to alt he eaw and heard, and from diat 
hour never ceased harassing his lather with questions about the name, qualides, 
and nature of every plant he met with ; indeed, he vo-y often a^ed more 
riian his father was able to answer, but, like other children, he used immediately 
to forgpt what he had learned, and e^)edally the names of plants. Hence the 
father was sometimes put out of humour, and refused to answer him, unless he 
would promise to remember what Was toldhim*. Nor had this harshness any 

* Note by Archbiihop MeniHuKler : 

" MalebraJithauiugue ad annum 21 vixalujuos in ttudiis fecit profecltis. Unta doctorum biM»- 
riam etclesiasticam eidem commmdmnt, aller iinguam Hehrceam et crUkam, ted neutrius erai 
««/»£,*. Demttm anno atatis 26, in lihliopolio Cajles'a TracKdus de Homine invtnit. Hinc Ot 
ipeculalianilus 3t dedit ^uibus natus eral, quceque immo tatt noTBOi eidem pepererunt. 

8 bad. 

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514 tlii!tX.Vi*S DIABT. 

uithoo, tie continued to read them day and night, and committed them to me- 
mory ; hence, among both masters and scholars, be acquired the name of the 
Utile ioianiit, 

1726. The father canio to Wexio^ hopmg to hear from the preceptors a 
»ery flattering account of his beloved son's progress, in his studies and morals. 
But things happened quite otherwise ; for, though every body was willing to- 
allow how unexceptionable his morat condnct was, yet on the other hand, it 
was thought right to advise the father to put the youth an apprentice to some 
taylor or shoemaker, or some other manual employment, in preference to in- 
curring any further expense towards giving him a learBed education, for whicb 
be was evidently unfit. The old clergyman, grieved at having thus lost his la- 
bour, and at having supported his son at school for twelve years (his circum- 
stances, too, very ill admkting of superfluous expenses)' to no purpose, went tO' 
the provincial physician, who was alao lecturer in phydcc. Dr. Rotkmanny to 
consult him respecting a complaint under which he had suffered for some weeks. 
In the course of conversation, he l^ewise made known to the Doctor his suffer- 
ings of mind, on the sa»e of bis son's fiulure in his- studies.' Rotkmarm ind- 
mated that he foimd himself equal to the eure of both complaints, remarking 
that correct as might be the opinion of his colleagues with respect to the boy's 
inaptitude for those theological studies to which his bther had destined him, so 
much stronger gfoand was there for hoping that he would distiaguish tumself in 
the profesoon cf medicine, and for expecting him to accomplish great things in 
the pursuit of natural history. These remarks aflbrded so much the more com- 
fort to the old clergyman, as they were advanced confklentty and deddedly by 
Rothmaratj who at the same time handsomely offered, in case ^ father's 
circumstances or mclination did not admit of his son being maitttained in that 
eourae of studies, to take him iato his own bottse, and to give him board and- 
instruction during the year that it would be necessary for him to remain. longer. 
in the gynmasiwtt. Shortly afterwards Botkmaim gave lamutus a course of 
private instructions in phywJogy, with so mudi success, that the latter, whoi 
examined, was able to rep(»rt in the most accurate manner every thing he had. 
leamedt Tljis worthy lecturer also put him into the right method of studying 
botany, by pinnting out the inutility of what he bad acquired in the common 
way, and the aeceedty of studying that sdence in die systemadc manner of > 
2 5&«me/()r*„ 


LlNN£Us's DIART. 515 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Lmnteus was sometimes called to write letters and give advice in the Doctor** 
stead, but when he wrote a bad hand, he was usually sent away again. He was 
allowed, however, to attend the demonstrations of shells, which were exhibited 
to Matthias BenzelsUema and Retzius. 

There was a German student, by name Kouias, who lived widi Stobanis, and 
to whom, among other indulgences, was shown that of having access to the 
Doctor's library- Linnaus formed a close friendship with this young man, and 
in return ior teaching him the principles of pfayaology, which he had learned 
from Dr. Rotkmantt, he obtained books by Konlat's means from Stob<eiu's 
library. He passed whole nights in readii^ them. Stobisut's mother, who 
was very old, and a bad sleeper, saw Linnseus's candle constantly burning, and, 
being afiraid of fire, deured her son to chide the young Smdlander for hie care- 
lessness. Two nights afterwards, at ] 1 o'clock, Stobam went into Limusia's 
apartmeni, expecting to find him soundly asleep, bvt to his astonishment he was 
diligently poring ova his books. Bdng asked, therefore, why he did not go to 
bed> and whence he had procured the boc^ Lirmaus was forced to confess 
evfflry thing. Stobtmu ordered him to go to bed immediately, and, having called 
him the next morning, again inquired about the books, the consequence of 
which was that, from admiration of these strong evidences pf thirst after know- 
ledge, the Doctor gave him liberty to make what use he pleased of his whole- 
collection. From that time he admitted LinnMa to perfect familiarity, asked 
his assistance in vi^ting patients, and received him at his table, ^vihg him 
hopes, moreover, of becoming his heir, for he had no children. 

In the spring of 1728, Liimatis went on a herborimng excursion with MaU 
ikias Benzehtisnuiy to a very pleasant spot at Faglesang^ where, having- 
taken olf some c^ his clothes on account of the heat, he was bitten in the light- 
arra by a worm, called Furia infemalis. The arm immediately became sck 
violently swollen and inflamed that bis Ufe was endangered, especially^, Stob^eus. 
being about to set off for the mineral watoB of Helsinborg^ he was left to. 
the care of • • •- Snell^ however, having made an incision, the whole length 
of his arm, restored him to his former health. He passed, therefore, the sum-, 
mer vacation with his parents in Smaland. 

Here he met with Dr. Rotkmanny who advised him to leave the universityiof- 

Ltindy and remove to VpsalOj where the Doctor assured him he would m^ with- 

8 greater 




greater advantages for the completion of his medical studies ; the celebrated 
Professors Rudbeck and Soberg; a. very rich public library j a most extensive 
botanical garden to gratify his taste for botanyj and many royal and other founda- 
tions, by obtaining some of which he might remedy the poverty of his circum- 
stances. LinntEus eago-ly adopted his kind patron's advice, and betook himself to 
Upsala. But his parents were so ill able to siq>port the expenses of thdr son's edu- 
cation there, that they could scarcely afford to give him 200 silver dollars [about 
£^ sterling, which sum, they informed him, was all he was to expect. As Fe- 
tronius says, poverty is the attendant of a good mind, and Linnseus was not without 
it in this university. In a short time, he found his pocket quite empty, no chance 
of obtaining private pu^ls (who, in fact, are seldom put imder the care of me- 
dical students), nor any other means of obtaining a Uvelihood. He was obliged 
to trust to chance for a .meal, and, in the article of dress, was driven to such 
shifts, that he was obliged, when his Aoes required mending, to patch them, 
with folded paper, instead of sending them to the cobler. He repented of his. 
journey to Upsala, and of his departure from the luof of Stobaus. But to 
return to Lund was a tiresome and oqtenave und^taking. Slohaas too had- 
taken it very ill, that a pupil whom he loved so sincerely had left that university 
without consulting him. 

** ' -■ ^' ' Labor tamen omnia vincit. 

**■ ImprobiUy et duri* urgens in rebus egestas." , 


It happened one day in the autumn of the year 1729, whilst Linnaus was 
very intently examining some plants in the academical garden, there entered a 
venerable old'clergyman. who asked him what he was about; whether he was 
acquainted with plants ; whether he understood botany ; whence he came ; and 
how long he had been prosecuting his studies. Linneeus answered all these 
questions, and, when he showed him -various plants, mentioned thdr names^ 
agreeably to the system of Toumefort. Being- further asked, what number of 
specimens he possessed, he replied, that he had ;dx>ve 600 indigenous plants 
preserved in his cabinet. He was requested to accompany the gentleman wbo- 
had thus imerrogated him to his house, which proved to be that of Dr. Olof 
Celsius, and the interrogator was the Doctor himself; the latter was just re< 
tvmed from Stockholm,, where he had hem engaged as a member of the eccte^ 

^tical . 

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^astical connnission, and he was at this time preparing his great and celebnted 
work on the plants mentiooied in Scripture, to wfakh end, he bad replied very 
closely to the study of botany, and bad collected many indigenous plants. As 
soon as he saw Linnam's herbarinra, be bad sdll further proofe of the latter 
being conversam widi that pursuit, and observing also that, his circumstances 
were necessitous, he offered him board and lodging in his own house. Lrnn^ut 
. collected for him the plants growing about Upsaiat and had the full use of his 
library, which, even in botanical books, was extremely rich. He was admitted 
also to a most jamiliar footing with Celsius, which daily proved more and more 
advantageous to Lirttutus's interests. 

A short time before Lhauat^s arrival. Nils Rosen had been aj^inted jH" 
juncttia of die feculty of medicine at VptaJa, and went abroad for the purpoie 
of obtaining a doctor's degree, and improving himself in his pro&ssioiL In the 
mean time, his place was su{^ilied by one PraitZf for whose abilides the stu- 
dents entertaitied a most marked contnnpt ; many of them, therefore, as Let~ 
strovty Solberg, and Archiater Sudbedt's acm, Johan Otqft put tbemselres 
under the private iostructians of LtJouetu ; the presents diey made him enabled 
htm to assume a more decent appeuance in bia dre6& 

Pekr Arctedius (who afterwards called himself ArtedJL^ was the only medical 
student who at that time distinguished himself by his dil^enca and erudition. 
On this young man's return from jingenttmlandy where be bad discharged the 
last dudes to his fathn*, he formed an intimate friendsh^ with Ltnrugus ; but 
there was a great difference in their persons and diqto^ions, the former being of 
a more tall and handsome figure, more aeriout, and of a deliberate judgment, 
whereas the Utter was short in stature, yet stout, hasty, and of a sanguine 
temperamoit. Artedi pursued his fovourile stupes, chonistry and (espedalty) 
alchemy, with the same ardor as lAmuna devc^ed himfielf to botany. Neither 
ef them however was altogether ignorant in the other's brand) of putsuir, but, 
with a noble q»rit of emulation, at soon as me fbond btmself unequal to the 
progress of the other in one species of study^ he dedicated bimseJf to another. 
They therefore divided die kingdoms and provinces of nature between them. 
Indeed, they both began to study fishes and insects together, but in a short 
time Limueus yielded the palm to Artedi in ichthyology, and the hxux acknow> 
ledged Linn<ms to be his superior in entranology ; jtrtedi und^ook to reduce ■ 


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LlNNXUs's DIAET. 519 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

520 tlNNJEUS 5 UIART. 

more so, to intrust him with the public lectures. But as there was no other per- 
son so proper, Linmsus was appointed to lecture in the garden. He therefore 
commenced his public lectures on botany in the spring of 1 730, and had a great 
.number of private pupils on his botanical excursitms. Rudbeck also engaged 
him to live in his house as tutor to his sons by his last wife. — Limuptts caused 
the garden to be entirely altered, and planted with all the rarest species that he 
could procure, both indigenous and exouc, according to a method of his own. By 
the advice of Professor Roberg, he had made ^(plication for the place of gar- 
xiener (which was vacant) the year before, but Professor Rudheck refused it 
him, remarking at the same time that he thought him qualified for a fiu- superitn' 
situation. He repined very- much at this denial, until he became actually a 
teacher in the gardai, when he acquired a r%ht to direct the gardener in every 
thing ; and he now carried on his botanic^ excursions with a considerable num- 
ber of pupils, by whidi means he was enabled to assume more of the appearance 
of a gentleman in his dress. He could also now avail himself fi^y of Professor 
RudbecJt's fine botanical blirary, and incompar^le collection of drawings of 
Swedish Inrds. At this period his mOTnings were passed in giving instructions to 
the students, and his evenings in composing the new sy^em, and meditating a 
general reformation jsf botanical science. He began bis Bihliotkeca Botamca^ 
Classes Plantarum, Critica Botamca, and Genera Plantarum. Hence not a 
moment passed imoccupied during his residaice at Upsala. 

In the year 1781, the Medichuv jidjunctus^ Dr. Rosen^ being returned from 
his traveb abroad, and having perfected himself in anatomy and the practice of 
medicine, got into universal request, there being no other practitioner at Upsala, 
He likewise commenced a course of lectures on a branch connected with Professor 
Rudbeck' s oBce, As the latter was 70 years of age, there was a good prospea 
of his bdng chosen Rudbeck's successor, and of his having no compedtor 
unless Livnaut got forward. He also applied for permission to lecture pub- 
licly on botany, but Rudbeck was unwilling to trust this dq>artment to him, 
as he had never studied it. Rosen tried to persuade Ltnv^us to pve up the 
lectures to him spontaneously, which lannaus would have done, had Rudbeck 
consented to it. Thus Linnteus had scarcely surmounted poverty before he 
became an object of envy,— a passion that played him too many tricks, of no 
use to be mentioned here. — ^The faithless wife of the librarian^ NorreliiUf lived 


• " nTiT' r-iTfii-'ni- 


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homevafd. At (^ckfoc'-t SatmmUy ^sj mccuu of the curate Gratis «3e, pro- 
vided himself vhh an interpreter, \rith ndHMnhcMccnded the chain of mountains 
at Feltivari : here be sa.w the tain at midaigtit*^ aid a new race of plams 
among die mountains ; which, together widi the oeconomy and manners of die 
Laplandertf and other drcumstances wncthy of notice, he has described at 
' lengdL He craned over the Lapland ^tps on foot, aad artired near Torgor- 
jbti, on the nonhem coast of flnmari, intending to go by sea to SeUleron\ hat^ 
imihg to ten^Mstuous Weariier, he could sot {miceed furrier diaa Santtid church^ 
On bi»retiuii, as he was one day nqjforing the ncvthem side of the mountauks^ 
in quest c^ {^ants and miBerab, one of the 'Fhttnarivrs mhabidng the coast 
shot at him, but missed his aim, Emd, JUnrutus drawing his hanger, he ran away,. 
atod tUta escaped. Aiuv having reoed a few days, Lirmaus again craned the 
ridge, but keeping more to the north towards KaitemuOf and came dowa ba- 
the titer Lideeii where, having coostnieted-a tafi in the middle of the n^ht, t» 
pass over to Purkiaurt hit Mfe was again egiposed to great danger, as ^ei^ was 
sogteat a mist that he could not see before him, aad the wind and current drove 
the raft so mudi to one side, that it was wkh the most imminent nsque he escaped 
the cataract. <^ his return through Luieett he learned the art of asssyinf^ 
fh>m the mine^nadter Swanbergt at Cs/ir, In two days and a ^ht}^ and^, 
having suffered extreme fatigue, he reposed tumself artiie house of M. Mij/er^ 
the magistrate. His journey was Continued thence through TVnro, aid 
he intended to vint ihe mountakis of Thmea ; but . before be could g^ 
thither, the winter set in, and he was obl^ed to return along the coast ^on th* 
eastern side of the Bethnian GulphTl by Kiemit UleSf Carieby, fFtua, and 
Bjomehorg to jibot where he staid dght days, and then proceeded by sea to. 
Olattdy Grisselham, and Upsala ; thOs had he travelled 7C0 {Swediih, or be^ 
tuieen 4 and 5000 EnglishJ miles, this yeaa-. 

On his arrival at home, he ddisercd to the Academy d Sciences aa acanmt 
t>f his expeditioD, which obtained thdr approbation, afld diey gave him 1 1 j2: 
ffitver dollars [not more than jf 10 sterling'], bis traV^ing < 

■ " Selm Ht/ptrloreas gladti, Ta»amgue nhtalem- 
" Jrmqae Rhipteu nun^am vidiutta pruhut 
w iwWiial."— — Virg. (horg.A.Slf. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 

524 LTNNJECS 9 DIART. he had travelled over Lapland. XJnnxus consented, thongh with no 
ide;i oi the plan bdng intended to be put into execution. 

In 1734, when Dr. Rosen was married to the niece of the Archbishop, he 
procured an edict from the Chancellor Cronkjelm, that a medical teacher should 
never be received in the Univerdty of UpstUay to the prgudice of die Adjimc' 
tus. By this edict, Unmrus was deprived oi his only means of subsbtence, 
and Rosen made up bis mind to believe that he had now totally ruined him ; 
but, the following week, there came a letter from Reuterholntf the Govonoi 
of DalantSy with a bill of exchange inclosed, and a request that he would set 
out on his (ravels in Dalame. Linrueus accordingly got ready for this un- 
dertaking, and at Faklun he engaged seven of fabaUest pujnls, Xfisman, Cltm- 
berg, Fahistedt, JcMerg, Empn-elius, JSedenbltdf and Sandel, to aeccmir 
pany him. 'Witb this party be travelled over the eastern part, and ilie moun*- 
tains of Dalame^ as &r as as Roraks copper-mine, in Norway, and the&ce 
again over the mountains, diroi^h fVett Dalame to Fahluii, wbefe he poL 
into the Governor's hands a journal vtuch he had kept of all the observations 
made on the journey. 

Johan Browatliusy at that dme Chaplain to the Governor, fbnaerholm, and 
tutor to his children (afterwards Professor and Kthop at j^), conceived a 
particular regard for Laarueu»y and wished to be taught by him the art of 
assaying, mineralogy, botany, &c. Uiutaus tberef^HV begai a coarse of lec- 
tures on assaying, at Faklwiy and for this purpose obtained permission to make 
.use of the laboratory belonging to the nune district. A consid^able audience 
attended him. On his return from Lapland^ Linitteus had paid particular at* 
tendon to mineralogy, which was the principal reason of his viating the distriot 
of mines,— -a spot the most bvourable of all others for acquiring that knowledge 
of minerals which could alone enable him to form a correct systtnu He bad 
now completed the system, and read it, gready to the satisfaction of the miners. 
Linnceut here, at Fahlurty found himself in quite a new world, where every 
body loved and asasted him, and he acquired conaderable medical practice. 
But Brotoallms saw no means of his getting forward in the world, without 
going abroad, and taking a Doctor's degree, in which case he could, on his re- 
turn, eettie wherever he chose, with advantage j and as money was necessary 
for all tlus, there seemed to his friend to be no other alternative for Linv,teus 
3 but 

■ n,a,1,zedbvG00Qle 


1)at to pay his addreses to come young lady of fortune, whom he might render 
as h^py as she might raider him. LtJtrneus approved, theoretically, of this 
advice, but notwitlistaiuling Beveral plans were proposed, no one was just then 
adopted. Dr. Jokan Moraus, phyudan of the town, who was looked upon as 
a man of con^derable fortune (for his ^tuation in life), and who saw the progress 
of Lirautus both with astonishment and jealousy, being tired of practice, had 
determined never to bring up any one of his children to the profession of medi- ' 
cine. Lianaus, however, in ^te of all this, and though a mere student, after 
having spoken to the eldest daughter, presented himself to her father, and 
asked bis consent to marry her, which Moresus, to the great surprise not 
only of Linrueus but of others, agreed to > however, he could not obtain the 
consent of her mother. 

At the beginning of the year 17S5, Idntueta commoiced bis travels 
abroad, in company with Dr. Claes Sohlberg, at that time a medical student. 
Artedit ■ Lmnaui^s faithful fellow>coUe;gian, had left Vpsaioy a short time be- 
fore, M procaed to England. JUmiaus viated his [own] birth-place, where 
his modier had died on the 6th of June the year bdbre, in the 45th year of her 
age. He continued his journey through Helsingborg to Eltineur^ frotn which 
{tiace he went by sea to Tremtmde and Lubeckf and thence to Hamburgh wh^e 
tile Ucouiaie in Law ^rekelsen, Fto^essor Kohi, and Dr. Jetnhsch showed 
him great civilities. Here he employed his whole time in viewing the fine gar- 
.dens, and every thing else worthy of attention, — among other things the museum 
of the Burgomaster uinderssorty and die Ihfdra with seven heads belonging to 
Andersson's brother, and Linnata was the first person who discovered that this 
wonder was not a work of nature, but of art: however, this was no sooner known 
than the enormous price Bxed on the monster fell to nothing, and Linn/eus was 
obliged to hasten his departure, from fear of the Anderssons. He went &om 
AllOTUt to Amsterdam, during which voyage he was exposed to great peril. 

At Amslerditm, Ltmueus staid eight days, and saw all the splendor and 
expense bestowed on that city. He then went by sea to Hardemjcky where, 
after having undergone the recjuisite previous examinations, and defended his 
Z)we/'(a(io DE NOVA KVPOTHESi FEBKiuH iNTERMiTTENTiuu,. he was ad- 
mitted to the Doctor's degree on the ^th of June. Now all the money Lin- 
nam had carried whh him from Sweden, being 6C0 copper dollars [about j£\5 


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English"}, «as' expended, and, being unwHUfig to treiible Us fiuber-ift-bw 
(whose disposition he well knew) on thia score, he acconqtaued CSast Sohlitrg 
from Hardenyck to AmeterdaTn, where Linnafus -waited oa the Prafessor <rf 
Botany, Dr. Burmarm ; he afterwards proceeded tlvough Haarieat to Leydm^ 
where be visited the botanical garden and IVofesGot- van ttoyen. 

Of all the persons UnMeus met with in fhiian^ there was no one wha 
paid him more attention thac Jokan Fredric Gronovha, DoctcwiBMedidDei 
lAmucHs having paid him a visit, die latter returned it, »ul saw his Syttema 
Nature in manuscript, wluch astonished him, and he requested Lttmau/a pM< 
mieston to get it ftfinttd at his own expeoee. Tlie publication of that work was 
accorcUngty comranKed. By die advice of Granovius, lArmmus waited os 
die celebrated Boerkeuiven, and, after dght days* apfJic^oa, was admitted, 
when Boerkaaven showed him hk garden (not &r from L^den), stocked with 
all kmds of tnes that would bear the dimate ; tod Limueut had then an oppor- 
tunity of roafiifrrting lus skUl in the sdeOce and history «f botany. Beeriaaven, 
observing this, advised him not to leavo Hoiiand imnieffiately, as he Ind ia- 
tended, but, on the contrary, to tdce up bis :dx}de andremain there. Lameeuit 
however, could not be preraSed on, and as be pw^iosed taking Amtterdam ia 
his way homeward, Boerkaavtn desired him to present his «on^memsto Btir^ 
maim. The day following LitrntBUS went to see Sttrmarm, ^Am offavd him a 
handsome apartment, attaid»Ke, »d Ms table, of whjdi advantages Linruetu 
availed himsdf till the year foUowingr Durihg tins intervd, ^'nnftM published 
fats Ftrndamertta Botaniea, and amused himself widi looking over Bunnamf^ 
work on the plants of Ceylon, and frequently viuting the phydc gvden at 

Unnaus had been with Bunnann but a few months, before the rich banker 
Ceorg Clifford, J. U. D. ^ted the former at Sbrmtmn's, and tavited him to 
go and see his magnificent garden at ffartecamp, persuading Burmdnn to 
let him have Linrueus, whom Boeriiaaven had recommended to ,him, on 
account of his great knowledge of botany. - Thus Linnata removed to Clif- 
ford's, where he lived like a prince; had one of the finest gardens in the 
world under his inspection ; obtained permission to procure all the plants that 
were wanted in the garden, and such books as were not to be found in the 
library ; and, of course, enjoyed all the advantages he could wish for in his 
1 botanical 

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b. Google 

538 LlNNXUs's DIARr. 

conceiving LinnaDUs's Genera (which he had got half printed from Holland) 
to be written against htm ; but he afterwards detained him a month, without 
leaving Linmeus an hour to himself the whole day long, and at last took leave of 
htm with tears in his eyes, after having given him th& choice <^ living with him till 
his death, as the salary of the Professorship was suffident for them both, '*** 
also the Sherardian Finax*— 

Linnteus returned to Holland^ where he enriched Qigord'i garden with 
many living plants, and his herbarium with many dried ones which he had 
procured in Englajid, The printing of Liimaeus's Genera Plantarum went on 
with all potable speed at Leyden, On the Sd of October, 1736, Linnteus 
was made a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, under the name of 
Dioscorides 2ndut, 

Boerhaaven wished to persuade Lbmant to go to the C^pe of G^od H^e, 
and thence to the American cokniies, at the public expense, in order to procure 
all kinds of curious and rare plants for the gardens in HoUandy aseuiing him he 
would take care not only that his travelling expenses should be d^rayed, but 
also that,' on his return, a grant should be procured for appointmg him acting 
professor. -Linnieus refused this offer however, assignii^ as a natatit that he 
could not bear hot climates, having been bom and educated in a cold one ; 
though there were other reasons £>r his rdusiqg it, as he was already engaged 
at home. 

In 1737, JJmueus had completed the arrangsment of Oj^rcTs large col- 
lecticm of plants, and had augmented and put in order those in the garden. As 
Clijbrd had not only given him a confaderaUe sum of money annually, but also 
maintained and treated him as if he had been his own son, Lintupus undertook 
the extendve work of Hortus diffbrtiama, which he bodi arranged and wrote ^ 
and he also corrected the press, performing the whole within 9 months. An- 
other person could not have completed such a task within several years ; and in 
the intervals of this occupation with the Hortus Qiffbrtianus, Linnteus, when- 
ever he was &tigufid by it, used to amuse himself with the CriUca Botanica, 

• T^e Ms. it not >iiffici«ntly legible in thit place to^nut 0^ the wbole Kntence being given. 
Id the margin near it are the following wordt, in LiouKiu't win hand writiiig, viz. " MUUr 
gave kUnmaagrarej>lants/TomjkegaT<L not Chelsea." ^BoiTot). 



Digitized by 



Boerhaaven], and as van Royen would not on any accotfot sttfo* the garden to 
contmuevs it was, lie asBiBted htm in forming a plan of his own. Accordingly^ 
IMnieusy together with van Rot/en^ examined the plants at Leyden^ and gave 
them new naines> and they were alJ pnt in onkr, wherd)y £4tmMa gained van 
Royen't entire confid^ce. During this time, JUwueus was every day at his 
bkad Groiwvius'st and atatted him in his JFtora ftrgit^ea, which was 
pubtiebed about the aame period as van Royen's Hortut Le^dentis^ both of 
diWB [botoHuts'} havHig adopted Liniueus'B names aad priodplet. Urat die 
rraliI^^ might not pass usekssly, LiMjueta worked at his Gasses Plantanant 
which h< published here, and also hb late iriend Pehr Aitedi'a i^uhfohgioy in 
S parts, his own Coroilarium Gewrum, and his Methedus aexualtf. 

In the year 1738, die office of Ordinary ^ysidan at Surimam became vacant, 
and was to be filled up by Boerhcutvatt who wiihed Linnaeus to go thither,, 
representing to him that the poson who had been there befiire eutied, within 
5 yean, some ttms oi gold, ficv diere was no olbtf pb^dan at du place,-*- 
and that excellent plants might be mA with in so fine a clinute. But, as Lm^ 
nous would not accept of the !q>p(nntnient, Boerhaaven left it to htm to pro^ 
pose the most proper person, for there was. no one who was better acquamted 
with the young f^ystciane, and those who at the same time possessed most 
knowledge of natural history, than Linnam. The latter tjien mentioned Jokan- 
Bariscky of Konigsberg^ his most inttmate friend, who had been kietructed bf 
LitiTurus, not only in botany, but likewise in entoirkcdogy^ he xvas immetfiately 
af^nted, and set out the same year (bat in an unfortunate moment for htm)^ 
to Surinam. 

During Linnteas's stay at Lei/den, there was a clid> filmed, A xi4ucb. were- 
Dr. Johan Frederic GronoviuSf Dr. van Stoieten, Dr. C. Lifousut, Joh, Law^ 
son, a learned Scotchman, who had travelled very much, and been a particular 
firiend of LinrueuA, having muiy times asked hiia if he stood in need o£ money,. 
and, on L'mnaus answering in the negative, given him. 60, 80, and 100 
guelders, remarking that he had still enough for himself} be loved both> 

nans Mid Gronovim very much, and was a man of great jttdgm^t, ■■■ 

Lieberhuhn, a ProScan, having in his possession mcon^ara^le iBicKScc^>e6». 
•— — * Johan Kramer^ a German, who possessed a wonder^ Talent of r^ 
mend)«ing every tUng that was read to him, sui who had. bees, a student tfc. 



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and enjoyed every thing that had been promised. He never folly recorered his 
health, however, until he left Holland zud reached Brabant^ vhoi his whole 
frame was, in one day* quite renovated, as it were, and freed from sometlung 
that was a burthen to it. He passed through Antwerp^ Drefontam, Mecklin, 
Brussels, Mons, Falenciennes, Cambray, Peroancy Royy Pont d pont to 
Paris.— 'When Linrueus took leave of Professor van JRoyen, at Leyden, the 
latter wrote a letter, and sent it by him to the Professor of Botany, at Paris, 
the conteiUs of which (bdog afterwards shown to Litmaus at Paris) were 
as follow, viz, 

" I'tro clarissimo ulrUomo de JitstieUy Medico experientissimo, Boiamces 
Professori celebernmOy et Academic regime scieiiiiarum in Galliis socioy et 
membro dignissimo S, P. D. A. van Rayeru 

'* Jul Carolum ZiiTtnteunif scientitff iotamcte (si quetn noverim) facile jbrf'n- 
^pem, qui ni scriptit imtoltierity experimentis innoletcat. Htc in plerisqtte 
historic naturalis partibus venatissimus, hasce tibi tradet literas. Hunc vers 
doctum, eruditumf et kumanissimum tibi tuaque curts commeTida, ut per te, 
quantum potest Jieriy opportumtatem habeat omnia qtue ad hoc jiegotium spectctia 
perhtslrandi : qmdjjuid autem ei fecsris ben^fidiy mihi, cum per aliquod lem- 
pus intimus /uil, factum reputabo. Fate, fratremque cum Nob. D. de Fay 
meo nomine solvere jube. Dabam l/cyda die 7. Maii 1788." 

From this uid other circumstances, ic may be judged what Lintueus had done 
within the three years he was in Holland ; he had there written more, discovered 
more new things, and reformed botany more than any one had, before his time, 
been abletp do during his whole life. On thisaccount he was always viated-at 
Cljjffbrd's garden by the greatest botanists living., llius'it happened several, 
times, that Gronovius, van Royen, BurmanUt Serrurier, Andry Lawson, and 
Qtliecs met one another there without having tn^de any sypointment to do so. 
Linmeus had the pleasure oi hearing his Principia and Fimdamenta Botanica 
publicly lectured upon at that distinguished univeraty, in which he was himself 
a student, and the young men pointed hitn out one to another as the author of 
the system, Jiay, Nature herself favoured Linnaus, in causing,, through his' 
diligence and care, the fine Musa to fiower in Holland, for the first time, — 
which was looked upon through the whole country as a wonder. Even Boer- 
haaven himself came thither {to Hartecaittp'], in order to get. from Linn^rusi 



n— * nJi ^^^^smsg: 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

;»34 lINNvEUS's DIART. 

employed himself in viewing the fine garden, the herbaria of the Jassleus, 
7'ournefortt faillaitt, Surlan, and others, as alao the large collection of book^ 
belonging to D'lsnard, Bernard de Jussieu made excursions to Fontainbleau 
and Burgiindy, solely for the purpose of showing Linnanis the finest plants 
that were to be met with in the neighbourhood of Paris^ and they were accom- 
panied by La Serve. These excurdons put Linrutus to no expoise, and Ber- 
nard de Jussieu every day gave him new proofe of his friendship. Thus Lin- 
narus enjoyed here the conversation of both the Jutsieus, Reaumur^ Obriet 
(draughtsman and fellow traveller of the late Toumefort\ La 5crre, and the 
widow P^aillant, as also of Mademoiselle Basseport, botanic paintress in the 
royal garden. On the 14th of June, Lhiiurus requested Du Fay^ at that time 
chairman, to obtain permisaon for him to attend the Academy of Sciences ; 
when the String was over, Linmsui was told to wait a little while, and was 
afterwards informed that die Academy had chosen him a Corresponding 
Member. Du Fay proposed to Linrums to become a Frenchman, should the 
Academy appoint him oae of their membws with an annual salary, but Lin- 
■nous's greatest inclination was to go to his native country. After Lirmams had 
seen the King's palace, Fersatlles^ and the country round Parity the libraries, 
museums, collections of plants, and Reaumur's cabinets, during which time 
he lived almost every day with the two Justieusy and of course without expense, 
he prepared to «et out for Sweden, as his intention was not to learn French 
mannels, or foreign languages ; being of opinion that time is never bought so 
dear as when people go abroad only for the sake of languages. Indeed, Lin-'s rime did not allow him to study languages ; but it ought also to be ob- 
served that his genius was so little disposed to the attanment of them, that he 
learned neither English, French^ German, Laplandish, nor even Dutcfiy al- 
though he staid in Holland three whole years. Neverthdess, he found his way 
every where, well and happily. Linnaus, having now se«i every thing remark- 
able at Paris, went to Rouen, and thence sailed with fair wind and weather to 
the Categate, where the wind shifted, and he landed at Helsingborg, from which 
place he proceeded to Stenbrohult to see his aged fether. Havinf^ halted some 
days at that place, Linntsus set out for Fahlun, where he found that his con- 
fidenliaf friend Johan Broivallius was already made Professor of Natural Philo- 
1 sophy 


LINN£Uf>'s DIAKT. 535 

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5i6 lINNilOs's DIARY. 

offices, and that of Pre^dent fell on Linnteus. In the mean time, Li'mioTis 
Tose more and more in reputation. During the Diet which was then held, the 
Marshal of the Diet, Count Carl Gustaf Tegsirty sent for lAnrueus, and asked 
him if there was any thing he wished to request of the Diet, as he [(Ac Count'] was 
fully ccmvinced that the States of the Kingdom would feel a pleasure in showit^ 
favour to a Swede, who had distinguished hinuelf so much aiiroad ; but Lm- 
netm having nothing to request just dien, Tesain desired him to condder, and 
return an answer the next day. Meanwhile, Captain Trietvald advised Lin- 
neeus to make application to the £oard of Mines for the SOO ducats annually 
which he, IViewald, had formerly aijoyed, and which were not yet di^)osed 
of. Count Testin recaved thic potion on the 14th (^ May, and desired Lm- 
nous to call again at dinnM* time. In the interim^ Tessin presented the petition 
to the committee, and at dinner time he congratul^ed UttTueus, informing him 
ihat the States of the Kingdom had granted his petition, on condition that he 
would give public lectures on botany, in the summer at the House of Nobles, 
and in the winter on the cc41ection of minerals belonging to the Board of 

Count Tessin had, in the mean time, q>oken to Admiral Ankarhrona 
about giving the office of naval phy^cian at Stockholm (which was vacated 
by Dr. Boj/e), to lAntusus ; whereupon Linnteus was sent for by Admiral 
Ankarhrona, who inf(»ined him diat this office was vacant, and, representing to 
him the opportunities which a botanist would have of investigating the properties 
of amples in the naval hospital, said that if Linneeus wished to have it, he 
alone should be recommended : which happened j and on the Sd of May Ltn- 
rut-us was appointed by his M^esty Phyrician to the Navy. Within one month 
therefore LinrnEus was appointed a public teacher at the House of Nobles, with 
a pension ; Physician to the Navy, with pay ; and first President of the Aca- 
demy, with distinction j and Count Tessin offered Linmeus not only to live in 
his [^the Count's'} house, in the same apartment where he himself used to lodge 
when he was a bachelor, but also to eat at his table, where the greatest men in 
the kingdom met during the Diet. As this was the Diet when the two parties of 
Hats and Caps [^Haltar och Mossor} chiefly began, Ltimaus was jokingly 
styled in general by the Hats^ their Arcfaiater, from which circumstance Zf'n- 
naus's practice increased so much that he alone had as mtich as all the other 
2 physicians 

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jbfsaua collectively, and from this time was in the recapt vi as much as- 
VOOO ct^per dollars [about jff250 sterling^ annually, at Stockholm. He 
Aerefbre considered this as the proper time for enjoying the fruits of his bbour, 
and begged that the weddmg might take place ; accordingly, on the 26th o£ 
lune 1769, be was manied to Sara Elisabeth Moraa^ at Svedm^ near Fahlim, 
the coontryobouse of his &tfaer and mother-in-law. Having passed a month at 
Fahktitt he agam went to Stockholm to resume the diuies with which he had 
been entrusted, and at the end of September he laid down the Pre^dency of 
&e Academy of Sciences.. By their laws it was ordained that a short discourse- 
should be drfiirered by the persMi who went out of office, but Lmyueus made a. 
formal oration on what u remarkabie in Insects, which pleased every body, 
and the custom of givuig an oration was followed by all the preddents aiter~ 
wards.. lanaana't oration was printed by order of the Academy. 

In the s^nag of the year ] 740, Professor Olof Rudbedt died, when Rosen^ 
lAnruguSt and Jl^aUerius were pat up as candidate^ and Count Tessin, who 
was then ar Parts,! having beard a good deal about lATOtaus in that dty, re^ 
•ranmended him to Couat GyllaUmrg, at that time Chancellor. Count Qyl~ 
lenborg arranged matters amcx^ the competitors in such ^ manner that Rosen 
vas to succeed to this, and Imbi^os to the office of Professor Roberg, who- 
was about to redgn on account of age, but that Umtans and Roten should 
afterwards change prtfeseorriiips with each oAer, which ^ey agreed to do,. 
because he \C<mnt G^UeiU}org'y as ChanceUor, thought it but right th^ £ote% 
who had beenso long a time in the service of the universides, diould obtain the- 
first vacancy ; I do not know for what reason this nobleman afterwards altored- 
his opinioD, and recommended Usm^us to his Majesty, so that Rosen, was on 
the point of losing the professorship dns time, had not another circumstance 
taken {^e. Rosen got the professor^p. Roberg afterwards resigned, and 
all sorts of shifts and. evasions were employed at Upsala to hinder, IjJKnam from 
getting the other profesaoxshipj the year passing without any thing being decided 
upon.. Dr. Gotsdv iVaQerms, in a ptiblic iKssertatian, attempted to- lower the- 
merits and reputation of Lhauem, when Professor Beronius (afterwards Arch- 
bishop), aiKl the Master of Aits Ktingetdyergy proved openly m the University 
Aat ^f^t&riuf was in the wnong. These proceedings came before the States 
3 z o£ 


538 LINKiEUs's DIART. 

of the Kingdom, assembled in die y^ar 1?4I, who all disapproved of I^. 
Wallerius'i conduct, and orders were sort to thtf Conastory, to make out' the 
presentation, without haraswng Lirmteus, who both at home and abroad had 
made himself celebrated. In the mean time, the war began between Sweden 
and Russia, which made Lintueus apprehensive that, bring Physician to die 
Navy, he should not avoid being commanded to attend to the fleet, but, having 
received an order from the States of the Kingdom to travel through Olmnd^ 
Gothland, and fTest Gothland^ for the purpose of describing the produce 
of those countries, he considered himself fortunate. He recdyed, on the 
Sth of May, 1741, the grant of the Professorship df the Theory and Prac- 
tice of Medidne, in the room of Professor Roberg. He now took with 
him six bachelors, viz., P. Adlerheim, J. MorauSf H. J. Gahn, G. Dubois, 
F. Ziervogel, and S. JVendt, on an immediate expedition to bland and Goth' 
land, where he noted down the most r«naricable things he met with i and he 
publi^ed his travels through O/ontf and Gothland^ in 1745. 

As soon as he returned from his travels, wtuch was in du autumn, he re- 
moved to UpeaU, where he delivered his oration de Peregiinatiomtm intra 
patriam necessitate, which was printed at Uptala in 1742, and afterwards at 
Lei/den in 1743. He now began bis public lectures on the history of diseases 
to a great number of auditors. 

At the end of the year he and Roten divided the Professorship with 
each other in the following manner, viz., Rosen took upon himself the super- 
intendance of the hos[utal, anatomy, physiology, aitiology, therapeutics, and 
jltaraacy ; lAmusut, on the other hand, took upon himself the superintendance 
of the university garden, materia medica, semiotics, dioetics, and natural 
history. This arrangement was confirmed by His Majesty. 

In^the year 1743, Linnaus laid before the university a reqniotion ftu* rq>air- 
ing the academical garden, and pointed out the necessity of building a green- 
house \ and it was resolved that the garden should be laid out anew, that a 
green-house should be erected, and that the superintendant's home should be 
pulled down and rebuilt. Baron Carl Harleman gave a magnificent plan for the 
garden. The garden was enlaiged, and the ground divided into quarters and 
walks. Tbe old house, of stone, (built by Otof Rudbeck, £uher of the other 



M— II in I ^— tlWTtrrrff 


Sudbeck) in which there was not a ^gle piece of wood, the posts and 
beams being of iron, was converted from an owl's nest into a lodging fit for 
the Professor*. 

In the year 1 743, the greoi-house, \rith both its wings, was ready, and die gar- 
den put in order, and provided mth many foreign plants, which were augmented 
from year to year by the seeds which Litmaus procured ixam his friends and 
foragn correspondents. Linnaus now gave public lectures on dietetics, with 
experiments and observations, of which he had collected more, in the coinse of 
his reading and travelling, than any author before him ; hence his audience 
was extremely numerous. On the 31st of May, this year, Lhtm^u was chosen 
a Member of the Academy of Sciences at Montpellier, 

In the year 1744, Limueus improved botany very much, and worked on the 
necessary books, without which the Professorship would not have been <^ so much 
use as it ought to be. He also laid out the garden agreeably to bis system, and stf a 
promotion held at that time he delivered his oration de Telluris Hahitabilk incrO' 
memo. When his Royal Highness Prince Adolph Fredrick viewed the univer- 
nty, and the Professors were presented to him by the Chancellor Count GyU 
leaborg^ Professor Andreas Celsius and Carl Limueus were denominated 
Lumina jicademicOy on account of thor knowledge, which was celebrated as 
welt within as without the kingdom ; and the same year, when the Rector and 
feur cif die Professors (of whom Linnaus was one) waited on her Royal High- 
ness to amgratuUte her on her delivery, Lirmaus was the only ooe -vbo was 
ordered to proceed to Ehhalmsuhd, and he had there a special audi^ce' of her 
Royal Highness. 

On the 1 2th of October lAmyeus was appointed Secretary of the Ro^al Society 
of Sciences at Uptala, in the room of the celebrated late Professor of Astroncmiy 
Andreas Celsius^ and on the 24th of November the same year he was chosen 
Inspector Natitmis Smoltmdica, also in the place of Profeseor Amdreas Celsius. 

In the year 1745, Liimaiu establi^ed in the greon-house at Upsala a mu- 

* In Ike margin of tku part af tht Diary is thejiilmving insertion, vis., 
"On theaittofMay, ProfoMorRobeiig died, when UniiRus obtained the wbcdesalaiT, havli^ 
up to tLu time enjoyed notbing besidei his penncm." 

3 z 2 seum 

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540 XINNyBUs's RIAKV, 

seum of natural history, with the many rare animals given by the Chancdlor 
CouiU Carl GifHenborgj and also the lai^e collection which bis Roy^ High- 
ness [Prince Adolpk Fredrick"] was pleased to present, and irtiich Umueva 
every day augmented by means of his correspondents, so that this {musam] 
became one of the best. This summer Linrueus went to Fahhatj in order to 
take possession of his wife's inheritance from her fuher, who died at the 
end of last year ; however, he had left the greatest part of the property to his 
mother-in-law. At this time Lmnavs caused to be printed two books of great 
impoitance to his science, the Flora and Faujta Suecicoy on the latter of which 
'he had laboured for 15 years; without these adminiatla natural history could 
not have been carried on with the ardour that was requiate. 

In the beginning of the year 1746, both then: Royal H^hnesses vkited the 
iiniversry, and gave the Professors gold medals ; though all the other Professors 
received but one each, Lmn^us recdved two, as a mark oS paiticulw 

Immediately afterwards Limueus nndertook a journey tt) ff^st Gothland, 
through Orebro, Mariastad, Udi'dpmg, Siara^ •Skofde, Fitlkiiping, Boras, 
j^ngsahs, Gotkeborg, Bokus, Maratrand, Uddetoalla, JVenersborg, jlmalf 
Carlstad, Pkilipstad. He returned home in the autumn, and wrote this journey, 
which was published the year afterwards. 

When the charter of the Eaat India Company was about to be renewed, the 
Senator CouiU Tetsin agreed with the East India Company that diey should 
allow a student in natural history a free pass^ oat to China, and home ; more 
espedally on this account, that the Master of Arts Temstrim, whom Linmsus 
bad sent out the year before, unhappily died on bis voyage. 

Baron Harleman, Baron HSpken, Baron Palmstjema, and Count EAeblad 
^eed amongst themselves to distinguish Liimteus, and moreover to oicou- 
xage turn by a medal which they caused to be struck, and dedicated to 
Count Tessin. On one side was the head of JJnrugus, with this inscrip- 
tion, Carol. LiNNJEUS, M.D. Bot. Prop. Ups. mt.SQ; and on the other 
side, Carolo Gustavo Tessin et immortalitati effioiem Caroli 
LiNN^i, Cl. Ekeblad, And. H3pken, N. Palmstjerna, et C. Harle- 

On the 19th of January, 1747, his Majesty was pleased, without any appli- 



L1NNJBU3 3 DIARY. 641 

cation from lataueva^ and without lus even expecting it, to honour him with the 
rank and tide of Archiater. 

dn the 1 4th of February, whoi the Academy of Sciences at Berlin waa 
about to be restored, and members were chosen firom all the kingdoms in 
Mtiropct Unnaiu was the only Swede who became a member thereof. 

Professor Herman, t^ Leyden, who was sent in -the last century by the 
Dutch, to describe all the i^ants and Sfoces that grew in Ceylon, happily return- 
ed dience, but did not complete the undertaking. After his death the herbd.- 
rium was lost to the learned world, until at last it came into the hands of 
Gumther, the apothecary, at Copenbagen, who, wishing to know the names of 
Che dried specimens, seat to Holland, where he was informed that nobody was 
likely to discover the names but Ltnrueiu, in Sweden ; he therefore seat them to 
Upsala, when Idnmeus discovered the coUecd<»i to be Herman's, and was re- 
JMced to be the person to save firom destruction this treasure, which had hitherto 
been misnng. He devoted himself, day and night, to examining the flowers, 
which, irom the great length of time they had been dried> rendered his to^ 
almost Herculean ; and he wnue lus Flora Zeylanicoy which was now about to 
be printed. 

Hie Justitiar Cancellaii* Lo/venhjehn presented to the States of the King- 
dom a plan for promodiig the study of natural history, and represented die 
great advantages which the kingdom might expect from Idnnaus. This may 
be read in Lidbeck's X^tptttaiio de incrementts Suecite. 

Unntsus having for several years wished that a voyage might be made to 
America, and having procured some exhibitions and the Professorship of C£co- 
nomy at Abo for his pupil Pekr Kalm, who was desirous of embarking in this 
expe<Ution, Kalm was at last sent out. 

In theyearl748, Z4»n<inu publi^ed the Hortus Upsaliensts, and the 6th 
edtdon of his Systema Natura, with the essential characters, and promoted the 
study of natural history so much, that in no kingdom i in Europe could botany 
be said to be in a more flourishing state. During his summer lectures, he took ' 
out with him about 200 pupils, who collected plants and insects, made observa- 

• A Imp officer in Sweden, wltosedutief arefomewluitiimilar to thoeebf.the^fJonuy &ne- 
ral in England. {EJitar.) . 



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dons, shot Urds, kept mJimtes, and ;Uter havbg botanized ham 7 o'clock in 
the moming until 9 in the evening, every Wednesday and Saturday, returned 
with flowers in their hats, and accompanied their leader, with drums and 
trunq>ets, through the city to the garden. Several fbre^;iiers and people of distinc* 
tion from Stockholm^ used to attend latrntetu's excoraons } indeed at this time 
die science had attained the highest degree of populitfity. 

The KongL Camxllie Collegium* issued an edict, probibiEing every Swed£ 
from printing or publishing any thing abroad, under a penalty ef 1000 diver 
dollars [more ^^n ^^ tterlmg^ which was aimed entirely at LimueuSy as no 
one else had published any thing abroad. This tied v^ the hands and fa- 
culties of Linrueus so much, that he was on the pcont d vowii^ never more to 
publish any work, except some dissertatitms. 

Litmatu recdved from Gmelin, who travelled through Siberia, a collection 
of tlie greater number oftheplants of that country. He had before received, from 
Gronoviust a collection of Firginia plants, and ftam Ftofessor Sawages aU 
those that grew about Montpellier. 

In order u> leave nothing undone in his professorial office, Limunu pubUdied 
his Materia Medica, as the most ready means of instructing in that science. 

On the 89di of .Ajxil, lamuetu set out on his journey ta Siane (as he had 
been ordered by the States of the Kingdom during ihe late Diet), and passed 
through Christianatad, Cimbrithamn, Yslad, Scaruir, Malmoy Lundy Land- 
scronaf Helsingborgy and Engeleholm. On his return he viated his birth- 
-place, where his father died the year before, and where Linnaut had the 
satis&ction to see his only brother succeed to the living. 

On Linrueus's return home, he continued his academical occupations, and 
towards the end of the year was invested with the Rectorship of the University, 
which office had been held by another person, providonally, durii^ his absence. 

In the year 17^, having executed the office of Rector with great attention, 
and at the same time givoi private instructions, he, in consequence of his great 
exertions, and the spring setting in, had a very painiul attack of the gout, 
which obliged him at the expiration of his Rectorship to keep his bed, and 

* We have do pobfic board in £:igland ainular to tiiat sboT&'iiKDtkmed, tbe dvtiM of vhich 
•re vanaui> but coaiist chiefly in supfjiutending places of educatioo. (£^f«r.) 


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trVNiEUS S DIAAT. 543 

vith very iittle hc^s of Uvmg ; howCTo-, he was restored by eatiiig wood- 

Lirm^us's correspondents had every year requested him to publish his Philo- 
sophia Botanica^ in order that the terms and principles \of his system] might 
be explained in one work, which Linnseus considered as a matter of importance, 
not only to the learned world, but also to his pupils; wherefore this wp^Ewas 
completed. He likewise now wrote and published his jotimey in S&iie, for the 
benefit of the public. 

The garden being now so extremely rich in plants that it rivalled the first 
academical gardens in Europe^ Lirtrnetu at last prevailed on Ae univers^ to 
appoint an as^stant and a labourer to attend to the green-house, and also to 
allow 100 cart-loads of fire-wood annually, and this in adcttdm to the SO men 
before allowed. 

Ltmueus was appointed by the Academy of Sdences of 7%oui<nue one of 
its members. 

Osbeckj one of Limueus's pu^ in natural history, proceeded to China, 
in quality of a cl«'gyman ; of tlus, lAnnaiUy by recommending Osb$diy had 
been in a great measure the cause. 

Dr. Hatselquist having last year (1749) gone to ^gypt, by the advice of 
Limueus, to try what he could do there in the way of natural history, wiote to 
lAmimtSy and complained <^ want of money. Linamts himself gave him 
some money, and a|^lied to the Academy of Sciences, that all who loved vir- 
tue and the sdences might contribute. All the &ctdties tt ^ttala gave hun 
exhibiticms, and a sum amounting to 4000 silver dollars {above £S30 Englisk} 
was collected at Stockholm. 

1748. His pufnl Montin went to Lapland, and his putal Hagstrom to 

In the year 1750, Lhmteus was requested by the Spanish Ambassador, in 
the name of the King his master, to procure a botanist to travd over Spam, 
and Zdnmeus appcwted for that purpose Lqfling, the best of his pupils at that 
time, who left Sweden accordingly, in the spring. Thus Lrtausm had pupils 
in. all parts of the world. 

In America Kalm, who returned in 1751. ' 

Asia Osbeck, and 'Kmstrbm before hiin, who returned in 1752. 

7 U 

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544 linnjEus*s DiAitr. 

In jifrica-'—Hassel^uistf who died at Smyrna in 1752. 

South of Europe Ui/lmg^ who died m 1751. 

North of Europe Montirt, — Hagstrim. 1749. 

Gothland Bergitts. 1752. } 

fFest Gothland Tidsirom. 1753-/^' *^ ^'P™* °^ ^"^^^ 

Kalm returned from Canadoy loaded with a vaj considerable collection oT 
plants, of every od.q of which Linrunu got speciniens. In this manner Ldtt* 
nous's herbarium increased so iast, that it rivalled every one in the world, be- 
having collected all the specie* that were to be found in Sweden^ Lapland, and 
in the gardens of Clifford^ Let/dm^ Oxfordf Chelsea^ and Pams^ besides alt 
the plants from f^rginia througk Gronovim, from Sibmm through GmtUn,. 
from Kamtsehatka tbrough Ztemufo^ fron Languedoc through Stnivageti 
not to mention thoee he got from the garden at Upsaia^ and from all bis otfaex- 

XAnneeus was 31 with the goat, when Katm came home; howerer, he got 
up, aAd recovered, throng plearare at die si^ of the plants,. 

Cearg Tycko Holm (afterwards fvA&oT at C^>mhagm)y a student sent by^ 
Ae King of Denmark to study botany under iMuntlu, after having staid a yeac 
with h>D, returned home, to the satiBfactioa of his nation* asd to the honour 
Af Litmatw, XofKn^ , arrivo^ ia Spaint Icept i^ a close coire^ond^ce widt 
Mdrmanu, the htter having procured thi» journey for hira b^ hjs recommenda^^ 
laom. Hoiselqtmt went tl^ year through the Holy Land, and gratified Lirmmu. 
by his diacoreries. All of dMBewcK Zj?m«uf*s pupil& 

Her Majesty the Queen, taking pleasure in nktuial lustory, £»ined a most 
excellent collection of sheHs and insects, which had been procured from Ijidia ^ 
10 that her cabinet rivalled the finest in the w(»id. Lmnaus received commands. 
to repair to Drotningh/)lm, to describe all these. He was obliged to make a. 
Mw scicsice in respect to .Ehdls, to which nobody had paved a dear way,, 
i&d to lay a foimdation irfiid^ he had not bought of. He had the honour of 
eonver^g daily with this great and excellent Queen, and with his gracious ; 
SoTet«gB. He was obliged to be a courder, contrary to his inctinadon 

At this time Linmsus commenced a greater work, namelyi the Species Plan* 
tarum^ (after having finished, and laid the fbundabOn with, the Genera), m order- 
to bring the science down to the present time,— -a work wtuch ia now the great- 
3 est 


LINNiiDs's DIARY. 545 

est in botany ; but Linrueus wn at present the only penort who bad Gaffiaent 
materials for it> having got so large a collection of plasty and seen so many 
gardens and coUeccbns, — in short, having seen so many more plants than any 
body else. By sudi a book, every one could see what had already been disco- 
vered i vihax was new, when it occurred ; and how it was to be named, which 
odierwise would not have been possible. 

1752. To Limueus's great regret. Dr. Hasselquistf one of his favourite pu- 
{His, died of Pilosis at Smyrna, on die 9th of February, 1753, in consequence 
of his fatigues in the Holy i/ond; .when all his coUecticais and manuscripts vtx^ 
sequesteral. LmruEut, however, W3S not discouraged, but recommended Dr. 
Kaehler to her Majesty, that he might get part of the ezbiUticm founded by 
fFrede fi>r those who sboutd travd abroad, in order that Kaehier might pro- 
ceed on a botanical expedidon to the Cape of Good Hope, Her Majesty 
exerted herself for Kaehler^ and he obtained the exhibition, but the Dutch re- 
fused him leave to visit the C^ of Good Hope, although applications had 
been made with that view by the Swedish, Ambassador at the Hague. Who 
would have thought that, as the sciences have flourished so much in Holland 
forthe laA 50 years, this country ^ould be so illiberal as to refuse avpersoa 
leave to travel at his own expense, in order to do a service alike to himself 
and to the public, by discoverii^ die wonders of the creation ! 

1753. At the end of the last year and. the bej^nning of this, IMmwus was 
again commanded to go to court, and he described her Majesty's own coUec- 
ticm of natural curiosities at Vb-icksdahly and Count TesaiCt collection of fossils 
at Stockholm. He was presented by her Majesty with a fine gold ruig, 
which was set with an oriental ruby ; and from Count Testin he received a gold 
watch, and RumpfUu^a Herbariian Amboinense, which were worth lOO platar 
[about jf 27 Englisfi}. But what pleased Lirmteus most was, that her Majesty 
Louisa Ulrica, that excellent Queen, inquired after his only son, how he went 
on, and whedfcr he had any inclination for natural history ; and, bang informed 
that he had a taste that way, she promised to send him, when he was grown up, 
to travel over Europe at bei own expense, at which gradous promise Limueus 
heartily rejoiced.- 

AH the manuscripts and collections of Dr. Hasselquist were sequestered at 

Smyrna, for a ddK of l^OOO silver dollars (nearly jf 1 170 English). Ndxidy 

4 A knew 

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546 11NN.IUS'S blAHV. ' 

knew ho* they were to be rede«ne<i. Archiater Bdeky Lintueki's only,' and 
most indimte, friend, ventured to propose it to her M;^etty, who imoiedktely 
paid the debt, and gave orders rtwt the collection, shonid be foftrtrded hoae. 
What an instance of the Queen's liberality and greatness tit ttdtid ! 

Their Majesties permitted Litmaw to be in thdi- ^-idis cdmpllny t**e whole 
day, as if he had belonged to the court, wh«i Ae conTCWitioft turned f^ti&y 
on natural history, which they graciouely attended toaAd discussed-. Count T4ssin 
likewise was partial to this science, especially those parts of it «hik:h rekte to 
■fossils and shells ; his Countess loved botany. Thus it seemed as if Linnaiu 
had raised the science from nothing, in this kingdom, to ka Ubnost exGai^ tt 
bdng loved and cultivated by the greatest people,— ftay even bf royalty JtMlf-l 
What greater proof could th^« be <^ his diligence f Oateck retonied from 
Chinot uid made Linntttu a |H-eseu of H& collection, conrisdng of more dna 
600 Chinese plants. 

Lqfiin^i collection of ^ants from ^in and Portugal aBito«tKd to i staSas 

For two years past, Gmelin had sent all die S^Mtte^ptets from that cooatry ; 
Demidt^ the whole (^ St^ler's coUecdou } Somtg^s had made hitn a. ptBetat 
t^ the iriwle of his collection ; these, ia aMtuoa to vhu JJjtnaut hgd col* 
lected in Lapland^ Sweden^ Denmark^ Zeaffand^ Jhliandj England, and 
BVance, and what he bad recdved ftom Kalm and Grtmovms fiom North 
jiiMricA^ and from all botanists throughout Europ*^ rendered ^herbcaium 
me of the largest in the world. 

April 27. Lirmttus was dubbed a Knight <^ the Royal Order of the Polar 
~ Star, by his Majesty's owA hud, an Kodoir' that had never before, in Sweden^ 
been conferred on any Doctor, ArcbiEtf^, or Professor. Indeed, no Gendo- 
man of the Bedchamber, though of noUe eztractiDii, had yet been preseoied 
irith this Star. His motto was Fafoa'tt exteadere Jhctts. 

The Museum of Count Tessin Liimteus described, fu^tim*- oculis, when 
be was at Stockholm. His Excellency dedicated it to .lAnrueus hunself, 
and put his medal at the head of ic, as a tolun o£ the recp«;t be -entenainad'for 
Lintuetis's science. 

Daring the dog-days, Linnausy as usual, kistvadof drinking miaeeal waters, 

ste wood.6trawbernes, and found himself v^ iTeB in c(»iseqaBBce. Dr. 

€ Kaehler, 


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liver to Limiaus a letter of invitatbn, and a di];^ina to be Member of the Im- 
perial Academy at St. Petersburg. 

Menetti, i^ had written against Limueus, repented of it. 

JLannaus became a member of the Society at Flortnce. 

(Translated from die German). 

Giittingen Literary Gaietla 1756. p. 6951. 

literary nevs from Sweden. 

M. Linnxus, Knigbt, and Fhysidan to the King, has latdy been offered bj 
the King of Spain a Barony and the Chief Inspectorship <^ Botany, to settle at 
Madrid, where he is to enjoy full liberty of ezerdsiiig his religion ; we do, 
howerer, hope that if the King* diould enmMe him, he will not leave Stuederh 

1756. The whole of this year, he laboured at the 10th e(Utbn of his Systema 
Natttrttj inserting all the ^>ecie« of aninuts that were known to him. 

S9th of June. When Lieutenant Colond Dahlberg was going (two 
years ago) to Surinam^ Lttaueut^ through some friends of his, prevail* 
ed on him to take Daniel Rolander, who, after Losing, had been main*' 
tuned in latnueuis house, as tutor to his son, and who during that time 
had wholly applied himself to the study of insects. The chief reason was, 
that Liroiaut wished to get cochineals alive. Solander' novr returned from 
Surmamy and sent to lAmurus (who was lecturing just at that time) a Cactus 
widi cochineals ia a jar. The gardener opened the jar, took out the plant, 
cleansed it from the dirt (and of course from the insects^, and replaced it in the 
jar, so that the insects, though they arrived alive, were destroyed in the gardoi, 
before Liniueut could even get a dgbt of them } and thus vanished all his hopes 
of rearing them with advantage in the conservatory. This grieved him so much 
that he had the most dreadful fits of meagrim {hemerania'] he ever felt. This , 
ungrateful pupl did not give Itinnaus any thing he had collected, but slan- 
dered him every where. 

I^ovember 20. On Unmeut's being ennobled, he called himself Unni, 

\151. March?. Mylitdeson Johan^ who had just begun to talk a little, 

* Qaere,— the King of Sweden f {Editor.) 




wasatttdud with dw epidenuc coiug\ whidi now prevailed, and wludi de- 
generated into a tritetm vitfa aphtha; aiter having been il^ dght days, he took 
leave of diis vorld, in the nif^ benreen 12 and i o'clock. He had not at- 
tained die age of S yeazs. 

June 24di. lAtmaus published the travels of HasselquUt. This year, Lin- 
natu laboured at the 10th edition of die Systema Natura. 

July. Received the melancholy intelligence that Lqfiing vas dead in jimerica* 
He «as the best of all my ptipSs, and communicated a great many remarkable 
observations made during his travels. When the King of Spain requested me 
to send a botamst, M. ISflmg wasaf^xonted. He was two years in Spam, col- 
lected, discovered, and communicated a great deal. Afterwards be was sent to 
travel through South .Ameneot but was laid iq) in a tertian ague, became drop- 
acal, and died. 

Pr.'JTaeA/er returned from /(oJy, ApuUa^ &c. with a large collectitm. 

I began the publication of die lOtb e^iion c^ the Sgstema NatMra^ being a 
summary of every diing I have seea in the worid,— a work to which nabuat 
history has never bad a fellow. 

Novembers. Towards 8 o'clock in die evening, my daughter Sophia yns 
b«ll dead .[^tQ ail t^pearance\ but by means of imu0atoriamedieina came to 
life in the space of half an hour, and wis baptized en the 9tb of Hovember. 
. 1758, 3d of March. Recdved from his Excellency Count Tessin the hand- 
some gold medal which he had caused tobe struck in> remembrance of m^ for 
the lately puUished ^sterna Natur^ti On one side of it is, as on. die former 
medal, litftrMU^s head, and en the other side are- thr«e crowns j diefirstcrown 
exhibiting heads of aumals, the second flowers, and the thml crystals and 
stones, which a light firom above uradiues ; with the inscripticHi llhutrat* 

lamueta likewise published: the late La/ling's Iter Hupamcumt in txdxx 
diat dwre mi^ r^udn same memivial of so wcHtfay a pupil. 

Hammarby and Sofja weie bou^ for 80000 dolhrs ^ypwardt of j£2SS0 

17^9. Juttiaryi My only son wa» appointed Dononstrator of the Upaala 

Two volumes nS the 10th e^tioa of the Syttema Natura were pubUdied, 
9iid also, the 4di vobune of die Jmaautatts^ 


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550 IilKNMVi S DIARY. 

Dmim die autouiterml was B^ctor, tb«r M^catiec and iiriiue Bututf, 
vidi tbe FtioocGi, vidiBd the-usireaatf,:aDd I made an ondon. They vcre 
nry mucli pleued vtth dteoioticii, vUA iriKiA SflealiGlL , 

1760. I got a premium of 100 ducats (qiesie) &oa.die Imparial Acadeny 
ef Petertburg, for [the aatteer ti>] the qwsden salaltreto du sexes of {dants. 
Dr. Burmatm, aftervards Prafenor at Avuterdam, afid Srhreher, aft ttwanfa 
I^i>faesor {(K £r^an^en3> wecehezea jcarto beai^iBtw ' <. 

17^1. The new jFetuaa was p ubiiafae d , and I jaiftNCtei die Den^Uogiy of 
Russia, vbo gave me SSQOildlais {upteardt of cf lOQ £o^^u&}. 

^doM ^ttjlncaine fnooa .^^ntmca io hcariaey aod «tatd hei;e tffi As middle 
(^17&S; he became thaiirst Profesaqrat FJuiatifi^bia. 

JUrmam drcfw manf £ireignerp to Aw place, vAaA bi^aa hit tini« tbey 
were not common. 

In the month of NoTeoober, 17^t 1 b»^ lus -Magett^'a sgn-nuuiasd'.to the 
paigDt of Mbiliiy. It waa juuidated die 1 1th of Aprils 275Z^A mv pipef of 
royal £iiKnir! 

In 1762, at the doang of the Diet, it was. nialradiiiat those vhom bh 
Sbgcttjr bad cnvted naUemcn tb^rM ntauo. m, «Dd.e«osequendy unongst 
odiess Lmnmu alu c ontrn w d a nflMetnaa, under tbesmne (C^Linne^ His amis 
were dine fidda, saUe, yat, ud gudou iorfir^ringthff duxe kbigdpras of aa.* 
tuie; oatbeKancgg} and ind«bdm<t the JJwura.. iTtiof,. howerer, the 
Coisor in Heraldry, had eiitire^ alfeased ifaeonginaf des^ 

It hanng been nndciftood in die IMtf .tliat Ltanaut posaaasBd the art of 
making pearls, )ie vaa (vdtfcd to afitend, awl diaeoveiisd the whole art, ^ii 
winch he resdved.fran Bagse,ii>e vi^rcbaBt ^C(MAan6crf, a SOacopper dollars 
[upward of tSiMO rtsriingi^- JJnumu oUsomi pemmuM ftotn iiis • Abjesty 
to dq>uce 91^ ODe qf ^ iWiuls to «icecute j)is fidEce. 

Linnmii finding.dl^h$fii^w tO:be iafintt, and .vasbiag tb^ ids children 
mi^ have a home in the couotry* bwk ooe at Hammafby. 

Jjinmeus published his Species Plantarum a second time. 

The Frmdt Academy of Sciences Itayiag a r^ tp nomiaate 8 ibragn man- 
bers, and the great astronomer Bradley bdng dead, Archiater Lintueus was, on 
the 8di of December, af^iiM^ in hisctead. This honouriK esteemed ^Ibe karned 
di^ highest that can be attained, andhadttora'jKJQDeheeKcidafeihsdoiia SAede. 


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3tlKVMVt'» DIART. 651 

1W3. Lhmtmts Hm ezowed from Iw profcBtonad scmees^ and ^ aea, tm 
account of Linnatis'& merite, obtained a grant to fill his office, dkough he <inc 
no morethsn SI yeatB of age. Hoireroi', tHc htha dontiaued to act as pro- 
feteor untH tfas sc^ was fiUljr competent. By these mean^ his valuable hbTfijy, 
iMBtufk^le ibtnutcrifAs, and coUscAon •featniU curiodiics, jMt tomcntion 
serettd other tiling, wmjnvsArvedi-r-^lfattjXtnhiPtu received Tea alive finnB 
CAina, which he had tried to succeed in for 80 many years, and which nt^iody 
before' hftd'baeasldr to pi^icurcr aJIneiAtr Ae seed^ nor the root would bear 
the voyage. Limueus desired that, the moment before the ship set ^ frou 
China, the seeds should be pbt i& earth, aacl- v«ei*ed as a- hot^ied. God 
blessed hamevion AktfaiG point, th^ he was ^t^ fertt ^rtiohad.the saiisfaetioa to 
see Tea imported into Europe {alive} ; it vtaa by aieans of* Bkebrrg, He 
looked upon Bothhig to be of more impottaace^ thMi to shut that gate tlmegh 
ithich all4fo dker west out of Ew^. 

Ob tlw 8d of Mfty, 17«4, £ifm«ttt nab attacked by a viokn£^dHrf8y,fim 
which he with great dificuity, and tbtoogh thb kind aontance of Btmrn, eadapedj 
and be nfaittdioHannMt-bp (wbetc hiil btaUing bad latdy been cotnpicted), 
in order to enjoy the fve^ air, and he now oooeeived far Sosen aa imimatt 
rCgak-d.--Oa die 9ih <^ jAly, he cdebrated Us SUJaer Brblkp {a Swedish 
tuttomt of evsitavatonHing a coufle't m^iah after they have btm married iS 
years. The literal meaning of the words is Silver-WeddJng.3 

Oi tbe I2d> of Jifly; bb dde» cfaughter, Lisa Stinot was married to Carl 
^ed Btrgencrenttt, Lietitenant ift the {^/oW 'Regiment. 

The 6th edidon of the Genera, much improved, wac poblidied. 

In the month of September, Linrueus was informed that his beloved pupil 
Forskahi, who had been Vtoiessat at Copenhagen^ and had gone into Arabia, 
died in that distant country last y«tf, which grieved Limueus very much, as 
the science had therdiy suffered an iiTcfiarable les& However, he was glad that 
he had been at^ to oaake known (what people had always tried in van to disco- 
va*) the genus of Opobahamunti vjz. Amyrta. 

In. the year 1765i he wcn'ked at the lath or laet edknn of the Systema 
Natwrtet and, the whple of the autuitm, on the ClMis Median^f which 
would have employed the most learned men for an age.~ 


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1766. /Mfl«tuwa8(»da^toaiTiuiee£irtbelaitlimeherMa}<e8ty'sc^a&et, 
•t Drottiingholm. 

Got readj the first vohune of the System, — an excdleot perfiunuiKe. 
. The King of Denmark {Kesented lAniunu with two valuable works, viz. the 
i7ora Damca, and the MtMum Condiyliorwn [q/" Beggnjiu ?j, Lhatam 
was nomhuted the fint foreign member of die Aademy of Sdencefi at Drant- 

1767. Lmaaut was chosen a member of the (Econonacal and Scientific 
Society at Celle. 

The Sod volume of the System was pobliahed. 

1768. The 3d volume of the System is ready. The itttnMhicti(m it of great 
inqxntance, luc to mention otbo- things. 

1769. JUmutus built at his coontry-^ lace a museum, which was on a hill, 
and in which he kept his plants, zoophytes, diells, insects, and nanetals. It 
commanded one of die finest views that could be seen. All die curious vidted 
this place, in order toin^iect it. Lord £d/rf»ore, whosaw it, majie Lmn^us a 
pretem of a gtdd box, of the value of 100 ducus. The Due de RochefimcatUt 
newed it with the greatest admiration. The p3^per>hangings, in his parlour, 
ediibited drawmgs of planu from the East and ^est Indies, and in his bed- 
room were paintings of insects, die whole more iplendid and handsome than any 
ts^iestry that was to be seen. 

Received an incompatable collection of dried plants, bulbs, and seeds, from 
Governor Ddbagh, at the Cape of Good Hope, and likewise a anular one 
made by M. Konig at the same place, and at A^deraspatan. 


lAmueus practised pbyuc at Stockhoim from 1739 to 1741 ; he was phy- 
mdan to die great naval hospital there, and had, besides, as much practice 
as all the odier physidans coUecdvdy i but, on bemg made Professor, he 
rehnquished the whole of it, because' either distt or his duties as a Professor 
must otherwise have been neglected. From this period therefore he attended 
only his'frioids and the poor. 

2 Fhtsiologt 

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JjlVSMVi'i DIARY. 65$ 

PHTBioLoer derived fron faim an impoitiitt diacovary, namely Genemttonent 
amHgenam. Harvey maintained that the- rudimmtwa Jkturi faetia lies in ovi 
puncto taliente ; Leewnitoei, diat it Ees in geniiurte vermiculis spermaticit ; 
Uwni, -on tbe odier hand, that from the mother comes Carhta MalpigJui, 
rudrntnttOn eneephali, and &om the father punctum salient cortUtt ei hide 
totum corpus. This he proved by obGervatitHis on hybrid animals, hybrid 
jAxaOy &C. Thus, sense and temper, \rith tenadousocss of life, proceed from 
the motbc, but extonul appearance and habit, 'with strength of coostitutkHit 
fron the father. The Meduila spmalit would grow tVt^nrmflt, if it were no< 
confined by the spina darsi tancfem osa^ata mpttbertate^ et a relropretmme 
Ubidmi The contrary fafqipens in 7>nt<?, and in vegetables which have no bcHie m 
dieir con^xjsition. (hsea crusta will grow in ij^mtum, cteleris panhus. The ob-* 
ject of re^Jiration, he thought, is to extract the electric fluid from the air by 
the loftgs, and thus to transmit it to the meduila^ becoming the spiriltw 
ttnirnaHs, as it were ; and hence tbtt the cluef office of the lungs is not to 
accelerate the moticw of the Mood. Some fordgn^ has considered this as 
an hypoihetix. only, but lAnrumu as an aoom. 

Pathology is a subject on which he corresponded more than 30 years 
widi the leasned Sattvages, above lOO of whose letters are in lus hands. 

Genera Mokborum have not been so clearly defined by any one; there is 
BOt a Bi^e word m them tha* tr not useful; his work im this subject is an excel- 
lent compend for a tyro. He has divided fevers- into S' dases, after a mediod 
entirely fail own: Exantkematica,- typo scaiiei, ai exttnthemattlms vivis 
contagiosisi Camc^, t^m Rkeumatis (Fluss), ai acido seri sanguinis; 
Phlogisticje, typo irtfiammetorio^ aputrido craoris sanguinis. 

He was the fiist to explain, that the Tienia has no head, and grows in ir^fi- 
nittm, and also that fragments of this creature sprout again. 

That Leprais caused bya speciesof Gordkts, found principally in herrings, 
has dnce been confirmed by the Norwegians. 

To sfuiw that Baphania is occasioned by tile Raphamstrum^ requu^ a 
thoroogh acqoaintince with natural history. 

He maintained that Scorbutus is caused by culinary salt. 

Diet nobody has treated of in a more soKd and satis^ictory manner, though 

he did not publish any thing on the subject His doctrines, like those of the 

* B later 



tater natural philosophers, are deduced from expeiieiKe, and his system, like 
theirs, nl&jr therefore be called experimental. Every Unng was deduced from 
occurroices in common life, dted in their propo' phtces as e^mj^es ; on v^cb 
account his auditors were never more numerous than when he lectured ati ths 
Eubject. Several persons took notes at these lectures, but all the notes I have 
seen are incorrect 

Pathology, the fbundation <A the vA>xAe medical art, and of all medicat 
theory, has been more improved by lAimamiy in bis Ciavis Medidnte of ft 
pages (which is a master-piece in its way, and one of the greatest treasures in 
medicine) than by a hundred authors and books in folio. 

The Mechanical Physicians indeed had shown that the actim of the Sapida 
consists in relaxing or conslringrng, according to the nature of thar taste ; but 
neither the «/>eciV fa/»ri£, nor their contraries were explained,— ^nuch less the 
nature of the Olida. Linni vras the first who saw diat nature is balanced by- 
contraries, and acted upon nuntero quinario^ He saw that the Creator had 
given to animals two senses, viz. taste and smdL 

That the Sapida act only on the fiwds and soUds, or on the fibres^ 

That the Odora act only on the brain and nerves. 

He found that Fitia Corporeoy as well in the fluids as the soHds, are only S 
in number. 

That the Fltia Bncepkati, vel SyatemaHs Nervoti are likewise 5 ; each with 
the same number of contraries. 

He likewise found that the Sapida and Odora are also 5, with as many contra-> 
ries } and that the right indicatiim results from a con^Ktrison of contraries with 
contraries. He proved this by examples. What can be stronger ? 

For this was required all the knowledge that Lintuetu possessed of diet, natu- 
ral history, medicine, materia medica. Few physicians had been cooversaiu 
with all these branches together. Fonunate were those students who, befpre his 
dme, could acquire this knowledge. 

Not to mention, that Linmetts was the first who said that all our principal me- 
dicines are poisons ; that physicians ought not to condemn poisons, but to use 
them, as surgeons thar knives, cautiously. 

The Materia Medica likewise was in a confusad state, and muiy ardcles 
were in^)erfectly known, until Linnaus reformed it. He introduced the genu^ 



I lii -— 31 


Q>eclfic difierance, select synonyms, place of growth, cultivation; deduced theiii 
medicinal ejects and uses from the imfHresaons they produce oa the oigans 
of taste and smelt ; and, lastly, described the several compositions, all of which 
had been eidier confounded, or superfidally created of before, but by LiruKtus 
were distinctly explained in his Mitena MeeUca. 

He was die lirst person who determined &ircocoU(i, Ba/jaffiOjfTa^ Quassia. 

Introduced sevaral new ardcles ; revived the use of others which bad been 
foi^ottei : C^iuorrhizay Fiaigut MelitemtSf Senega. 

Duicamara. Lflmiena waa. the first who brought this plant into general use in 
Sweden. He cured ^phiiis zad Scorbutiu with it. ^ct. Peris. 1761. p. 53. 
flrgo acorbuto summa ciffiicta, qiuum wants generis remedia frustra essent 
fuUubitay ejittqiie gradus ad sumtaum pervenistet^ Mediau Rasout, condHo 
Sauvageai, eam perfecte curavit sola usu decocti Didcamariey quod remeditem 
Sauvages ab Jli*. T-inpg-^ acceperat. Dulcamara decocto miUtos syphUiticos 
curavit Sauvages hijus imi d Linnaeo edoctut. 

Sauvagesium paucis ante obitum annis Uppum, ut vix legeret Hhrum, curavit 
Linne infiuo caryvphyllorumy ut ipse in Uteris fatetur ' tibi debeooculos meos.* 

Ledum. He was the first person who taught that it was the chief specific 
against the hooping cough. 

j^/ofcAuf. He was the first who introduced it for the cure of contagious diseases, 
and as a preservative or expdlens liorum^ ex principio febrium contagiosarum ab 
exanthemaiihus vtvis ; — now common. 

R, Britamuca [^Sumicis Aquatici radix'} a{q>lied to ill-4:ooditioned ulcers, he 
was first informed oi, from jitaericOt and by him it was communicated to Eu- 
ropeans, v 

D'AillatuCs Powder he asserted to be 4 ^Pa/yw] Baccantm Rhamni, 

. Guy's Powder aguost Cancer 3 Folioruia Actie^. 

BOTANY was the subject of his first and last work% and his favourite 
study. He overthrew the old systems, and formed a new one, which still 
maintains its ground. He saw that the petala^ calyx^ and fntetus were not 
the only parts of frucd&cahon, and therefore he included the involucnm, glu' 
mat amentum^ spatha, calyptra, vaiva, corolla^ nectarium, ^lameniat a?t. 
thera, pollen^ pistillum^ germeiif stylus, stigmoy siliqua^ legumeny folliculus, 
pamuMf iacca, drupoj arilluSf receptaculum triplex i-~~iay, he introdjiced 
*b2 other 


656 £INK£nS*S DIART. 

Other parts, m atipulte, bracte<e, glandulte^ spinas actdei^ stunuH^ ctfVM, tet^nu^ 
pettolus, peduncvlrisy and all these were regularly defiiied, either for determiBing. 
lomething newi or for supj^ying deficiencies of former writers. 

Hedefined, and drew the iorna of leaves, affixing toms of his own. K» 
figures have been copied, and ascribed to those who copied them. If we i^ad 
auduxc befiare asd after Litmi's reform^on, we sbaH find their style quite dif> 
ierent from his. 

The Sexes op Plants, which have somerimes been maintuned and some- 
dmes opposed and dented, he proved in so clear a mannM-, diat all his adversa- 
ties were elenced ; and who could do it hettez Aan Urinf f for be had eza- 
ained aH known pluits,— -«n nadertaknig that required a iii«i*« whole time. 
Nay, he went eo far as to foond on this most essential part of re^getables, the- 
vbole of his Me^todus Piatttarwn, or Syntema SexuaU. 

The Metamorphosis of Flakts he proved to take pkee m the fructi!ka> 
tion, when die larva vegetabiiis is traasfotmed into a bloesom, shmkily to the 
ptoductian of insects ; and we may see all the parts of plaiUs involred in 
tlie fnictification, wherein die cortex is conrerted into the cafyx, the liber m» 
the corothi, the Hgmtm into atamaa, &e tmeduHa into piatiHa. 

The FuMDAHENTUM Fructificationis every one had ^e^Een of, btit no-- 
body undemood. jAmuetu's zrgament was, diat, of dl the genera of vege- 
tad»le^ -there had originally been created bat one ; that (his had accidentally 
been impregnated by others, whence the internal parts acquired a resemblance- 
to the modter, and the «Eteinri to the father, as always hajipens in a hybiid 
progoiy i that in this way so many speties were prodoced -, and diat, cons^ 
quently, those which agree in fructification are of one family and substance, and 
of like nature aid properties, — m other words, a natural gtmts. 

Characters of Plants, every one formed as he pieced, unst^fe and 
insufficient ; but Idmueus undertook to examine number, .figure, situation^ and 
proportion in aH known plants, and in all the parts of fructifieation, even to the 
smallest, and the before neglected stamina and pistilla. He made a promise 
(which was fulled) that he would furnish characters, by ^system of botany, 
foraU die i^anis hitherto discovered, or that night liereaf^er be discovered; and 
the Bume are now adopted throughout Ae world. 

Jiaiuroi Genera <a Plahts Xin?t^ inveseigated with more dJIigooce don 
S any 

3,a,i,7cdb, GooqIc 

LINNiEUs's DIARY. 557 

any pa-son who preceded him. He abolished and r^ected more than half the 
number of genera of other authors, but made up for this reduction by intro- 
ducing twice as many, from the plants which he had got from Africa, 'the East 
htdiet, and America ; so that he himself discovered more genera than all be- 
fisre hioi, by double the number. Lirme rejected more than half the generic 
names of plants, subsiituted new ones, and ^owed how they ought to Be con- 
stituted 80 as to prevent confusion in the science. 

DipferentijB Specipic^, or the specific names of vegetables, as framed before 
his time, lAnne entir^ abolished, and substituted in their places such as served 
in a xatsre coacise manner to distinguish ev^ vegetable from all the others of its 
gatus; GO thac pet^e had no need to refer often to authors for determining species. 

Trivial Names bad never been heard of before. AfEidng them to all 
vegetables was like putting a clapper to a bell. Botany acquired new life. 
Names could Jiew not only be easily ronembered, but also spoken and written 
vidi ease, whereas, before, it was necessuy to have recourse to definitions. 
Hence botany acquired an entirely new and natural form. 

Varietibs had unnecessarily increased vegetables to double their real num- 
ber, so that mAMxIy knew whedier the name signified the same vegetable or an- 
other. Z^satnu arranged, the varieties undo: their species, and thus many thousand 
□anus were abolished. 

Descriptions of plants were loose, prolix, and vague, iiren^ exhibited a 
mode of describing vegetaUes in definite terms, in which not a word was with- 
out meaning ; and dieoatural structure, which occasiffloed an unnecessary pro- 
lixity, was esclnded. 

His Ststema Plantaritm was founded on the sexes of {Jants, widi such 
perfection as to the genera and spedei^ diat no other system can at this time be 
compared with it. It was so contrived, that the vegetable ^ouid, through the 
fiower or fructification, make known its own name, as well generic as trivial, 
and the subjoined synonyms whatever had been discovered, hnefido seculi, 
relative to that vegetable. 

As to Theory, there was scarcely any in botany. Limuem moitioned in his 
PhUosophia Bolaaica the several authors, the subjects of which they treated, the 
parts of plants and of their fructification, rules for constituting genera and species, 
with their names, &c 

The Grasses had been all uikder one genus, but Lhmteus pointed out many 


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•distinct genera in this obscure tribe, with their chaiacters ; as lie did also ztOoOff'' 


.■pROLEPsis, the discovery of Linnaus, shows how the bods of trees conuio 
^ithiH themselves all the parts that will come forwaid within 5 years, frcxn the 
evolution of the leaf to the completion of the fiower. Nature must therefore 
anlehnl^regnale plants for this period. Nobody has penetrated further into the 
■secrets of the creation. 

The Sleep of Plants was not attended to. before the time of Linnteus'& ' 
observing it, and giving to the world so much infonnatitxi on the subject. 

The Calendarium Florje, and Vernatio Arborum, are placed in 
•quite a new Ughc by LinnS, in order to make the scioQce equally useful and 
pleasing ; and these subjects will, without doubt, hereaiter prove of the utmoGt 
consequence to rural oeconomy. 

HoROLOGiuM Flora ; to discover the time of day by die opening and 
closing of flowers, from momtog until evening, was also the invention of Lhi-' 
lususy and will be of an agreeable use to the world. 

Pan and Pandora (or what vegetable every animal, and insect eats) -vien 
never thought of befwe. Liniueta published hereupon. His Pan is a master- 
piece, imd required more than could have been expected from one man. It is 
the foundation of rural aconomy ; and it were to be wished that more persons 
contributed th^ labour towards improvipg it. 

CEcoNOMiA and Politia Nature are two important arguments drawn at' 
the saitie time from all the three kingdoms of nature, and demonstrate theology, 
or final causes ; for what purpose every thing was created j and the connection 
that sub^ts among created things, As to thar production, conservation, and 
destruction. No one has been allowed to penetrate the secret recesses (^nature, 
but LinuSf who has deserved equally well of all h^ three kingdoms. 

(EconomiaPlanta, or the uses of plants in common life, in rural aco- 
nomy, the art of dying, &c. few persons, besides Ratf, have taken any trouble 
about. Linni, however, has augmented the number prodigiously in his Travds, 
ijis Fiora Sxtectca^ and Plantie CEconomiae, TinctoriePy &c. 

Stationes Plantarom were formerly overlooked. Liime has affixed to 
every herb its locus nalalisy or native situation, where it grows wild, so that 
people are enable I to procure them from those places ; nay, he has even specified, 
-wherever it was posfdble, the situation and kind of foiV; which practice, it is «^~ 



ed, dteuld be continued in giving die nadre pUces of growth of foreign plants^ 
,& this way, be has laid the gcound-work of horticulture, which before rested 
«n. DO fixed principles whatever. 

The F1.0B.A SuECiCA may be CTdto be preferable to any other Ftora in the- 
worid. Before its piAUcatiop, no person knew what grew in his native country ;. 
now we know exactly. But before Linni could complete it, he was obliged to- 
travel through most of the provinces o( the kingdom, and even walk through. 
Laplandf a country uncuhivated, and with few beaten roads ; and he was every . 
.where put to incredibte trouble in searching ibr plants. 

Flora Lappokica. He confessed, himself, that this Flora had alone given 
him mcwe trouble than all his other travels togetfia*.. He wished to show what' 
,TegitttbIe8 endured the hard^t climate in the woi-rd. 

Flora Zeylanica. On this Flora he laboured a whole year, before he 
could soiten and open all the flowers (which had been dried up fbr more than a. 
century), and describe and class them under genera and synonyma. 

FijORA Pal-estika. a jRoro formed by Hasselquist. Nor was this com- 
posed without great labour and trouble- 

The Acadsuic Garden of Upbala Xmrtieus broke up from its bad state, 
aMroideredoneof the finest and richest in plants, that was to be seen in Europe.. 
:In no univendty garden had there ever been sown so many kinds of seeds, not. 
■ withstanding several had come from the Indies^ &c. ; were eficete ; and the clT- 
matfe was too severe (the summer being too short and cool) for them. Botanists- 
in general coiUended with each other in sending to lArmam seeds and rare 

The •••• k has beoi sdd, was formerly to be seen in several gardens,, 
but we may be assured that it nev» grew in any garden- earner than in that of 

Most of the- SiBXRfAN Plakts that now adorn "anS' are' common ia 
our gardens, were first cultivated at Upsala, and thence dispersed; wilh- 
•ut moitioning an immense number besides, which were first introduced by. 
lamtaus, , 

The Natdrao. Orders of plants are given as an appendage to the- 
Genera Plantarum, which an ignoi^t person would imagine to be of no use 
or value ; but Linrii looked upon his performance as a master-piece. Many 
f«<^le haye endeavoured, to refine upon it, but have aH bewi unsuccessful. He 



560 LINKiEUs's DIARX. 

who discova^ the key to them will have discovered the Natutal A&tkodi 
but this discovery may not precede that of squariog the ckcle. A persoA 
using this [meaning probably the Fragmenta Methodi NaturaHr] for a 
Methody may be considered as buildmg a house without a roof. 

Zoology, before Linn^etu'a time, was aa Augean stal^ filled with taUes 
and nonsense, and hi from hang a science or a system. Linnf eatireiy re- 
formed it, as well as botany. He constituted 6 classes, and distingui^ed Vkr- 
lii£s from Insect A. He formed g-mera ^ «p««tes,. giving to each the re- 
spective synonyms aijd differences. He classed Ceie with the Mammalia, 
and Pisces Chondropterygii with the Amphibia, k was thou^, that for the 
Serpents no distincttve characters could be formed, but he disdhgiB^Md tbera 
by the number of scMta. He made this sctesce so easy and conqireheBible^ 
that vitbin these few yeais mun«oua authors have appeared in it. 

As to Pisces, indeed', our excsllent Art^di h^ writtoi on tlumi with gnat 
ingenuity, but bis method was difficult and insufficieat. Lhttum d isc ar e red 
an entirely new and very easy mode qt dtsti^ulshing them, luunf^ bf the 
situation of the ventral fins. His descripdonSk which rendered it notxKary ti| 
count the radtt m the fins, occaHooed him iocredtttk labow, he heii^ the 
first person that set about it. 

Insects seemed to be innuniend)le, and beyood the oogntsaDce of tmt man. 
Jjiraunts collected and dfiscribed ev«y Swedish insect, and ptocartd <ahers from 
, both the Indies, nay, even from the southan bemiq>here, &on which, part of 
the globe not 10 had before been seen, if we except t^ose 'm. Hei M^qesty's 
cabinet. He described every one; constituted new genera; affixed generi< 
names, specific differences, and trivial names j and aaceitained on what vege- 
tables they re^>ectively lived. To d^ect tfaar synonyms was a most tirasome 
undertaking. He made that intelligible which before was not to be comprei- 
hended. Including insects, Unne dtscova%d more animals than all the authors 
who preceded him, put together. ' 

Sheils had been arranged by many persons, but none <rf their methods were 
good for any thing/ Lirme found out nature's own key, in ihe hinge ; made 
genera and specific diSerences; and \rith incredible labour determined synonyms, 
so that even this branch became plain and perspicuous. 

Zoophytes were by some stated to belong to mossoi, by others to. animate. 
Linne decided that they were between veg«t:d>le6 aed animals: v^etables with 



lilNNAUs's DIART. 56l 

reelect to their stems, and animaJU with respect to thdr florescence. Thta idea 
is still entertuned. 

The Ahtetim ^ tJpsala vas founded by faim, beii^ formed from what he 
procured from patrons aiul friends, 'and from what was pmeoted by him* 

Teritit were wafated in this science. Linni framed many : as, for example, — 
in A* daw Mammalia* Sutur^y Ferrttcte^ Colli ; in that of Avas, Capis- 
inmtt Lonmij Armilla, Cristm; in that of FiscBS, j4petlet, Jugutares, 
T^WractM, and Ahdaminaia ; in that t£ Ihsbcts, P^U Halteres^ SctUel. 
lum, Stemtna, Ala fenestrate reverste^ Stigma^ Larva^ Htmipteray Hymen- 
pptera, and Nettr^tera i in that of Vermes, TVnfacuJa, ice. &c. 
■ Frnfttt SttKtca was the first Fawaa of any value the world had seen,— a 
compendmm reqaiiing infinite labour and diligence, to collect so many animals, 
espec^ly insects. Now we know what we have, in this branch. 

Historia Ammalium. Limuetu has given ^)ecimens of the proper form irf 
it in the dissertadoos de Camct Sue^ Ove, AGtre. 

I.ITH0I.0O1BTB oi^hl not to be ungrateful to lamd. He wasoite of die first 
and most eminent men who oootended that die aea is decreGung, and that the 
cotttiaentsareincreaaiiig; and be west as £31* bu^ as (he existetce of paea^se. 
XtMi^ would willingly havebeHevedtfaeearthtobeolder than the Clanese assert, 
had the scriptures allowed him. 

lAmit said that he had never aeen tudera diiuvU uaiversaiity but suceessiva 

He tried in an ingenious and pleasant manner to explain the stnuificadoQ of 
He said that he bad never been ^le to get dirough rudera (svi to terra 

He enumerated only 4 orders of Tzrr^, «id thought k imposBible that 
there could be more. 

He ascribed the origin of all Lime to the Aaimal Kingdom ; Mould (ot 
/&tniw) to the Vegetable Kiagdtan; Clay to the dime of the sea (Oceaai 
yiscitt*do)i Sand to sak vniter. 

From these four kinds of earth he-deduced the compomtitHi of all fossils. 

I^rrU he affirmed to be prodooed from- Chalk, and not vice-versa, 

Lapidote Cryitals, he said, consisted of salt and earth. 

4 C The 

b, Google 


The h^ory of Calculi he ezphined in a phun and t^moos r 

Fossil Corals he described and flgured very distinctly. 

He was the first to introduce system into the mineral kingdom^ by- dining 
classes and gejiera^ on which mmenilogy was afterwards grounded and improved. 

His Concreta, Petrificata, and Terra did not seem to be tven hypotbetically 
diviable into more genera. 

Dissertations and otho- things of inferior conaequenct are here, (at brevity's 
sake, passed over. Most of his dissertations, however, are fUM vnth iwe, 
remai^able, or origmal matter, and it is on this account tfaiat thtfy have been so 
much in request, and printed in the Amamtates. 

■ Whoever wishes to see Lirme's nice daaimination and clear naanit of 
writii^, ought to resd fais introduction to the SyiUma Naturie, and tke whole 
of its S kingdoms, vrith th^ dasses; and then let it be said who has coin. 
posed any thing samilar. 


The portrait prefixed to the Philosopiia Botanieat af 1 751, is dw beet. 

His suture of &e middle sized i rather ^ort than tall ; ndcber dim nor ht ; 
rather masculine fimbe, and Urge veins, from bis infancy. 
. His head large, occipite gibbo ad siOicram lambdoideam tramvene d^resm, 
PiU m infantia tmm, demjutciy in tetuo caatetcentes. Ocuti brwmei, vivacet, 
acutiisimi, vtsu eximo. Frons m tenia rugosa ; verruca obliterata in bucca 
deietra et alia in nasi dextro latere. ' Denies dgbilet, cariosi ab odontalgia 
hereditaria injuventute. 

AtfimOs prviHptuSy mobilia ad tram et Uetitiam et Toceroret ; dtb pktmba- 
tur } hilarit injuventute, nee in tenia torpidiUy in rebus agendis promptjtsinuu ; 
incesm levis^ agilis. He was no way inclined tx> qoarrel, and £3r that reason 
he never answered those who wrote against him. 

Curas domesticas committebat uxori^ ifee de naturie productis latiee in- 
tentus; iacepta opera ad Jinem perduxit^ nee in itinera respexit. He wasnd- 
dier rich nor poor, but afraid of incurring debt. He di± not vrrite his works 
pro SQSirOy but pro Aonorc. He never n^lected any lecture. Consistoralia 
be treated as aliena. He always caused his audience to listen to his lectures 
with pleasure. He posses^ an excellent memory, until he was 60 years of 
age, when proper names began to be forgotten by him whose bead had contained 
many more of that kind than most other persons'. A Unguis addiscendis facile 



ifiNNxus's Di4«y> 56s 

o^jfUnu alietfut, during his whole liie-dme. Hf' could not willingly dissen^le, 
nor play the hypocrite. 

- He was in the highest degree averse from every thing that- bore the appear- 
ance of pride. 

■He wa^ not luxiuietUj but lived as temperately as moet people. 

During the wmtw he alept from 9 to 7, but in the summer from 10 to 3. 
,• He never deferred doaig what was necessary to be done. Every thing ite 
observed, he noted down in its proper place immediately, and never trusted it 
fo memory. 

Every thing he wrote was written briefly and nervously. 

He every whore shows himself b> have been metbodicaL 

He used to say that he would rather recare three cufis from Priscian than 
o^e from Nature. 

He read the earth, minerals, v^etaUes, aiui animals, as in a book. 

He was one of the greatest observ«rs we have had, and therefore K> be con- 
sidered as an author, net as a compiler. 

Over the door of his room he caused liuB sentence to be inscribed : 


He always entertained veneration and admiration for his creator, and endea- 
voured to trace his science to its Author. 

" Tu decus omne This, poslquam Te fata tulere." (Virgil.) 
Having been brought to the point of death by the gout, in the year 1 750, but 
cured by eating wood-strawberries, he ate every season as much of this fruit as 
he could, and as hisS:Comach would bear; by which means be not only escaped 
the gout endrelyj but also from so doing derived more benefit than others from 
drinking mineral waters, and got rid of the scurvy which every year rendered 
him heavy. 
The Lord himself hath led him with his own Almigh^ hand. 
He hath caused him to spring from a trunk vithout root, and planted him 
again in a distant and more delightful spot, and caused hin^ to 
rise up to a condderable tree. 
inspired him vrith an incHnatbn for science so pasaonate as to be- 
come the most gratifying of all others. 

4 c 2 He 

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He hath given him aB the means he could ather wish kit or enjoy, of aftaui* 

ing the objects he had in view. 
- favoured him in such a manner, that even the not obtaii^g of what 

he wished for, ultimately turned out to his greatest adrant^. 
caused Mm to be received into Acvoor by the AAvcVnaM/^ramft'arwm; 

by the greatest men in the lungdona ; and by the Royal Family. 
— p^rea him an advantageous and hoDOwable post, the very one tfaat» 

above all odim iQ the world, he had wished for. 
'— — given him the wifo for whom he most wished, and who manned bm 

housdold aSiure wtulst he was engaged is fabovious studies. 

given him childrai who have turned otat good sad VBtaoos. 

-— ^— given turn a aon for his Buccotw in office. 

.... I. ■ ^vea him the largest cdlection of plants that ever eziseed in dke 

worid, and his greatest deKght. 
pfea him bnds and other property, so that though there has been 

nothing superfluous, noljiing has hg wanted. 
- ... honoured him vrith the tides of 

Nittiemau, and with 
JXninction m the learned woritL 
. .. .■■ protected lum frcun fire. 
— — — preserved his li£e abovfe 60 yean. 
.—~ permitted him to vivt his secret coundl-^hainben. 
— ^.— - permitted him to see more of the creation than any nMutal before him. 
— — given hitw greater knowledge of natnfal history dian any one lad 

hitherto acquired. 
The Lord hath been with him whithersoever he hath walked, and hath cut 
off all lus enemies from befmre him, and hath made him a name, like the name 
of the great men that are in Uie ear&. 1 Chroo. xvii. 8. 

No penon ever acquitted himself of the duties of his professorship widi 

greater zeal, or had a larger audience at our univeraty. 
■ ■ was more conversant wiA, or made more discoveriee in, natural 






H»penKi%as «wr had a more solid knowledge cf all tlM4ire«kk|il(»niof 

- — ■ — ' ' proved himself a greater botanist or zootogiBt. 

. Sortned so good a plan of, or written lo well <», tbe p>- 

tural history of his cotULtr^* its PJora, vtd FtMMf 
and TVavels. 
" ^ ■ " ■written more works in a more precise and n^odiol 

manner, and from his own obsemtioB. 

■- » completely reformed a whole science, Hod created 

therein a new sera. 
■ ■ atni^«d aU the prodoctioos of nature with so mudi 

• had M extenave a correspondence all over die w<Kld. 

- sent his papis to so razny parts of the globe. 

- given names to a greaternumber of vegetables, insects, 

and, in dunt, to all parts of oitture. 

- seen 80 many of Ac works of the create, 'vritfa so 

much exactness. 

- become so cddirated all over the world. 

- sowed in any acadenuod garden so many seeds. 

- discovered so many animals (in bet, he discovered as 

many aa aO preceding natundists pat together). 
' was ever chosen into a greater nomber of sdendfic ao- 

Stockhofan 1739 (one of ib& Fonnders; first President; and Secretary flO 
Upeala. I7S3. x. 4. 
Petersburg. 1754. ix. S3. 
Berlin. 1737. ii. 14. 

Imperbl Acad, N. C 1736. x. 3. (under the name of iHoscoraies Sw&m.) 
Celle. 1766. tiii. 19. 

English CEcon. Soc. 1 76*. vi. 16. 


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56(5 LTBNXUs's DIABVl 

* Montpdtter. 1743. v. 31. » • . , • > , „- 

Paris. 1762. xii. 11. (One of the ei^ Fweign Ordinary Members.) 

Florence. 17*9. xii. 27. 

DroQthcini. 1766. (Flretof the Foragn Members.) . 

No Swede had before this time been an Ordinary Foreign Member of the 
French Academy. The physicians at present holding that rank in it are Jlibr- 
gagniy HalUr, van Swieteny and Ltimi. It is the highest honoun-that could 
be omferred on a learned man. 

He vas styled by all botanists Prmcept Botamcorutn. See their letters to 
him, in all of which he is called Princeps. Baukm, Toumefort, Skerard^ 
DUImiuSy and Linn^its, were called Prmdpes nu tevi* 

1736. Dibliotneca JMtanica. ( . , J pnma. 
Fundamenta Botanica.J ' 'I prima. 
Flora Lapponica. Amstel. %vo. c.Jig, prima. 
Musa Gliffbrtiana. Leydts 4lo. c.^g. prima. 

1737. Hortus CUffortianus. Amstel. fol, cjig. primus. 
Critica Botanica. Leyd. 8vo. prima. 
Viridarium Cliffortianum. Amst. %vo. 
Genera Plantarum. Leyd. 8t-o. prima. 
Corollarium Genenun. Leyd. 8vo. 
Methodus Sexualis. Leyd. 8io. 

1738. Classes Plantarum. Leyd. %vo. prima. 
Artedi Ichthyologia. Leyd. 8i;o. prima. 

1739. Ferbers Hortus. Holm. %vo. 

Tal cm Insecteme. Holm. 8vo. prima. 

1740. Systema Naturae. Holm. Suo. auctum. 
Systema Naturae. HaUe 2vo. 

b.Goo«?l.e;^ . 


1740. Fundamtnta BiAaoJcai- Abate 6vo. 

Fundamenta BotJanica. Holm. Svo. parum aucta. 
I741.Fundameota Botanica. Amst. 8t/o. 

Onido de Insecds. Leyd. 122. Belg. 
1742. Genera Plantarunb AmsL Svq. 

Oratio de Peregrin.. PatrUe. Upsal. 4to. 
1748. Genera Flanbrum. Parit. 8vo. Nomin. GalHcis. 

Orado de Pertgrin. Patriae. Leifd. Svo. 

1 744. Oratio de Telture. Leyd. 8vo. 

Systeipa Naturx. Paris. 8vo. Nonunibus Gallicis. 
Fundaments Botanica. Parti. 9vo. 

1745. Flora Suecica. Htha. Svq. prima. 

Iter CEland. Goth. Holm. 8vo. primum. 
Some pascms may attribute to Linnxus an itch for vriting. Those who 
do BO mil only copy his works and notice his diligence ; not mentioning his in- 
numerable discoveries, the most difficult task of all. He never ventured to 
procrastinate, for he coosodered time as the raott uncertain thing in the world. 
Hence it was that his Systema Nature became so ^tensive a work; and 
the Genera and Species Planlarvm, 

1746. Fauna Suecica. Holm, Svo. jHrima. 
1 747- Flora Zeylacica. Holm. 6vo. 

Iter Westrogoth. Holm. 8vo. primum. 

Tal om Insecteme. Holm, Svo. Sndo auctum. 

Systems Natune. Halts 8v0. 4ito. obi. 

Bibliotheca Botanica. HaUe 8vo. 

Classes Plantarum. Hala 8vo. 

Genera Plantarum. Hake .8vo. 

1748. Systema Nature. Ho/m. 8tw. auctius. 
Systema Naturae, laps. 8vo. 

Hortus Upsaliensis. Holm. Hvo. primus. 

1749. Materia Medica. Holm. Swo. 
Amcenitates Academicae. Leyda 8vo. 
AmccnitatesA€ademiaE.^^)tebr8vo. Auooris editio. 

1750. Philosophia Botanica. Holm. Svo.Jig. 


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568 LlNNXUs's DIARY. 

1751. Amoenttates Actdflcoiaa. S. Halm. 9v. 
BiblioctMca Botanio. Amttxi. %»o. 

Iter Scanicuiu. Hvlm, 8w. primiun. 

1752. Genera Fbntarum. BmUt Sua. 

1 753. Systema Nature Ht^m. 8t«. aucthu adbuc. 
Species Plaotmim. Holm. Suv. 
Muceuin TcwiiMniim. Rolm.Jid.c.^. 

1754. Museum R«g». Htim.fol. e.Jg. 
Genera Plantanim. Holm. 8vo. aacta. 

1755. Flora Suecica. Holm. 8u«. refgmaUL . 

1756. Amoenitates Academicac. 3. Holm. 9ve. 
Systema Namnc. L^tLf 8tw. 
Regnutn Vegetabile. Floreat. Bvo, 
ItET Scanicum. Lipi. Svo. Genu. 

l?57*IterHaBelqui8d. Hoim. Ovo. 
1?J8. Iter Loefiingii. Holm. 8vo. 

Systema Naturse. Holm^ Svo. longe aocdus. 

Orado regia. Vpsal.foL 

1759. Amoenitates Academicac. 4.'' Holm. Svo. 
Species AnimaliiOn. Leydtt Svo. 
Systema Naturx. S. Holm. Svo. 

1760. Amoenitates Academicsc. 5. ^o/m. Svo. ' 
SyMona Natune. 2. tfo/m. Svo. 

Discursufi de Sexu. Petrop. 4fo. 

1761. FaunaSuedca. J/o/m. Svo. refbrmata. 

1762. Systema NaturaE. Lips. Bvo. 
Species Plantanim, Holm.Siv. 
Amcenitates AcademiCEc. S. Holm. Svo. 
Miscellaneous Tracts. Lot^. 8tio.7.IMs. ex Amoen. Anglic^. 

1763. Species Rantarmn. 9. Holm. Bvo. 
Amoenitates Academical 6. Holm. Svo. 
Genera M<H-borum. Upsat. Svo, 

1 764. Genera Plantanim. Holm. Svo. 
Museum Regiax. Holm. Sto. 


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1 765. latroductton to Botany. Lmdaia 6tw. Vexao J. Lee. 
Specimen Bot Vven. 8vo. 

CUvis Medidiue. Malm, Sbo. 

1766. Systema Natunc. V. 1. Holm, 8tw, perfectkoimini* 
1767.S]r8temaNatur!e. V.<9. ife/m. 8co. perfccdE^mmii. 

1 768. Systema Naturae. V. S. Hulm, 8f o. perfecdsfeimum. 

1769. Amccnitates Acadanicac V. 7. Moim, Svo. 

Editiones Operum. 
[N. B. The uteriak* denote the nitboi't own edliiooi.] 
Fundamenta Botanica. * Amstel. 17S6. Svo. prima. 
Abose 1740. 8to. 
• Holiiu£el740.8TO.atictoris. 
Paris. 1744. 8vo. 
Halae 1747. Svo. 
Systema Natm%. * Leydse VT9S. fol. primmiL 

* HolmiiB 1740. Svo. auctum. 

Paris. 1744. 8to. Nomhubus Gallids. 
Halae 1747. Svo. 

* Holmiac 1748. 8to. auctius. 
lipdsB 1748. Nominibus Gennanids. 

* Holmix 1758. Svo, 
Leydae 1756. Svo. 

Florent. 1756. Svo. Nomine Regni V^getabitis. 
Holmiac 1758. Svo. Vol. 2. auct. 
HalsBl760. 8VO.V0I. 2. 
Lipsiae 1762. Svo. 

* Holmiae 1766. Svo. Vol. 3. perfectnm. 
Genera Plantarum. * Leydx 1737. Svo. prima. 

Leydae 174S. Svo. emendata. 
I^ris. 174S. Svo. Nominibus GalHcis. 
Halae 1747. Svo. 
Habe 1752. Svo. 

* Holmiae 1754. Svo. aucta. 

* Holmisc 1764. Svo. perfecta. 

4 D Species 

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Spedes Pkmtuiwt. * HoImiK 1753. 8to. primse. 

• Holmue t76S. 8to. perfects. Vol. 2. 
Hortus CUfibmanus. * Atnstel. 17S7. M. c. fig. 
Hortus Upofieiuis. * Holn^ 1748. ftro. 
Flora Soedca. * Hdnuac.l74>5. 8ro. firima. 
• HoIbuk. 1755. 8Kt. ancta. 
Flora L;^ipoiuca. * Aaatd.. 1786. 8ve. c. fig. 
Flora Zejrlaiiica. * Holmise 1747. 8td. 
l^Iiotheca Botamca. * Amstel. 1736. 8t& prima. 

Hala: 1747. 8to. 

Amstel. 17^1. 8to. 
Classes Plantanun. * Leydsc 1788. 8to. prima. 

HaUc 1747. Svo. 
CritJca Botanica. * Leydx 17S7. Svo. piima. 
Pliiloaoptua Botaiuca. * Holmise 1751. 8to. prima. ■ 

Londini 1765. 8vo. par Lee contracta. 

If Linni had not pubnsbed 

^rtedi's Iditfayolog^r, 
HassetquisCt Travels, 
Lading's Travds, 
Forskar^ Opobalsamom, 
the discoveries recorded in those works would have been lost to the wc^td. 

Fauna Suedca. • Holmise 1746. 8vo. 

* Holmise 1761. Svo. aucta. 
Ichthyolo^ Artedi. • Leyda 1738. 8yo. 
Iter CEland. Goth. * Holmise 1745. 8ro. 
Iter Westrogoth, • Holmiae 1747. 8yo. 
Iter Scanicum. • Holmia 1751. Svo. 

Lipsijc 1756. 8to. Germanice. 
Iter Hasselquist. ' Holmiae 1757. Svo. 
Iter Lbflingi. * Holmix 1758. Svo. 

Berlin. 1766. Svo. Germanice. 


Museum Ad. Fr. prodr. Holmise 1764. 8vo. 
Museum Regis. * Holmise 1754. fe). c. fig. 
Museum ftegins. * Holmise 1764. 8vo. 
Museum Tesunianum. * Holmise 175S. fol. c, fig. 
Amcen. Acad. 1. Leydx 1749. 8vo. 
• UpsiK 1749. 8vo. 

Londbi 1762. 8vo. — ^Angl. mut, 
S. * Holmiac 1751. avo. 

* Holmise 1763. Svo. xuctum. 
S. * Holmise 17^6. Sro. 

4. • Holmise 1759. Svo. 

5. * Holattse 176a Svo. 

6. • Holmise 1763. 8vo. 

7. Holmise 1769. 8to. 
- Mxten^ Medica. * Holmia: 1749. Svo, 

Clans MediansB. * Holmise 1766. Sto. 
Coiera Mortxirum. * UpsaL .I76S. Sva. 


Musa Ctifibrtiaiia. * Lugd. B. 17S6. 4to. 
Ferber Hortus. * Holmise 1 739. 8vo. 
Viridarium Cliffortianum. * Amstel. 1737. Svo. 
Methodus Sexualis. * Leydac 1737. Svo. 
Corollarium Generum. * Leydac 1737. Sva. 
Disquisido de Sexu PL • Petrop. 1 76a 4to. 
IKssert. de Febribus. •Harderor. 1735.4to. 

• Hohiuse 1739. Svo. 
Oradodelnsecds. Leydse 1741. 12mo. Belgice. 

de Per^rinat. • Upsaliae 1742. 4to. 
Leydae 1743. Svo. 

de Tellure. • Leydse 1744. Svo. 

Regia. • UpsaKae 1759. fol. 
Species Animaliom. Leydae 1759. Svo. Io:um primwn Systematis. 

■* * 2 DUsertatimu 

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,57a fclUHJSOSB DIAEy. 

IX*$ertatumi trtaahied into Steeduk. 

Sponsalh Plantanim. Wahlbom. Holm. 1750. Sto. 

Flora CEconomica. Aspelin. Holtn^ 1749. 8vo. 

CEconomia Nat^nc B3ierg. Holm, 1 7 JO. 8yo. 

CuiBeno. Gedn^. Holm. nsi. 8ro, 

Canis £uniUaris. lindecranU. ^m. Sto. . 

Plants Esculexitse. Hjcat. Holm. 175S. 8to. 
Every word taken from Limueut. 

The Knowledge of Nature. Hoffberg. Holm. 1768. 8to. 

The Vegetable Kingdom. Haattnuuu Holm. V7S3. Sto. 

Miscellaneous Tracts. Sdliingfieet. Land. 1768. 6ro. 

Flora Virginica. Grono™. Jjeid. 17S9. 8T0. 

ProdrtMnus Lddensis RoyenL Leid. -1740. 8vo. 

Husbandry. LoCTenhjdm. Stoekk. Sto. 

Spedmoi Botaniciim. IJpp.- P^ienrn. 1755. Sto. 

Regnum Vegetabile. Manetti. Ftorent. IfSG'. Sto. 

Nomoiclator Eztemporan. Clerck. Jfalm. 1?59. 8to. 
p^. B. Here follows an enumeratitHi of the dissertations contained in the 7 first 

volumes of the Amtxnttatet Acddevuca, with the following note at 
-the bott(un of the list> tiiz.3 
Several besides those above mentioned were defended under the Presidencf of 
LimuBus, but he does not acknowledge them as his own. 

** Tu decus onme tuis^ postquam te &ta tulere." 


luNCKERUs Ftofess. Halens. m Oral, ad Desert. Heissenii de Insectorwm 
noxa, I757» ostendebat Deum Adamo hoc negotium ptimo dedisse, ut res 
creatas cognosceret et denomhiaret. Hanc cognitionem vero lapsu Adami iterum 
depoditam esse proponit, ut postea nemo inveniatur, qui tantam creacarum. 
cognitionem habuerit, excepto Salornone, cujus tanta fuit cognitio^ Ht ipse 
S. Sanctus ejus in Sacris Lit«is mentionem facere non dubitaverk. Post eum- 
ntultos quidem fiiisse didt, qui ut justam hanun cognitionem obtinerent, naturae 
studuere, omnes vero prejudiciis ducti a recta via aberrasse, et lanmevm teee 
unicum, ciu tarn araplam naturae cognitionem dedit Deus, quam ante eum nemini^ 
ita tu hie non tantum longe plura naturalia vidisset et examini subjetisset, quam 




ullus iiimnam ante etmit aed edam mbtralesn eamm connexionem et'affinitatem, 
adeoque fines et ceconomiam natunE mdios penpodsset, qtiam antecessorum 
ullus ; amulque magis ad Dai ac oatune cogntdaiiem viam monstraflset ac 116. 
^quuin ideo ctK ut gntten banc IXTtaam in ilium coUatam cum nibmissa Da 
Jaude melius agnoscamus et veoeremor, Bmg;i9(iaeeju«Test^;:taaequistudeamuB, 
quam forte hue usque Return est. 

Hudson, in ftone Anglicanis prcef. vi. 

** At exoftum est his didbos Dovum ^dus, quod oriN Botanico lucem afiudit, 
ne in somniis quidem antea visam, qui panes plantanim minidissinuaque non 
omfdno observatas detexit.** 
• SooPOLl in Florte CamioHcte prsef. 

** In dubiis rebus Lmnao sscpius Bdem adhibin, et cur non crederem viro, 
quo nemo stirpium chvacteres adspexit prc^ius, nenra'majores in Rei Horbariac 
gnUtam -labores iniit, nemo demqoe mortaliura, per plurima ssecula, tanta 
pnestitit, quod unus ille princeps Botanicorum, cujus exiraia merita setemumque 
nomen grata nunquam noa agnosca posterita^ nuUaque livoris macula dissi- . 

STiLLiNOfLiET ID Pyatfet, ad MUcsU. Tracts, p. xviir» 

** When we constder Linni in this light of a master,^ he must a}^>ear Uke 
Homer at the head of the Poets, Socrates at the bead of Greek Moralists, and 
our Nevnon at the head of the Mathematieal Hiilosophers." 

SnHu in Hist. Idt, ^Actis. Nidrosbensibus . inserta). Of those who have 
^ined the praise of the learned world, sax. only are mentioned as immortal^ the 
highest appeUatioa that can be bestowed on philosophers. 
Galileo- Boerkaave 

Newton Linni 

Leibnitz Gram. 

JIallsr. de Studio Medico., p. 280, gravis auctor, nuntme Liimad Amicus. 

** Systemate Natune primum imiotuit celeberrimus Linaaus, qui fortissimo 
condlio Botanicen penitus eruere et ordinare de integro abi sumpsit. Hoc 
cpere totam naturam in nova genera novasque classes redegit: 

"In Animalibus et Mineralibus idem quod in Plands secutus consiltum.. 
Nova Epocha ab eo tempore in Botanicis numerari potest." 

Amicus ad me scripsit votn Seneae de jiugusto'm Macenaten^ mutatis mu- 


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574 ' LisrsjBvs's DiA&r. 

** Tvt ludxiid mifiia bommiim unum repvare <£ffidle «M. 

CaesK cuat legtooei et pradnus scriptic, i ■. 

Fncta dasais, et intra paucoe dJes nova iMtabat, 
SKvkum in opera publica ^aibuCt nirrextruat n^on ; 
At tota vita MacenaOB {Limwt) vacant locutk" 

Liniueus's Herbarium. 
The largest, undoubtedly, that ever was seen. 

). I have collected, from my infancy, all the planta of Stoedent together 
with those of the Swedish gardens. 

3. All those of Lapland I collected with incredible diligence. , 

3. On my travels through DenTtiark, German^f HolUmd, £ngUmdf and 
FranoBf I did all I could to procure plants. 

4. Ctiffbrd'a garden, being under my management for the space of S years, 
and as I was empowered to write fbralll could get, afforded me a ODOaderable 
number, which I carefully preserved. 

&. Clifford had an excellent berbariura, from which he gave me all the du- 

6. On my assisting van Royen to arrange the garden belonging to the Um- 
veisity of heyden^ I obtained not only a large number of recent plants, but 
also many dried ones. 

7. When I asdsted D. Gronovha in examining Clayton's plants from fir* 
ginioy I got duplicates of most of them. 

8. Miller^ of Chelsea, permitted me t& collect many in the garden, and gave 
■me several dried specimens, collected by Houston, in Hotuh America. 

9. I likewise got many from the garden at Oxford, then under the manage- 
ment of Dilienius. 

10. Jussieu also gave me a great many dried spedmois, be^des the rare ones 
I got from the Paris garden. 

11. Professor Sauvagea had received from MagTiot (the great botanist) his 
entire herbarium, which Sauvages made me a present of. 

12. On GTnelins return from Siberia j in which country he had travelled 
many years, he gave me a specimen of every plant he had collected, in order 
to learn my opinion of each. 

1.1. Slef/er, who was Gm.cliri's assistant on his travels in Siberia, and who 
went as far as Kamlschatka, and the northern part of America, (bom as 
it were to collect p;ants,) died at KiumenJ, on his return home. Leubel 





took hu coliecdao and tdtit to Demdqg'y \rhK) {brwarded to me the whole of 
k, that I HHght affix the names, with penniaeion to keq> all the duplicates. 

14. Brown made a fine collection of plants in Jamaica, and published on 
thcmin fbliot vriien he rttomed to Jjomdam. . Oa his return to .ttmericot he 
aold the collection to ine. tt was a fiaeand rare heibariiun. 

1 5. Prof. Kalm, bom to investigate plants, collected a vast nuanber in. North. 
Antarita, and gate me a q>ecknen of each. 

16. Prof, l^/tmg, w*» with incredible tare coUe<aed the Spamak plants^ 
Gkewne presented to me one of every tind. 

17. 1 have a specimen of every one of the pbmts found by HasselquUt, in. 
Nalaliat Egypt, and Palettme. 

16. j^uior Oi^A gave tne one of every spades he found in CAmir and /at«, 

10. Doctor Batter^ of Zealand, sent me a collectioa of plants from Javoy 
consisting of more than SOO plants. 

SO. Lagerstrifm, Disectoz o£ the Ecat India Company^ ordered the.Cap> 
oicmt^AeEasthtdiaatipBt ercry year, to collect planisiaad gave all tbatwere- 
collected to me. - , . 

m. Alstrvimer, iavjog tnivdled obsorvantly through Bnglaad^ F^ancCy 
Sptdn, and itafy, sent me several excellent packets, vbich he had partly col- 
lected himself and pactly recetved fJEom, others. 

93. la. no garden have there been sontnso many luach of seeda* m that of 
(^ala, during my time. I have receiTed seeds from ail die corioafrthrooghout 
&e worid, and ba»e oerer ar^ected presenni^ soch. of the plaitta raised front; 
&em aa I had not before. 

Sd. Kleinhof, who fijnned the largest botanical garden in Jbva, and than. ' 
laiied a great many Eiut India plants, on his retum homa to tttHtad wax. 
ne a laqp trunk full. 

M. All the botanists of my time coctendedr as it were, in- acnding me qieci' 
itieaa of new and' rare vegetables, in order to hear my opnnion, and to gratify 
me with something mnark^le : for instance, Jaoquin, Schrebery Holier, Arr. 
AcMtf, Twrray Bassi, Miller, D. Royen, L. N, Aimuimi, Sco^i, Ihuihttttey. ' 
Gouan, Seguier, AHi&Jii, Hudson, and Varden.- 

25. Koenig, on his retum home from Iceland^ sent me the Iceland plantt^ 
among which the colteotion^ of Bad and other mrine plants wa» incomparable. 


£76 tSV9>rjBVs'B 'JDIAETl 

96. Prof/Bamwnn hat at aereni tbm scat, EM ^attts from di* C^ «f 
Good Hope, and I beHere tfaii I poeacss one «f die ]»Tge8t coUecdom of phnts 
from that place. 

27. Ri^cmtUr oirfkcttd in tiie ishods near jimtrica a gnat many plants, 
which he gave to M. de Geer, Chamberlain of the HouidiaU, vfao made me a 
present of everyone of them. 

28. TiUbagk, Governor of the Cape of Good fbpe, made me a picaoit of 
above 200 of the rarest plants that grov there, all pnt up with great care, 
besides a number of roots and bulbs aEv^ for the purpoae of ben^ jetted 
in the garden. 

29. Kimig not only sent me all the rarest plants from Icebmd^ bat eren af. 
lerwards, from A^tdena, the Cape of Good Hopef lA^xraipan, and Trun- 
tl%abary a large collectian, conastii^ of several hundreds, among winch w^e 
many quite new. 

- Indisputably no botanut has ever possessed a larger colloction of dned plants, 
ora richer herbariuia. It is placed in order, accurt^o^ to (Tenero, Orders, and 
Classes, and the NomtTia Specjfica are wiitten on them. 

Each of '^ theakj/rectei E have ghiedvitfa isinglass eatuilf tdieetcf ps^to', 
and aH thf baU^eols dmt betoDg toonegesnal have put apina^riiolesbeet 
of paper, and on the whole sheet 1 ban written the ndme of the (Jcbub, and 
on Ae hiff-Aeet the name of Ae Spedei. All those wfaok abest^i or Genera, 
Ibaveamngedaooor&igtathe Orders aaii Claeses, in 8 presses, irithpaititions 
in th em suited to die dasses, in oider that, whfsa die Genoa and Class are 
known, one may immediately find out the spedmen. So simple x mode of 
vnagament las never bclbre cxiBted. When several spedmois are required, 
on vcdsnat of Varintitt or aome difiia<en(;es of a Spedes, there are senral quar* 
ter-sheets placed between, and the quarter^sheets belcmging to' the same 4>«ciaB 
ue &sGened togtther by a pin at die edges. 

■ \_iiwnmu'\ tumsetf tniTdled through Lapland, -Jittlanu, Qbmd, Gothland, 
ffist GotUand, Skinc < 

He persuaded Us jmpik to travel all over die world. *■ 

Temstrom to Ptdocondor 1745. 

' Kahn to Nocth America 1747. 

. H»sdquiac to Egypt aod Palatine . 1749^ 
^ . . s Montin 




Moniin to the Mountains of I-ulca 1749 

Toren toSuiat 1750 

Osbeck to Java 1750 

Lofiing to Spain and America 1751 

Bergius to Gothland 1 752 

Kaehler to Italy 1752 

Solander to the Mountains of Plthea 1753 

Rolander to Surinam 1755 

Martin to Spitzbergen J 758 

Falk to Gothland 1760 

Alstromerto the Souihof Europe 1760 
Forskihl to Arabia 

Mennander, Bishop of Abo. 
Browallius, Bishop of Abo. 
Kalm, Professor at Abo. 
Holm, Professor at Copenhagen, a Dane. 
Ascanius, Professor at Copenhagen, a Dane. 
Ber^us, Professor at Stockholm. 
Schreber, Professor at Erfort, a German. 
Falk, Professor at Petersbut^. 
Backmann, Professor at Gottingen, a German. 
Forskahl, Professor at Copenhagen. 
LoSing, Professor at Madrid. 
Fabricius, Professor at Copenhagen, a Dane. 
Kuhn, Professor at Philadelphia, an American. 
Zoega, Demonstrator at Copenhagen, a German. 
Solander, Demonstrator at London. 
Liedbeck, Professor at Lund. 
Bunnann, Professor at Amsterdam, a Dutchman. 

LihmjEXNo Methodo Sci-ipta. 
Jacquin. Plantx Americans. 



578 iiNysus's diart. 

Brown. Hist Nat Jamucx. LiMidiu 1756. fotio. 
Gronovius. Flora Virginica. Leydsc 

Flora Orientalia. Leyda: 1755. 8vo. 

Gorter. Flora Geldrica. Hardennr. 1757. 8vo. 

Flora Ingrica. Fetrop. 1761. Bvo. 

Meese. Flora Frisica. Fianc. 1 760. 8to. 
' Hill. Flora Britannica. London 1760. Sro. 
Hudson. Flora Anglica. London 1763. 8vo. 
Dalibard. Fbra FaiiaeDsis. Paris. 1749. 8to. 
Gouan. Flora Monspelienas. Monsp. 1 76S. Svo. 
Kramer. I^lora Austriaca. Vien. 1756. 9vg» 
Jacquin. flora \^delica. Vko. 176S. 8w. 
Leyser. Flora Halenns. Halsc I76i. 8to. 
Bogius. Plantse Ca^. B. Spei. Stockh. 1767. Svo. 
Bunnannus. Flora Indica. Lngd. Bat. 1768. 4ta 
Keyger. Flora Gedanenas. Daob 17S4. 9fo. 

Genera TJnnaeana s. ards prind[aa assumpsere 
Miller. Dicdonar. Hortulanor. Lond. 17B0. FoL 
Royen. Flora Lejdenas Ldd. ITtO. 8td. 
Wachendorff. Hortus Ultraject. TrajecC 174T, 8w. 
Sauvages. Flora Monspd. Hagsc 1751. Svo. 
Gerard. Flora Pnmndalis. Paris. 8to. 
Guettard. Observat. Plantar. I^ris. 174r. 8vo. 
Tjan. Hortus Goetdng; Goetting. 175T. 8vo. 
Gmelin. Flora Sibirica. Fetrop. 1 750. 4to. 
Seguier. Flora Veronenas. Veronz 1745. Svo. 
Scopoli. Flora Camiollca. ^en. 1 760. Bro. 
Plumier. Icones edit. Bnim. Aoistel. 1755. Fol. 
Ailiooi Stirpes Pedemont. Taurin. 1755. 4to. 

Stirpes Niocens. Paris. 1757. Svo. 
Gunnerus. Flora Norvegica. Nidrosiae 1765. Fol. 
Wheeler. Lexicon Botan. Lond. 1763. 8Vo. 
Bemades. Prindpia Botanica. Madttt» 1767. 4to. 



[To fatx Page 57 8. 

"*?'™«t pMtor of WiKelwfft, in 

Hingtryd and ^ 

Oiibo, Blind ^ 

ipontwieoiuly n_ 

tight in advanca 

rud lDg«boTS. 


BENGT INOEg, ,j„ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ gkee, 
of aiegarvd, gent bordering on Norway i 

Died at »ne age < — - ■— X3!_._i._^ :_ 'm_. 

irdering oi 

manitd ...--- MARIA SKEE, 

died of a cancer of the right 
breait, niih which <he v'st 
afflicted two jean. 

idied JuQtS, 1733, 

n the Menu. 

firanting, receiver 
i^n in ih« hundred 

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Udemorial on the tui^ect of l,inn<£us*8 discovery respecting the pra- 
duction of